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  • parasites
  • Tapeworm parasites of vertebrates have a long history: recognizable clusters of cestode eggs, one with a developing larva , have been discovered in fossil feces ( coprolites ) of a shark dating to the mid- to late Permian , some 270 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Although the life cycles of Bertiella species are not completely understood, it is generally believed the genus undergoes a two-host life cycle, with an arthropod intermediate host (usually a mite) and a vertebrate definitive host (usually non-human primates for the species implicated in human infection). (cdc.gov)
  • All cestodes are parasitic and their life histories vary, but typically they live in the digestive tracts of vertebrates as adults, and often in the bodies of other species of animals as juveniles . (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models. (hindawi.com)
  • human
  • Most human infections are by B. studeri and B. mucronata and have been in children with some contact or association with non-human primates. (cdc.gov)
  • Dependent
  • Cestodes are unable to synthesise lipids and are entirely dependent on their host, although lipids are not used as an energy reserve, but for reproduction. (wikipedia.org)