Loading...
  • Anticancer
  • Recently, a variety of anticancer therapies have been linked to the induction of ER stress in cancer cells, suggesting that strategies devised to stimulate its prodeath function or block its prosurvival function, could be envisaged to improve their tumoricidial action. (hindawi.com)
  • mammalian cells
  • A conserved promoter element, unfolded protein response element (UPRE), was identified in yeast ( 2 ) and mammalian cells ( 3 ) that is necessary and sufficient to mediate the transcriptional induction in response to unfolded protein in the ER. (pnas.org)
  • selectively
  • An alternative to antibiotics is the naturally present bacteriolytic enzymes, including endolysins, autolysins, virion-associated lysins, and bacteriolysins, hydrolases that selectively cleave certain structures of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • proteins
  • Understanding specific proteins involved in cell fusion in mosquitoes provides important clues to pathogenic virus infectivity and host range and can lead to the development of novel control strategies for vector mosquitoes. (usda.gov)
  • Envelope fusion proteins (F proteins) are major constituents of budded viruses (BVs) of alpha- and betabaculoviruses (Baculoviridae) and are essential for the systemic infection of insect larvae and insect cells in culture. (usda.gov)
  • A growing family of regulatory proteins that deliver signals between cells of the immune system has been identified. (google.com)
  • Called cytokines, these proteins have been found to control the growth and development, and bioactivities, of cells of the hematopoietic and immune systems. (google.com)
  • Under conditions of prolonged ER stress, TFEB and TFE3 contribute to cell death, thus revealing an unexpected role for these proteins in controlling cell fate. (embopress.org)
  • The S proteins of murine coronaviruses are cleaved to different extents, depending on the strain and the cell line used ( 10 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Using a vaccinia virus expression system ( 11 ) some investigators found the S proteins from MHV-A59 and MHV-JHM not to require cleavage for the induction of cell-cell fusion but syncytium formation to be delayed in the absence of cleavage ( 3 , 38 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • vitro
  • For in vitro studies cultured, differentiated C2C12 myotubes were treated with the ER-stressor tunicamycin and insulin-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake was assessed. (ahajournals.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • 7 8 Of particular interest to our studies is the RPE, a monolayer of highly specialized epithelial cells interposed between the retinal photoreceptors and the choroid that is central to photoreceptor survival and function. (arvojournals.org)
  • mechanisms
  • To get insights into the mechanisms by which this protein is involved in drug resistance, we analyzed TUBB3 in a panel of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, when persistent, ER stress can switch the cytoprotective functions of UPR and autophagy into cell death promoting mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Severe stress, however, can trigger necrotic and apoptotic cell death through mechanisms largely unknown. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover
  • Moreover, the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein seemed to be involved in the up-regulation of TRAIL-R2 by tunicamycin, but its role varied between different melanoma lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, S1R activation enhances the survival rate of mutant cells under ER stress conditions, bringing it to WT levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, phosphorylation levels of ALK downstream effectors (AKT, ERK1/2, STAT3) were clearly impaired only in ALK mutated/amplified NB cell lines, whereas no significant reduction was observed in both ALK-negative and NPM-ALK-positive cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • induce
  • It was discovered that Cuni-F is expressed on the surface of cells and can induce cell-cell fusion. (usda.gov)
  • Here we show that open reading frame 104 of Culex nigripalpus nucleopolyhedrovirus (CuniNPV), the only deltabaculovirus member, encodes a putative F-homolog (Cuni-F). When expressed alone, this protein is located on the surface of cells and able to induce cell-cell fusion. (usda.gov)
  • There are two major pathways that induce apoptotic cell death. (biologists.org)
  • The combined results directly correlated the extent of cleavage of the spike protein with its ability to induce fusion of cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • death
  • BAD, also named as BBC6 and BCL2L8, promotes cell death. (ptglab.com)
  • We investigated the involvement of the apoptosome in ER stress-induced cell death pathway using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and mice deficient for Apaf-1. (biologists.org)
  • Finally, the cleavage of the Poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP) suggested that apoptotic pathways may be involved in cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cellular
  • Tunicamycin induced morphological changes in B16-F1 and B16-F10 cells such as cellular rounding. (aacrjournals.org)
  • a form of ER stress) leading to transcriptional activation of ER chaperones and glucose metabolism, and disturbances in cellular Ca2+ homeostasis (Paschen, Cell Calcium, 29:1-11, 2001). (arvojournals.org)
  • In several virus families, this processing step is carried out by cellular proprotein convertases ( 21 ), most commonly furin, a component of the constitutive secretory pathway of many different types of cells ( 9 , 33 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • increases
  • Western and ligand blot analyses of RPE cell-conditioned medium indicated that IGF-1 induced increases in VEGF and IGFBP-3 secretion. (arvojournals.org)
  • Biology
  • To receive news and publication updates for International Journal of Cell Biology, enter your email address in the box below. (hindawi.com)
  • combination
  • The UWOV2 cell line was derived from a cystadenocarcinoma in a patient refractory to combination chemotherapy with actinomycin D, vincristine (VCR), cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) (CDDP) and doxorubicin (DXR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • thus, EF and LF must always act in binary combination with PA to be transported to the target cell cytosol, where they exert their activities. (rupress.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • On the contrary, tunicamycin had no effects on NPM-ALK phosphorylation in SU-DHL1 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we applied mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic profiling to the largest and most heterogeneous set of sarcoma cell lines characterized to date and identified novel tyrosine phosphorylation patterns, enhanced tyrosine kinases in specific subtypes, and potential driver kinases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Membranes
  • Membranes containing whole cell extracts were blocked with 5% milk in TBST (blocking buffer) and probed overnight at 4ºC with GTX11419 (diluted 1:2000 in blocking buffer), followed by a goat anti-mouse IgG-HRP secondary antibody (diluted in blocking buffer) and a chemiluminescent substrate. (genetex.com)
  • Because EF and LF are unable to bind to cells or cross membranes on their own, binding to PA is an absolute prerequisite for internalization and intoxication. (rupress.org)
  • lysates
  • Whole cell lysates were assayed by immunoblot for HIF-1α expression, whereas conditioned medium was TCA precipitated and assayed by immunoblot for VEGF and ligand blot for IGFBP-3. (arvojournals.org)
  • effects
  • These effects were reversible, and B16 cells recovered their normal morphologies and growth rates within 24 hr after removal of the drug. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we show our first observations of ER stress response in TM cells through evaluation of expression of stress transducers at the mRNA level and effects on [Ca2+]i homeostasis. (arvojournals.org)
  • Answering this question will expand our current focus on the toxic effects of acidosis on neuronal cell bodies to include synaptic sites, and advance our understanding of the long-term changes in neuroplasticity in diseases that generate acidosis. (jneurosci.org)
  • pathways
  • To reestablish homeostasis and mitigate stress, cells must activate a series of adaptive intracellular signaling pathways. (embopress.org)
  • When those fluctuations exceed a critical threshold, cells activate a series of adaptive intracellular signaling pathways aimed to mitigate stress, prevent potential damage, and restore homeostasis. (embopress.org)
  • intracellular
  • β-Tubulin, together with α-tubulin, participates in the formation of microtubules, the integrity of which is essential for the segregation of chromosomes during cell division, maintenance of cell shape, and intracellular trafficking of macromolecules and organelles ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • surface
  • however, sialogalactoproteins (detected by the binding of 125 I-labeled R. communis agglutinin I to polyacrylamide gels containing desialized B16 cell surface components) were reduced dramatically by the drug. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As a consequence, cells expressing palmitoylation-defective mutant receptors are less sensitive to anthrax toxin because of a lower number of surface receptors as well as premature internalization of PA without a requirement for heptamerization. (rupress.org)
  • At the target cell surface, proteolytic processing of PA83 leads to PA63, which remains receptor bound and can polymerize into a heptameric (PA 7mer ) ring called the prepore. (rupress.org)
  • Therefore, PA receptors must remain at the cell surface until heptamerization and binding of the enzymatic subunits have taken place. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we examined the cell binding and killing capabilities of Lst against S. aureus ATCC 6538 in buffered salt solution with MEA at different pH values (7.5 to 10.5) and discovered that only the unprotonated form of MEA inhibited Lst binding to the cell surface, leading to low Lst activity, despite retention of its secondary structure. (asm.org)
  • 7. The method of claim 1 , further comprising the step of introducing an expression vector encoding the MCP-1R polypeptide into a cell, wherein the MCP-1R polypeptide is expressed on the surface of a cell. (google.com)
  • 9 10 With its apical surface in intimate contact with the light-sensitive cells of the retina, the RPE performs critical transport, barrier, and phagocytic support functions for the neural retina. (arvojournals.org)
  • eIF2
  • Despite normal activity of the cognate stress-inducible eIF2α kinases PERK (also known as PEK) and GCN2, phospho-eIF2α levels were markedly diminished in GADD34-overexpressing cells. (rupress.org)
  • cleavage
  • Mutagenesis analysis identified the canonical furin cleavage site 126RARR129 as being responsible for the cleavage of Cuni-F in insect cells. (usda.gov)
  • While cell-cell fusion was clearly affected by preventing spike protein cleavage, virus-cell fusion was not, indicating that these events have different requirements. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The enzyme is also secreted from cells in an active soluble form, which is produced by self-cleavage in the TGN ( 43 , 45 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The importance of S protein cleavage for cell-cell fusion has been studied by several groups with inconsistent results. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Other groups used virions or infected cells to study the role of cleavage for fusion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • platelets
  • While red blood cells are the most numerous and white cells are the largest, platelets are small fragments and account for a minor part of blood volume. (mdpi.com)
  • phenotype
  • The abnormal mitochondria content phenotype of the mutant cells was chosen as a read-out for a simple cell-based fluorescent assay to assess the effect of the tested compounds. (frontiersin.org)
  • adhesion
  • ECA-positive materials were extracted from the crude membrane fraction of colon 26 cells and were found to suppress the platelet adhesion. (nii.ac.jp)
  • fetal
  • Publications] Zhou X: 'Immunohistochemical Iocalization of androgen receptor in mouse testicular germ cells during fetal and postnatal development. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Freshly prepared hepatocytes were seeded at a density of 2 × 10 5 cells/well on 24-well multidishes precoated with rat tail collagen type I and grown in Williams Medium E containing 5% of fetal calf serum, 100 nM insulin, 2.5 μg/ml amphotericin B, 0.1 mg/ml gentamicin, 30 nM Na2SeO3, and 0.1 μM dexamethasone (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). (biomedcentral.com)