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  • Mitosis
  • Mitosis in multinucleate cells can occur either in a coordinated, synchronous manner where all nuclei divide simultaneously or asynchronously where individual nuclei divide independently in time and space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to this transition, cleavage occurs with only the synthesis and mitosis phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • dynamics
  • The major topics include the nervous system, hormones and controls, reproduction and human development, cell division and classical genetics, heredity and molecular genetics, population dynamics and populations and communities. (macewan.ca)
  • RhoA is prevalent in regulating cell shape, polarity and locomotion via actin polymerization, actomyosin contractility, cell adhesion, and microtubule dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • She is also the Director of the Center for Cell Dynamics in the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine's Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • She also serves as the Director of the Center for Cell Dynamics in the Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences, which is led by molecular biologist and geneticist Dr. Stephen Desiderio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rong Li is an accomplished investigator in the area of cell dynamics - the interrogation of biological function at the highest possible resolution in space and time. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • Embryos in which maternally encoded 2-OST is knocked down have normal activation of several zygotic mesoderm, endoderm and ectoderm patterning genes, but have decreased deep cell adhesion and fail to initiate epiboly, which can be rescued by re-expression of 2-OST protein. (biologists.org)
  • The morphologic changes are associated with membrane cytoskeleton remodeling, actin filament assembly, and cell adhesion turnover. (arvojournals.org)
  • The extracellular region contains three Ig-like domains, and nine non-Ig like domains similar to that of neural cell adhesion molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lateral plasma membrane domain is responsible for cell adhesion and is believed to control the paracellular transport of fluid and electrolytes, that is transport of fluid between the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, RhoA is believed to act primarily at the rear (uropod) of migrating cells to promote detachment, similar to the attachment and detachment process found in the focal adhesion mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • The evidence leading to the elucidation of DNA as the genetic material is examined as are the processes which govern the flow of genetic information in the cell. (macewan.ca)
  • Primary and review literature is used to elucidate cellular processes and advances in cell biology. (macewan.ca)
  • Any perturbation in these cellular processes also leads to lens opacity. (arvojournals.org)
  • As a consequence, RhoA is somehow involved in many cellular processes which emerged throughout evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • As director, she will deepen the existing collaboration between the Schools and Engineering and Medicine and provide new tools and approaches to examine the dynamic processes that underlie the lives of cells, moving beyond the parts list that the human genome provides to a mechanistic understanding of the molecular events underlying complex behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are a family of cell surface and extracellular matrix proteins with glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains covalently attached to a protein core. (biologists.org)
  • Apicobasal polarity is essential for epithelial cell function and it is determined by the expression of three polarity protein complexes named Scribble, Par and Crumbs complexes. (arvojournals.org)
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate the tumoricidal potential of combining the apoptosis-inducing protein tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) against TRAIL-resistant bladder tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the Howard-Flanders group at Yale University, West purified and characterised RecA protein, and in doing so discovered many key aspects relating to the way that cells mediate DNA-DNA interactions and strand exchange. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the discovery of cellular Holliday junction resolvases, West was the first to purify the human RAD51 protein (the eukaryotic ortholog of RecA), and to show that it promotes homologous pairing and strand exchange reactions similar to those mediated by RecA. (wikipedia.org)
  • N protein encapsidates genome RNA into a nuclease-resistant form to protect in from cellular RNAse function. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this phase, same L protein acts as a replicase and ignore the gene junctions to generate a polycistronic anti-genomic analogue that acts as a template for further rounds of replication to generate many more copies of the genome RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 is a protein that is present at telomeres throughout the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is present at telomeres in metaphase of the cell cycle, is a second negative regulator of telomere length, and plays a key role in the protective activity of telomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • No other shelterin protein has been shown to promote this process and studies have demonstrated that deletion of TERF2 prevents t-loop formation, leading to excessive loss of telomeric DNA and early cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuromuscular junction
  • This was shortly after transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction was found to induce postsynaptic miniature end-plate potentials that were ascribed to the release of discrete packages of neurotransmitter (quanta) from the presynaptic nerve terminal. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • Vesicular transporters move neurotransmitters from the cells' cytoplasm into the synaptic vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytoplasm then is cleaved into uninucleate daughter cells, usually developing as non-motile autospores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multinucleate cells (also called multinucleated or polynuclear cells) are eukaryotic cells that have more than one nucleus per cell, i.e., multiple nuclei share one common cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although not normally viewed as a case of multinucleation, plant cells share a common cytoplasm by plasmodesmata, and most cells in animal tissues are in communication with their neighbors via gap junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • polarity
  • To achieve this goal, we have studied the temporal sequence of the establishment of the polarity proteins during human fetal RPE cells polarization. (arvojournals.org)
  • We have found that CRB2 is the latest of the entire pull of polarity proteins to be positioned at the cell membrane. (arvojournals.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that, in differentiating cultures of RPE cells, CRB2 functions in a late stage in the formation of the junctional complex and apicobasal polarity. (arvojournals.org)
  • She is recognized as a leader in the study of cell polarity in the context of morphogenesis and asymmetric cell division, and has been at the forefront of using mathematical and biophysical approaches to understand cell polarity as a self-organizing, dynamical system. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Current research indicates, however, that it may be possible to repair damaged cardiac tissue with stem cells, as human embryonic stem cells can differentiate into cardiomyocytes under appropriate conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastula (from Greek βλαστός (blastos), meaning "sprout") is a hollow sphere of cells, referred to as blastomeres, surrounding an inner fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoele formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastocyst contains an embryoblast (or inner cell mass) that will eventually give rise to the definitive structures of the fetus, and the trophoblast, which goes on to form the extra-embryonic tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells are a field which, though controversial, have tremendous potential for treating disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progression
  • Effect of lycopene on cell viability and cell cycle progression in human cancer cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As aneuploidy and chromosome instability are hallmarks of cancer, her results on how aneuploidy fuels the evolution of cellular adaptation and drug resistance have direct relevance to the understanding of cancer evolution and disease progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • By manipulating the cell signals during the blastula stage of development, various tissues can be formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • Unlike multinucleated skeletal cells, the majority of cardiomyocytes contain only one nucleus, although they may have as many as four. (wikipedia.org)
  • implantation
  • During the early stages of pregnancy, prior to implantation, the tight junction complex, which is the main regulator of paracellular flow, extends 0.4 µm down the lateral plasma membrane with little cross-linking of the tight junctional strands. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the time of implantation the tight junctions extended further down the lateral plasma membrane (1 µm) and there was a significant increase in the cross-linking of the tight junctional strands. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the time of implantation the tight junctions are electrochemically 'tighter' and prevent the movement of fluids and electrolytes between the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blastula cell implantation could serve to eliminate infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac muscle
  • Cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes (also known as myocardiocytes or cardiac myocytes) are the muscle cells (myocytes) that make up the cardiac muscle (heart muscle). (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Furthermore, it was estimated that only about 10% of the total mRNA in the cell is localized to stress granules, suggesting that stress granules only influence a minority of mRNAs in the cell and may not be as important for mRNA processing as previously thought. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Both cysteine proteases and a majority of translocation regions harbor hydrophobic proteins, which show access to TcdB and other toxins crossing the cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multinucleate cells can occur naturally under physiological conditions by the fusion of the plasma membranes of cells thus forming syncytia. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • GRE Subject Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology was a standardized exam provided by ETS (Educational Testing Service) that was discontinued in December 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stress proteins that are the main component of stress granules in plant cells are molecular chaperones that sequester, protect, and possibly repair proteins that unfold during heat and other types of stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular and Cellular Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • She then earned a Ph.D. in Cell Biology through the Herbert W. Boyer Program in Biological Sciences (PIBS) at the University of California, San Francisco, and subsequently completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of California, Berkeley in Molecular Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • The cause of cytotoxic activity by TcdB within the host cell is mainly mediated via receptor endocytosis[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • Multinucleate cells, depending on the mechanism they are formed, can be divided into: Syncytia (formed by cell fusion) Coenocytes (formed by nuclear division not being followed by cytokinesis) Some biologists use the term "acellular" to refer to multinucleate cell forms (syncitia and plasmodia), such as to differentiate "acellular" slime molds from the purely "cellular" ones (which do not form such structures). (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Modifications to these GAG chains by several different families of enzymes epimerize ring structures, add sulfates and remove acetylases in a non-template-driven fashion, resulting in variable regions of sulfation on each GAG chain and creating an astonishing level of complexity within one cell-surface HSPG. (biologists.org)
  • How the cells adhere to one another during development is still unclear, but it is known that a trilaminar sheath (TLS), composed of algaenan, is one of the first exterior structures to form, developing in patches before growing to connect into one continuous layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rosettes are ring-shaped structures enclosing small mounds on the cell surface and are usually sitting upon a thicker layer of cell wall than the surrounding areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • synchronous
  • In many organisms including Xenopus and Drosophila, the mid-blastula transition usually occurs after a particular number of cell divisions for a given species, and is defined by the ending of the synchronous cell division cycles of the early blastula development, and the lengthening of the cell cycles by the addition of the G1 and G2 phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • different cellular
  • The OsCYP19-4 AS isoforms exhibited different cellular localizations in the epidermal cells: in contrast to OsCYP19-4.1, the OsCYP19-4.2 and OsCYP19-4.3 proteins were primarily targeted to guard and subsidiary cells, whereas OsCYP19-4.5, which consists largely of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting signal, was co-localized with the RFP-BiP marker in the ER. (mdpi.com)
  • Mechanisms
  • Epidemiological and clinical trials rarely provide evidence for mechanisms of the compound's action, and studies on its effect on cancer of different cell origins are now being done. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The cells have other mechanisms of self-defense in addition to colonizing. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • His laboratory discovered that the Holliday junction resolvase activities of MUS81 and GEN1 are regulated so that they act late in the cell cycle to ensure chromosome segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • To prevent the cellular DNA repair machinery from mistakenly identifying telomeres as chromosome breaks, t-loops are formed in which the 3' TTAGGG overhang of the telomere loops back into the DNA duplex. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Pretreatment with HDACi at nontoxic doses, followed by incubation with TRAIL, resulted in a marked increase in TRAIL-induced apoptosis of T24 cells but showed no significant increase in toxicity to SV40 immortalized normal human uroepithelial cell-1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of lycopene on cell cycle and cell viability in eight human cancer cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS: Human cell lines were treated with lycopene (1-5 μM) for 48 and 96 h. (biomedsearch.com)
  • West's laboratory then moved into eukaryotic systems, where he discovered eukaryotic Holliday junction resolvases (yeast Yen1 and human GEN1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells which are found commonly in the human body that aid in the maintenance and repair of the bones by secreting acid that dissolves bone matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • This type of cell death usually affects single cells and is characterized histologically by the formation of small, spherical cytoplasmic fragments, some of which contain pyknotic remnants of nuclei. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They are typically found to have 5 nuclei per cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polymorphonuclear leukocytes of mammals are not polynuclear cells, although the lobes of their nuclei are so deeply bifurcated that they can appear so under suboptimal microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The equivalent of multiple nuclei in prokaryotes is multiple nucleoids in bacteria such as in Proteus mirabilis swarmer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • It generally affects cells in groups rather than single cells and evokes inflammation when it develops in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Soluble TRAIL has varying degrees of potency against the variety of tumor cell lines, such that 40% to 75% of the tumor cell lines tested have been declared to be TRAIL sensitive, suggesting that TRAIL could be used as a broad-spectrum, antitumor molecule in vivo ( 7 , 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • phases
  • RESULTS: Our data showed a significant decrease in the number of viable cells in three cancer cells lines (HT-29, T84 and MCF-7) after 48 h treatment with lycopene, and changes in the fraction of cells retained in different cell cycle phases. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It has been proposed by many studies that the majority of the toxins are released in either late log phase or early stationary phases, hence, toxin B is continuously secreted by cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of the two growth phases into the cell cycle allows for the cells to increase in size, as up to this point the blastomeres undergo reductive divisions in which the overall size of the embryo does not increase, but more cells are created. (wikipedia.org)
  • dissolution
  • A coenocyte (from Greek: κοινός (koinós) = "common" + κύτος (kýtos) = "box, i.e. cell") is a multinucleate cell which can result from multiple nuclear divisions without their accompanying cytokinesis, in contrast to a syncytium, which results from cellular aggregation followed by dissolution of the cell membranes inside the mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • basal
  • these make up the water-blood barrier, in particular where the capillaries are immediately below the basal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the small intestines, these LGR5+ve crypt base columnar cells (CBC cells) have broad basal surfaces and very little cytoplasm and organelles and are located interspersed among the terminally differentiated Paneth cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classical examples of polarized cells are described below, including epithelial cells with apical-basal polarity, neurons in which signals propagate in one direction from dendrites to axons, and migrating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • unclear
  • Though the function of these cells remains unclear, the high abundance of them in pond-dwelling species, which live in a low oxygenated environment, in comparison to stream-dwelling species, which live in a higher oxygenated environment, can lead to the conclusion that Leydig cells form in response to these conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic cells
  • Over-expression of Oct-4 and Sox2 along with Klf4 and c- Myc can induce pluripotency in both mouse and human somatic cells, highlighting their roles as key regulators of the transcrip- tional network necessary for renewal and pluripotency (4-5). (cellsignal.com)
  • It has also been demonstrated that overexpression of Oct-4, Sox2, Nanog and Lin28 can induce pluripotency in human somatic cells (6). (cellsignal.com)
  • dual-strand and unistrand clusters are dominant in germline cells and somatic cells, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mutations
  • These phenotypes were unexpectedly linked to mutations in the gene encoding a subunit of the Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex, which is essential for DNA replication prior to cell division. (jci.org)
  • Mutations at these sites result in the stabilization of β-catenin protein levels and have been found in many tumor cell lines (8). (cellsignal.com)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain mutations and the activation of certain cell-cycle control genes can lead to bacteria forming "filament-like" cells with multiple chromosomes but without cellular division. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • It is referred to as the mitotic spindle during mitosis, a process that produces genetically identical daughter cells, or the meiotic spindle during meiosis, a process that produces gametes with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • bipolar attachment of sister kinetochores to microtubules emanating from opposite cell poles couples opposing tension forces, aligning chromosomes at the cell equator and poising them for segregation to daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cellular spindle apparatus includes the spindle microtubules, associated proteins, which include kinesin and dynein molecular motors, condensed chromosomes, and any centrosomes or asters that may be present at the spindle poles depending on the cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytosol
  • If the transgene was incorporated into a gene with a signal sequence, β-gal activity would remain in the cytosol of the cell and therefore be active. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cell
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Regulation
  • PTPkappa likely regulates T-cell development by positively regulating ERK1/2 phosphorylation via the regulation of MEK1/2 and c-Raf phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • cells in diabetic mice, and that the anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of this combination was better than that of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) or polysachharide alone. (jove.com)
  • HeLa
  • CLIP170 was shown to localize near microtubule plus-ends in HeLa cells and to accumulate in kinetochores during prometaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytoplasmic
  • First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a protein complex in adherens junctions that helps cells maintain epithelial layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by E-cadherin with β-catenin bound to the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rat hepatic cells, LIMP-2 exhibited a half-life for internalization and lysosomal transport of 32 min and 2.0 h, respectively, which resembled that of well-known lysosomal proteins, lamp-1 and lamp-2, albeit different amino acid sequences in their cytoplasmic tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • In Xenopus, blastomeres behave as pluripotent stem cells which can migrate down several pathways, depending on cell signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • By expressing a dominant negative form of PTPkappa or by using short-hairpin RNA for PTPkappa in bone-marrow derived stem cells, Erdenbayer and colleagues demonstrated that CD4(+) T cells development was inhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • LGR5 are well-established stem cell markers in certain types of tissue, wholly due to the fact that they are highly enriched in truly, multipotent stem cells compared to their immediate progeny, the transit-amplifying cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tracing has revealed that LGR5 is a marker of adult intestinal stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high turnover rate of the intestinal lining is due to a dedicated population of stem cells found at the base of the intestinal crypt. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • bone marrow
  • Truly endothelial, BOEC are progeny of a transplantable cell that originates in bone marrow, a putative endothelial progenitor. (jci.org)
  • genes
  • The presence of full-length PTPkappa in melanoma cells decreases the level of free-cytosolic β-catenin, which consequently reduces the level of nuclear β-catenin and reduces the expression of the β-catenin-regulated genes, cyclin D1 and c-myc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • In many organisms including Xenopus and Drosophila, the mid-blastula transition usually occurs after a particular number of cell divisions for a given species, and is defined by the ending of the synchronous cell division cycles of the early blastula development, and the lengthening of the cell cycles by the addition of the G1 and G2 phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brains of all species are composed primarily of two broad classes of cells: neurons and glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuron
  • The length of an axon can be extraordinary: for example, if a pyramidal cell, (an excitatory neuron) of the cerebral cortex were magnified so that its cell body became the size of a human body, its axon, equally magnified, would become a cable a few centimeters in diameter, extending more than a kilometer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A neuron receives signals from neighboring cells through branched, cellular extensions called dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neuron then propagates an electrical signal down a specialized axon extension to the synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to propagate the signal to another neuron or effector cell (e.g., muscle or gland). (wikipedia.org)
  • organization
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The green algal order Cladophorales is characterized by siphonocladous organization, i.e., the thalli are composed of many coenocytic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are interested in the spontaneous symmetry breaking, as an example of self-organization phenomena in living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • deficient
  • Further characterization revealed that these patients were neutropenic and NK cell deficient. (jci.org)
  • embryos
  • Many insects, such as the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, lay eggs that initially develop as "syncytial" blastoderms, i.e. early on the embryos exhibit incomplete cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • CBS occupies a pivotal position in mammalian sulfur metabolism at the homocysteine junction where the decision to conserve methionine or to convert it to cysteine via the transsulfuration pathway, is made. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • F9 cells were genetically engineered to lack β-catenin, resulting in increased association of plakoglobin with E-cadherin. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Mechanistic studies showed that the synergistic cell death was not due to an increase in viral replication but occurred through an enhancement of apoptotic cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Replication-selective oncolytic adenoviruses are designed to replicate and spread into the tumor, resulting in cancer cell lysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for future studies to explore the role of DNA replication in immune cell generation and function. (jci.org)
  • This was the first time that more than a single origin of DNA replication had been shown to be used in a prokaryotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specification
  • The study of the blastula and of cell specification has many implications on the field of stem cell research as well as the continued improvement of fertility treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • sulfur
  • Sulfolobales are metabolically dependent on sulfur: heterotrophic or autotrophic, their energy comes from the oxidation of sulfur and/or cellular respiration in which sulfur acts as the final electron acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • spatial
  • When cells can perform symmetry breaking in absence of any spatial cue (landmarks), is called spontaneous polarization or spontaneous symmetry breaking. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • The property that makes neurons unique is their ability to send signals to specific target cells over long distances. (wikipedia.org)
  • They send these signals by means of an axon, which is a thin protoplasmic fiber that extends from the cell body and projects, usually with numerous branches, to other areas, sometimes nearby, sometimes in distant parts of the brain or body. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of PIO on normal urothelial transitional epithelium (NUTE) cells and bladder cancer (J82) cells to further evaluate the risk. (medsci.org)
  • Along with the debate on whether PIO causes bladder cancer in humans, animal and in vitro cell culture studies have suggested a biological effect of PIO on the induction or protection from bladder cancer [ 7 ]. (medsci.org)
  • gene
  • PTPkappa and the THEMIS gene are both deleted in the rat Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) strain, and are both required for the CD4+ T-cell deficiency observed in this strain of rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • Peripheral nervous system (PNS) diseases may be further categorized by the type of nerve cell (motor, sensory, or both) affected by the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Sequence analyses showed that the transmembrane regions and cysteine-flanked junction between TM1 and the extracellular domain were highly conserved in sea anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima), fly (Drosophila melanogaster), worm (Caenorhabditis elegans), snail (Lymnaea stagnalis), rat (Rattus rattus) and human (Homo sapiens). (wikipedia.org)