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  • tumor
  • LCLC is, in effect, a "diagnosis of exclusion", in that the tumor cells lack light microscopic characteristics that would classify the neoplasm as a small-cell carcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or other more specific histologic type of lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • These special receptors allow the T cells to recognize and attach to a specific protein, or antigen , on tumor cells. (cancer.gov)
  • And in some very rare types of breast cancer, the cancer cells may not form a lump or tumor at all. (cancer.org)
  • Cancer cells need a lot of iron to maintain the rapid division necessary for tumor growth. (washington.edu)
  • Often the tumor will regrow from those resistant cells, the patient will relapse, and the therapy that had been previously used will no longer kill the cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a Phase I human gene therapy trial, eight immunocompetent prostate cancer (PCA) patients were treated with autologous, GM-CSF-secreting, irradiated tumor vaccines prepared from ex vivo retroviral transduction of surgically harvested cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vaccine site biopsies manifested infiltrates of dendritic cells and macrophages among prostate tumor vaccine cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • T-cell responses, evaluated by assessing delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions against untransduced autologous tumor cells, were evident in two of eight patients before vaccination and in seven of eight patients after treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A distinctive eosinophilic vasculitis was evident near autologous tumor cells at vaccine sites, and at DTH sites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IL-8, another cytokine, is released after tumor cell death, subsequently stimulating CSCs to regrow the tumor and resist chemotherapy. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Curcumin has been found to suppress tumor cells along the Notch pathway. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This pathway plays a key role in regulating normal stem cells, with aberrant signaling stimulating CSCs, resulting once again in tumor recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Our ultimate goals are to identify context-dependent design principles in the cytoskeletal machine that drives cell movement and to use this insight to develop cancer-specific therapies against tumor spreading and metastasis. (jhmi.edu)
  • Cytotoxic T cells (T C cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also implicated in transplant rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • In these cases, the tumors are classified as combined small cell lung carcinoma (c-SCLC), and are (usually) treated like "pure" SCLC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, researchers caution that, in many respects, it's still early days for CAR T cells and other forms of ACT, including questions about whether they will ever be effective against solid tumors like breast and colorectal cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Cells in pre-malignant and malignant neoplasms ( tumors ) evolve by natural selection . (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest ideas about neoplastic evolution come from Boveri who proposed that tumors originated in chromosomal abnormalities passed on to daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new study not only advances the understanding of the evolution of HeLa cells, and of tumors in general, but of the cells of multicellular organisms in culture in general. (phys.org)
  • CN706 destroyed large LNCaP tumors (1 × 10 9 cells) and abolished PSA production in nu/nu mouse xenograft models with a single intratumoral injection. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is hoped that by blocking the formation of new blood vessels through drugs that act on endothelial cells, it may be possible to block the growth of tumors (discussed in Chapter 23). (nih.gov)
  • tissue
  • This is most often the case when a pathologist examines a small amount of malignant cells or tissue in a cytology or biopsy specimen. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, most breast cancers are a type of carcinoma called adenocarcinoma , which starts in cells that make up glands (glandular tissue). (cancer.org)
  • Microglia have been long understood to be the sentinels of the central nervous system, patrolling the brain and spinal cord and springing into action to stamp out infections or gobble up dead cell tissue. (rochester.edu)
  • Adipose tissue (fat cells), which requires extraction by liposuction. (wikipedia.org)
  • These stem cells can become any tissue in the body, excluding a placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are found in organ tissue and have the capacity to produce specialized cell types for that particular organ. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • Researchers at the Eaton-Peabody Laboratory have successfully isolated adult stem cells from the tissue of the mouse utricle. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • If it were not for endothelial cells extending and remodeling the network of blood vessels, tissue growth and repair would be impossible. (nih.gov)
  • The largest blood vessels are arteries and veins, which have a thick, tough wall of connective tissue and and many layers of smooth muscle cells ( Figure 22-22 ). (nih.gov)
  • These are cells of the connective-tissue family, related to vascular smooth muscle cells, that wrap themselves round the small vessels ( Figure 22-24 ). (nih.gov)
  • A study of the embryo reveals, moreover, that arteries and veins develop from small vessels constructed solely of endothelial cells and a basal lamina: pericytes, connective tissue and smooth muscle are added later where required, under the influence of signals from the endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Once a vessel has matured, signals from the endothelial cells to the surrounding connective tissue and smooth muscle continue to play a crucial part in regulating the vessel's function and structure. (nih.gov)
  • An emerging line of research in our lab is to study the motility of cells of well-defined tissue origins in mechanical and geometrical environments that mimic physiological conditions. (jhmi.edu)
  • We isolate primary cells from genetically modified animals and then apply high-resolution biophysical techniques to observe and parameterize their motility in vitro in engineered environments that provide tissue-mimetic tests of environmental inputs. (jhmi.edu)
  • Subsequently, numerous new populations of memory T cells were discovered including tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells, stem memory TSCM cells, and virtual memory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • Endothelial cells have a remarkable capacity to adjust their number and arrangement to suit local requirements. (nih.gov)
  • The wall is lined by an exceedingly thin single sheet of endothelial cells, the endothelium, separated from the surrounding outer layers by a basal lamina. (nih.gov)
  • In the finest branches of the vascular tree-the capillaries and sinusoids-the walls consist of nothing but endothelial cells and a basal lamina ( Figure 22-23 ), together with a few scattered-but functionally important- pericytes . (nih.gov)
  • The endothelial cells, although inconspicuous, are the fundamental component. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, endothelial cells line the entire vascular system, from the heart to the smallest capillary, and control the passage of materials-and the transit of white blood cells-into and out of the bloodstream. (nih.gov)
  • The recruitment of pericytes in particular depends on PDGF-B secreted by the endothelial cells, and in mutants lacking this signal protein or its receptor , pericytes in many regions are missing. (nih.gov)
  • million in stem cell res
  • For example, in 2015, the National Institutes of Health invested around US$ 1,429 million in stem cell research, as stem cells research offers great potential for better understanding of human development it is expected that this factor will fuel growth of the personalized cell therapy market in the near future. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • Since its establishment in 2005, NYSCF has invested over $200 million in stemcell research and continues to conduct the most advanced stem cell research internationally, both in its own laboratory in New York City, and also in collaboration with major medical research and leading academic institutions around the world. (nyscf.org)
  • immunity
  • T cell lymphocytes (CD3+) constitute more than % of circulating lymphocytes and play a central role in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. (emdmillipore.com)
  • A T cell , or T lymphocyte , is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell ) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity . (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinoma
  • Micrograph of a squamous carcinoma , a type of non-small-cell lung carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-small-cell lung carcinoma ( NSCLC ) is any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). (wikipedia.org)
  • As a class, NSCLCs are relatively insensitive to chemotherapy , compared to small cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pie chart showing incidences of non-small cell lung cancers as compared to small cell carcinoma shown at right, with fractions of smokers versus non-smokers shown for each type. (wikipedia.org)
  • LCLC is differentiated from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) primarily by the larger size of the anaplastic cells, a higher cytoplasmic-to-nuclear size ratio, and a lack of "salt-and-pepper" chromatin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Targeting renal cell carcinoma with a HIF-2 antagonist. (nih.gov)
  • Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor gene (VHL). (nih.gov)
  • The therapeutic potential of HIF-2 antagonism in renal cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • receptors
  • Next, using a disarmed virus, the T cells are genetically engineered to produce receptors on their surface called chimeric antigen receptors, or CARs. (cancer.gov)
  • These receptors are "synthetic molecules, they don't exist naturally," explained Carl June, M.D., of the University of Pennsylvania Abramson Cancer Center, during a recent presentation on CAR T cells at the National Institutes of Health campus. (cancer.gov)
  • Specialized gamma delta T cells , (a small minority of T cells in the human body , more frequent in ruminants ), have invariant T-cell receptors with limited diversity, that can effectively present antigens to other T cells and are considered to be part of the innate immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • Their results indicate that heterogeneity in cell growth can be generated in a very short period of time in cancer cells and is heritable and genetically determined. (phys.org)
  • mitosis
  • Conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy is incapable of such delicate and "intelligent" behavior, as it preferentially targets fast-replicating cells by damaging their DNA in the vulnerable mitosis stage of cell division, regardless of whether they are benign, healthy or cancerous cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • 2017
  • In 2017, two CAR T-cell therapies were approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), one for the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and the other for adults with advanced lymphomas. (cancer.gov)
  • The global personalized cell therapy market was valued at US$ 3,536.2 million in 2016 and is expected to witness a robust CAGR of 25.3% during the forecast period (2017 - 2024). (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • cytotoxic
  • The CD8 antibody allows the identification of CD8, a 68 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by class I major histocompatibility complex restricted, mature suppressor/cytotoxic T cells, the great majority of cortical thymocytes and approximately 30% of medullary thymocytes. (emdmillipore.com)
  • CD3 T cell can be further broadly classified as T helper lymphocytes that are CD3+CD4+ and cytotoxic T lymphocytes that are CD3+CD8+. (emdmillipore.com)
  • epigenetic
  • Neoplasms are mosaics of different mutant cells with both genetic and epigenetic changes that distinguish them from normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a cancer cell divides, both daughter cells inherit the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of the parent cell, and may also acquire new genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in the process of cellular reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Age, on the other hand, is just the degree of usefulness of that cell, and it's mostly an epigenetic process. (nautil.us)
  • The factors also somehow wipe off the epigenetic memory of the cell, making them younger. (nautil.us)
  • We are currently investigating how aneuploidy affects the epigenetic state of cells and which cellular pathways may be particularly sensitive to modification by an unbalanced chromosome dosage. (jhmi.edu)
  • multicellular
  • In a multicellular aggregate of hPSCs, intracellular apicosomes from multiple cells are trafficked to generate a common lumenal cavity. (rupress.org)
  • Cell polarity is the simplest form of whole-cell pattern beyond spherical symmetry, from which more complex developmental and multicellular patterns emerge. (jhmi.edu)
  • bone marrow
  • It has various applications such as platelet transfusions, bone marrow transplantation, whole blood transfusions, packed red cell transfusions, and organ transplantation. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • As drug therapy is not always effective, research experts have discovered special cells in bone marrow that can be developed into injectable cell therapy to treat IBD. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which are taken up by the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis and processed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently they have been shown to reside for much longer periods in the bone marrow as long-lived plasma cells (LLPC). (wikipedia.org)
  • a secondary response produces longer-lived cells that produce IgG and IgA, and frequently travel to the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • prostate cancer cells
  • The researchers also have preliminary results showing that the compound is similarly selective and effective for human breast and prostate cancer cells, and that it effectively and safely kills breast cancer in rats, Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • types
  • All types can occur in unusual histologic variants and as mixed cell-type combinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several types of ACT (see "ACT: TILs, TCRs, and CARs"), but, thus far, the one that has advanced the furthest in clinical development is called CAR T-cell therapy. (cancer.gov)
  • There are several types of non-small cell lung cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Cancer that may begin in several types of large cells. (cancer.gov)
  • These findings show that a precisely choreographed interaction between multiple cells types is necessary to carry out the formation and destruction of connections that allow proper signaling in the brain. (rochester.edu)
  • There are two types of B-cell leukemia: prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) and hairy cell leukemia (HCL). (va.gov)
  • Stem cells are unique types of cells that have the ability to renew themselves over long periods of time. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • Stem cells are the Gary Oldman of cell types. (nautil.us)
  • This includes helper , killer , regulatory , and potentially other T cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen-specific
  • Once the collected T cells have been engineered to express the antigen-specific CAR, they are "expanded" in the laboratory into the hundreds of millions. (cancer.gov)
  • generate
  • Thus, a cell that acquires a mutation that increases its fitness will generate more daughter cells than competitor cells that lack that mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our observations suggest that human cells that have been cultured for a sufficiently long period still generate deleterious mutations in the form of CNVs at a high rate and with a high intensity. (phys.org)
  • We are intrigued about how cells generate patterns through self-organization in response to environmental signals, accomplish division or motility through coordinated structural rearrangements and force production, and, when challenged with hostile environments or genetic perturbations, evolve innovative solutions to maintain vitality and functionality. (jhmi.edu)
  • maturation
  • Some B cells will undergo a process known as affinity maturation . (wikipedia.org)
  • After the process of affinity maturation in germinal centers, plasma cells have an indeterminate lifespan, ranging from days to months. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Identification and enumeration of CD3 T lymphocytes, CD4 T lymphocytes and CD8 T lymphocytes is important in many immunological experiments that involve T cell characterization or study of T cell function. (emdmillipore.com)
  • T lymphocytes (T cells) play critical roles in the regulation of immune responses, and are responsible for mediating many of the effector mechanisms of the immune system. (emdmillipore.com)
  • T cells can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells , by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface . (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • Vaccination activated new T-cell and B-cell immune responses against PCA antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They divide rapidly and are still capable of internalizing antigens and presenting them to T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Helper T cells become activated when they are presented with peptide antigens by MHC class II molecules, which are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • As its name implies, the backbone of CAR T-cell therapy is T cells , which are often called the workhorses of the immune system because of their critical role in orchestrating the immune response and killing cells infected by pathogens. (cancer.gov)
  • findings
  • In future work , the scientists want to exploit their cancer cell fitness and growth rate findings to understand how cancer cells can become even more vulnerable to recent breakthroughs with checkpoint inhibitor drugs. (phys.org)
  • Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • divide
  • The goal of our research is to understand how eukaryotic cells polarize, divide, move, and vary their genomes to adapt to the changing environment. (jhmi.edu)
  • researchers
  • In just the last few years, progress with CAR T cells and other ACT approaches has greatly accelerated, with researchers developing a better understanding of how these therapies work in patients and translating that knowledge into improvements in how they are developed and tested. (cancer.gov)
  • Researchers at the University of Washington have updated a traditional Chinese medicine to create a compound that is more than 1,200 times more specific in killing certain kinds of cancer cells than currently available drugs, heralding the possibility of a more effective chemotherapy drug with minimal side effects. (washington.edu)
  • In the study, the UW researchers tested their artemisinin-based compound on human leukemia cells. (washington.edu)
  • Performing experiments in mice, the researchers employed a well-established model of measuring neuroplasticity by observing how cells reorganize their connections when visual information received by the brain is reduced from two eyes to one. (rochester.edu)
  • Researchers globally are realizing the potential of 3D cell culture for various applications, including testing and discovering new drugs to treat cancer, organ-on-chip models to study the human physiology in an organ specific context, and 3D cell printing to produce organ models. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • pathways
  • The formation and removal of the physical connections between neurons is a critical part of maintaining a healthy brain and the process of creating new pathways and networks among brain cells enables us to absorb, learn, and memorize new information. (rochester.edu)
  • pluripotency
  • This self-renewal demands control of cell cycle as well as upkeep of multipotency or pluripotency, which all depends on the stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • During further mitotic expansion of such cysts, all cells retain expression of pluripotency markers. (rupress.org)
  • endoderm
  • This middle layer of cells, sandwiched between ectoderm and endoderm, grows and diversifies to provide a wide range of supportive functions. (nih.gov)
  • therapies
  • Over the last two decades, targeted therapies like imatinib (Gleevec®) and trastuzumab (Herceptin®) -drugs that target cancer cells by homing in on specific molecular changes seen primarily in those cells-have also cemented themselves as standard treatments for many cancers. (cancer.gov)
  • A growing number of CAR T-cell therapies are being developed and tested in clinical studies. (cancer.gov)
  • Cancer therapies act as a form of artificial selection, killing sensitive cancer cells, but leaving behind resistant cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • organoids
  • Network with industry experts, gain insight into how the pharmaceutical industry is utilizing 3D Cell Culture technologies to enhance research and development, discuss the potential for novel in-vitro cell culture models to replace animal models, and discover novel 3D cell culture systems, organ-on-chip, 3D imaging of organoids and other technologies in development. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • carcinomas
  • LCLC's have typically comprised around 10% of all NSCLC in the past, although newer diagnostic techniques seem to be reducing the incidence of diagnosis of "classic" LCLC in favor of more poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • It is possible that when the microglia's synapse pruning function is interrupted or when the cells mistakenly remove the wrong connections - perhaps due to genetic factors or because the cells are too occupied elsewhere fighting an infection or injury - the result is impaired signaling between brain cells. (rochester.edu)
  • Why haven't cancer cells undergone genetic meltdowns? (phys.org)
  • How do cancer cells avoid complete genetic meltdown? (phys.org)
  • For example, when they isolated 39 cells from B8 (a fast-growing clone) and 40 cells from E3 (slow growing clone), and monitored their growth from a single cell for seven days, approximately 23 percent of B8 and 50 percent of E3 cells died out within seven days, due to either damage caused during cell isolation or genetic defects. (phys.org)
  • Hair cell loss is caused by exposure to excessive noise, aging, genetic mutations, autoimmune disease, and ototoxic medications such as aminoglycoside antibiotics. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • In mammals, attempts to regenerate damaged inner ear hair cells by genetic means have previously resulted in limited success. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • human
  • PT2399 dissociated HIF-2 (an obligatory heterodimer of HIF-2α-HIF-1β) in human ccRCC cells and suppressed tumorigenesis in 56% (10 out of 18) of such lines. (nih.gov)
  • This FlowCellect Human CD4/CD8 T Cell Assay provides a rapid & simple method to asses the percentage of CD4 & CD8 T cells in flow cytometry applications. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The CD4 antibody allows the identification of human helper/inducer CD4+ T cell (HLA Class II reactive) and recognizes a 60,000 Da surface antigen. (emdmillipore.com)
  • E1A was expressed at high levels in CN706-infected human PSA-producing LNCaP cells but not in CN706-infected DU145 cells, which are human prostate cells that do not express PSA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The titer of CN706 was significantly higher in LNCaP cells compared to several human cell lines that do not produce PSA (HBL100, PANC-1, MCF-7, DU145, and OVCAR3). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data suggest that both T-cell and B-cell immune responses to human PCA can be generated by treatment with irradiated, GM-CSF gene-transduced PCA vaccines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The majority of human T cells, termed alpha beta T cells (αβ T cells), rearrange their alpha and beta chains on the cell receptor and are part of the adaptive immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • cancers
  • Until recently, the use of CAR T-cell therapy has been restricted to small clinical trials, largely in patients with advanced blood cancers. (cancer.gov)
  • markers
  • Historically, memory T cells were thought to belong to either the effector or central memory subtypes, each with their own distinguishing set of cell surface markers (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotherapy
  • The final step is the infusion of the CAR T cells into the patient (which is preceded by a "lymphodepleting" chemotherapy regimen). (cancer.gov)
  • It also explains why, even if chemotherapy treatment successfully killed 90 percent of a cancer cell population, it may still not be enough. (phys.org)
  • cancer cell
  • The cancer cell, unaware of the toxic compound lurking on its surface, waits for the protein machinery to deliver iron molecules and engulfs everything - iron, proteins and toxic compound. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer cell during cell division. (phys.org)
  • IL-1, a family of cytokines, are involved in response to injury and infection, with IL-1 β playing a key role in cancer cell growth and the stimulation of CSCs. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Superresolution image of a group of killer T cells (green and red) surrounding a cancer cell (blue, center). (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • While this constant reorganization of neural networks - called neuroplasticity - has been well understood for some time, the basic mechanisms by which connections between brain cells are made and broken has eluded scientists. (rochester.edu)