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  • Glycolipids
  • In this respect, gangliosides, a broad family of structurally related glycolipids, were suggested as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy based on their higher abundance in tumors when compared with the matched normal tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • Total neutral glycolipids and gangliosides in Folch's upper phase were isolated from human erythrocyte membranes of 22 individuals with blood group type AB.On immunostaining after TLC with an anti-A antibody, all reactive glycolipids in type A erythrocytes were found to correspond to reactive glycolipids in type AB erythrocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The existence of blood group antigens in both the neutral glycolipid and ganglioside fractions strongly indicates that the antigenicity of the blood group antigen in AB type erythrocytes was due not only to neutral glycolipids but also influenced by gangliosides, and that the fine regulation of the erythrocyte surface is possibly controlled by the degree of sialylation of blood group active glycosphingolipids. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Among these are found the gangliosides, which are sialylated glycolipids ubiquitously distributed on the outer layer of vertebrate plasma membranes. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we provide a general overview on the metabolism of glycolipids, both in normal and tumor cells, as well as examining glycolipid-mediated immune modulation and the main successes achieved in immunotherapies using gangliosides as molecular targets. (frontiersin.org)
  • A particular subclass of glycolipids is the gangliosides, which are sialylated GSLs mainly expressed in the outer layer of the plasma membrane of essentially all vertebrate cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • antibodies
  • The current study was directed to determine the values of both GM3 ganglioside and specific anti-GM3 antibodies in in vitro -incubated normal cells, malignant cell and mixed cultures of co-cultivated cells from both types as well. (imedpub.com)
  • The levels of ganglioside GM3 and of specific antibodies to it were assessed by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) technique. (imedpub.com)
  • Synthesis
  • DICESARE J.L. and DAIN J.A. (1970): The enzymic synthesis of ganglioside. (springer.com)
  • The biosynthesis of gangliosides starts with the synthesis of ceramide at the cytoplasmic leaflet of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, where the pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent serine palmitoyltransferase catalyzes the condensation of palmitoyl- or stearoyl-Coenzyme A with l -serine to give 3-ketosphinganine, which is reduced to d -erythro-sphinganine by 3-ketosphinganine reductase in a NADPH-dependent reaction. (frontiersin.org)
  • ceramide
  • The ceramide portions were found to contain C-18 sphingosine and predominantly C-16:0 fatty acids, All monosialogangliosides were homogenous concerning their terminal alpha 2-3Neu5Ac-sialylation, but different in their fucosylation status, Beside VI(3)Neu5Ac, V(3)Fuc-nLcOse(6)Cer, in two of the fucosylated polylactosaminyl ganglioside fractions the sialyl Lewis(x) epitope was found, whereas five species expressed the terminal VIM-2 motif. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • antigen
  • GD2 is the first ganglioside proven to be an effective target antigen for cancer immunotherapy with the regulatory approval of dinutuximab, a chimeric anti-GD2 therapeutic antibody. (hindawi.com)
  • melanoma
  • A mouse IgG1 monoclonal antibody specific for N-glycolyl GM3 ganglioside recognized breast and melanoma tumors," Hybridoma , vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 241-247, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • The evaluation of 14F7 Mab (anti-N-glycolyl GM3 ganglioside) immunorecognition in normal skin, cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), and in lymph node metastases (LNM) has been previously reported. (hindawi.com)
  • The N-glycolyl GM3 ganglioside (NeuGcGM3) expression in cutaneous melanoma and breast ductal carcinoma using 14F7 Mab, as well as its limited presence in normal adult human tissues was previously reported by our group [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • molecules
  • They were discovered by Ernst Klenk in the 1940s, who proposed the term "ganglioside" due to the abundance of these molecules in "Ganglionzellen" (neurons). (frontiersin.org)
  • Accumulating evidence indicates that many cellular events, including differentiation, growth, signaling, interactions, and immune reactions are highly influenced by gangliosides, and that these molecules may also cause malignancies. (frontiersin.org)
  • The results obtained strongly suggested that A-and B-active carbohydrate chain epitopes were present as separate ganglioside molecules in type AB erythrocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • malignant
  • According to other references a protective function of the increased values of this ganglioside in malignant cells has been proposed. (imedpub.com)
  • In this aspect, the main goal of the current paper was to be investigated the differences in GM3 ganglioside levels in lysates of in vitro -incubated normal and malignant cells. (imedpub.com)
  • species
  • The discovery of these ganglioside species provides essential links for a new possible biosynthetic pathway leading to the major tetrasialoganglioside, G Q1c , of the fish brain. (springer.com)
  • Few lipid species included in biological membranes have received as much attention as glycosphingolipids (GSLs), and especially gangliosides, sialic-acid-containing GSLs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Almost 200 gangliosides species have been described, showing differences in the number, the order, and the linkage of the glycosyl and sialyl residues [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Changes in the expression of certain species of gangliosides have been described to occur during cell proliferation, differentiation, and ontogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1985
  • Gazzotti G, Sonnino S, Ghidoni R (1985) Normal-phase high performance liquid chromatographic separation of non-derivatized ganglioside mixtures. (springer.com)
  • quantitative
  • Negative-ion hydrophilic liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HILIC/ESI-MS) method has been optimized for the quantitative analysis of ganglioside (GM3) and other polar lipid classes, such as sulfohexosylceramides (SulfoHexCer), sulfodihexosylceramides (SulfoHex2Cer), phosphatidylglycerols (PG), phosphatidylinositols (PI), lysophosphatidylinositols (LPI), and phosphatidylserines (PS). (springer.com)
  • moiety
  • Acquotti D, Sonnino S, Masserini M, Casella L, Fronza G, Tettamanti G (1986) A new chemical procedure for the preparation of gangliosides carrying fluorescent or paramagnetic probes on the lipid moiety. (springer.com)
  • antibody
  • Over the last 20 years, there has been a widespread increase in the use of antiganglioside antibody assays as diagnostic tools, based on the recognition from research studies that gangliosides are important autoantigens in many patients with autoimmune peripheral nerve disorders (1). (asmscience.org)
  • Immune responses in breast cancer patients immunized with an anti-idiotype antibody mimicking NeuGc-containing gangliosides," Clinical Immunology , vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 80-89, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • modulation
  • Ganglioside GM3 is known to participate in the induction of cell differentiation, modulation of cell proliferation, maintenance of fibroblast morphology, signal transduction, and integrin-mediated cell adhesion. (genecards.org)
  • affinity
  • This is the first description of an endogenous protein, with characteristics distinct from activator and transport proteins, demonstrating high binding affinity for GM1 ganglioside. (yu.edu)
  • nervous system
  • Gangliosides are typically found as membrane constituents in brain, a finding that suggests a specific functional role in the central nervous system (CNS). (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, it has long been recognized that certain lipidoses that affect the nervous system, such as Tay Sachs disease, are characterized by ganglioside accumulation within cells of the brain. (springer.com)
  • Further evidence for involvement of gangliosides in nervous system function is indicated by the behavior of the neurotoxin of Clostridium tetani . (springer.com)
  • More recently, it has become evident that gangliosides are ubiquitous, i.e., occurring not only in the nervous system, and should be considered important constituents of the surface membrane of most, perhaps all, animal cells of Deuterostomia . (springer.com)
  • 1977
  • Ghidoni R, Tettamanti G, Zambotti V (1977) Labelling of natural substrates for the radiochemical assay of enzymes involved in the lipid storage diseases: a general procedure for tritiation of gangliosides. (springer.com)
  • antigens
  • Remarkably, the vast majority of these strategies have focused on protein antigens and recently mAbs recognizing cell surface gangliosides have recently proven to be effective for cancer therapeutic targets [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • preparative
  • Gazzotti G, Sonnino S, Ghidoni R, Kirschner G, Tettamanti G (1984a) Analytical and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography of gangliosides. (springer.com)
  • Carbohydrate
  • Gangliosides perform important functions through carbohydrate-specific interactions with proteins, for example, as receptors in cell-cell recognition, which can be exploited by viruses and other pathogens, and also by regulating signaling proteins, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), through lateral interaction in the membrane. (frontiersin.org)