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  • hypoxemia
  • Importantly, the opposite is also true - venodilation, volume loss, sympatholysis [e.g. relief of hypoxemia, sedation] tend to lower the pressure head for venous return and consequently lower CVP. (pulmccm.org)
  • increases
  • Pure alpha receptor agonism, however, also increases the resistance to venous return which retards blood flow to towards the thorax while beta-2 agonism lowers this resistance and 'opens the flood gates' for the right heart as it were . (pulmccm.org)
  • preload
  • CVP is a major determinant of the filling pressure and cardiac preload, and like any fluid pump, the heart depends on an adequate preload to function effectively. (igi-global.com)
  • Low venous return translates into a lower preload and a drop in overall cardiac output, a relationship described by the Frank-Starling Mechanism. (igi-global.com)
  • return
  • Together the stressed venous volume and venous compliance form the mean circulatory filling pressure which is the pressure head for venous return to the right heart [3- (pulmccm.org)
  • In either case, augmenting mean circulatory filling pressure favors increased venous return to the right heart and a higher central venous pressure. (pulmccm.org)
  • Importantly, the opposite is also true - venodilation, volume loss, sympatholysis [e.g. relief of hypoxemia, sedation] tend to lower the pressure head for venous return and consequently lower CVP. (pulmccm.org)
  • But the strings of venous return are only half of the story because cardiac contractility, afterload, heart rate, rhythm and valve function are another group of strings serving to pull the CVP up or down. (pulmccm.org)
  • While Arthur Guyton described in great detail the determinants of venous return, perhaps his greatest contribution was a graphical analysis that superimposed both the venous return function and cardiac function onto a single graph [3, (pulmccm.org)