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  • genes
  • Overall, they found that the main mutations affect the copy number of genes, with an average of 0.29 deleterious events for every cell division. (phys.org)
  • A potential use of genetically-customized stem cells would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to the particular disease. (bootstrike.com)
  • For example, if a person with Parkinson's disease donated his or her somatic cells, then the stem cells resulting from SCNT would have genes that contribute to Parkinson's disease. (bootstrike.com)
  • The following year, this method achieved a key goal of SCNT-based stem cell research: the derivation of pluripotent stem cell lines that have all genes linked to various diseases. (bootstrike.com)
  • It was initially thought that lamins would only influence expression of genes encoded by DNA packaged at the nuclear periphery, but reports, including our own, have shown that cells without lamins, or with lamin-related mutations, have alterations in their expression of genes found throughout the DNA in the nucleus," Zheng explained. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • In our laboratory, we have recently launched a project, named IMAXT (Imaging and Molecular Annotation of Xenografts and Tumours), that aims to produce a comprehensive tri-dimensional map of breast tumours in which each cell is annotated by measuring the expression of hundreds of different genes and proteins. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Healthy cells are programmed to self-destruct if there are mistakes in their genes that can't be fixed, but cancer cells can carry on growing with these abnormalities. (eurekalert.org)
  • By introducing these genes into peripheral blood memory B cells and culturing these cells with two factors produced by follicular helper T cells, CD40 ligand (CD40L) and interleukin-21 (IL-21), we convert them to highly proliferating, cell surface B cell receptor (BCR)-positive, immunoglobulin-secreting B cells with features of germinal center B cells, including expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). (nih.gov)
  • This approach also allows scientists to repurpose the same genetic tools, including genes and transcription factors (proteins that turn genes on or off), to do different tasks within a network. (phys.org)
  • Genetic circuits control the activity of genes and thereby the function of cells and organisms. (healthcanal.com)
  • According to their findings, even genes that are not regulated can display different activities - depending on whether they are translated into proteins in slow- or fast-growing cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • With the help of these circuits, a cell can switch genes on or off and thus control what proteins it produces. (healthcanal.com)
  • By combining theoretical circuit models and experiments with simple synthetic circuits in bacteria the scientists demonstrated that growth rate decisively influences the activities of genes and thus genetic circuits. (healthcanal.com)
  • That the activity of genes and genetic circuits depends on how fast the cells grow makes life more complicated for scientists interested in quantitative characteristics of genetic circuits. (healthcanal.com)
  • biology
  • In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory technique for creating an ovum with a donor nucleus (see process below). (bootstrike.com)
  • Someone who had been waiting for the results of the trial is Dr. Stephen Tsang, assistant professor of ophthalmology, pathology and cell biology at Columbia University Medical Center in New York. (washdiplomat.com)
  • The study appears in the January 21st issue of The Journal of Cell Biology . (phys.org)
  • line biology genetic embryo cells division vector illustration. (vectorstock.com)
  • One of the great mysteries in biology is how the many different cell types that make up our bodies are derived from a single cell and from one DNA sequence, or genome. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This method provides a new tool to study B cell biology and signal transduction through antigen-specific B cell receptors and for the rapid generation of high-affinity human monoclonal antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • Synthetic biology allows scientists to design genetic circuits that can be placed in cells, giving them new functions such as producing drugs or other useful molecules. (phys.org)
  • This is one of 31 human diseases that occur because of genetic defects in the body's extracellular matrix and basement membrane proteins," explains the study's senior author Raghu Kalluri, PhD, chief of the division of matrix biology at BIDMC and associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. (emaxhealth.com)
  • These discoveries are placed within the structural context of tissue and developmental biology in sections dealing with recent advances in understanding different types of stem cell biology and their potential applications in tissue repair and regeneration and in the treatment different types of human cancer and genetic diseases or disorders. (springer.com)
  • defects
  • For example, when they isolated 39 cells from B8 (a fast-growing clone) and 40 cells from E3 (slow growing clone), and monitored their growth from a single cell for seven days, approximately 23 percent of B8 and 50 percent of E3 cells died out within seven days, due to either damage caused during cell isolation or genetic defects. (phys.org)
  • Tsang soon hopes to apply to the U.S Food and Drug Administration for a trial that would involve using human skin cells (rather than embryonic stem cells) to correct eye defects. (washdiplomat.com)
  • However, after DNA-breaking doses of radiation, BOGA cells exhibited few chromosome defects. (phys.org)
  • BRAF mutations lead to excessive cell proliferation and survival, independent of growth factors, and are commonly found in birth defects and thyroid and skin cancers. (atcc.org)
  • The discovery that bone-marrow derived stem cells can regenerate damaged renal cells in an animal model of Alport syndrome provides a potential new strategy for managing this inherited kidney disease and offers the first example of how stem cells may be useful in repairing basement membrane matrix defects and restoring organ function. (emaxhealth.com)
  • molecules
  • The induction of a differing activity pattern of T-cell costimulatory molecules varying in capacity to override programmed death-ligand-1 inhibitory effects contributes to the respective ability of iNKT-conditioned DCs in NOD and B6 background mice to inhibit or support type 1 diabetes development. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This combination generates a nanocapsule capable of shepherding genetic or pharmaceutical molecules to a target on or within a cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • To increase our understanding of dendritic cell (DC) function we have used two approaches to search at the genetic level for molecules which are specifically expressed by these cells. (springer.com)
  • DD-PCR is a powerful technique for the identification at the RNA level of molecules which are expressed in a cell type-specific manner. (springer.com)
  • Work from our and other laboratories indicates that spermatozoa act as vectors not only of their own genome, but also of foreign genetic information , based on their spontaneous ability to take up exogenous DNA and RNA molecules that are then delivered to oocytes at fertilization with the ensuing generation of phenotypically modified animals - . (sott.net)
  • When the cells fuse, these molecules are combined to generate a final product. (phys.org)
  • In addition, faster-growing cells are bigger, so making the same number of protein molecules amounts to a smaller concentration. (healthcanal.com)
  • mutation
  • We then estimated the deleterious mutation rate and the average fitness decrease per mutation by performing computer simulations of cell growth," said author Hurng-Yi Wang. (phys.org)
  • High deleterious mutation rate would raise an impression that the HeLa cell lines may have gone extinct long ago," said Lu. (phys.org)
  • These mutation-free cells can avoid the population from extinction. (phys.org)
  • ATCC has created a list of ATCC tumor cell lines based on the gene mutation information maintained in the Sanger Institute COSMIC database. (atcc.org)
  • Tumour Cells
  • A paradigm shifting new study titled, "Soma-to-Germline Transmission of RNA in Mice Xenografted with Human Tumour Cells: Possible Transport by Exosomes," promises to overturn several core tenets of classical genetics, including collapsing the timescale necessary for the transfer of genetic information through the germline of a species (e.g. sperm) from hundreds of thousands of years to what amounts to 'real time' changes in biological systems. (sott.net)
  • somatic cells
  • The researchers concluded that their study's findings strongly suggest, "exosomes are the carriers of a flow of information from somatic cells to gametes," and that their "results indicate that somatic RNA is transferred to sperm cells, which can therefore act as the final recipients of somatic cell-derived information. (sott.net)
  • dendritic cells
  • OBJECTIVE In part, activation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT)-cells with the superagonist α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) inhibits the development of T-cell-mediated autoimmune type 1 diabetes in NOD mice by inducing the downstream differentiation of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) to an immunotolerogenic state. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Among the downstream events regulated by activated iNKT-cells is the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) that subsequently induce various adaptive immune responses ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Sallusto F., Cella M., Danieli C. and Lanzavecchia A. (1995) Dendritic cells use macropinocytosis and the mannose receptor to concentrate macromolecules in the major histocompatability complex class II compartment: downregulation by cytokines and bacterial products. (springer.com)
  • Sallusto F. and Lanzavecchia A. (1994) Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus interleukin 4 and downregulated by tumor necrosis factor a. (springer.com)
  • O'Doherty U., Steinman R.M., Peng M., Cameron P.U., Gezelter S., Kopeloff I., Swiggard W.J., Pope M. and Bhardwaj N. (1993) Dendritic cells freshly isolated from human blood express CD4 and mature into typical immunostimulatory dendritic cells after culture in monocyte-conditioned medium. (springer.com)
  • In: Ricciardi-Castagnoli P. (eds) Dendritic Cells in Fundamental and Clinical Immunology. (springer.com)
  • disease
  • In this scenario, the disease specific stem cell lines would be studied in order to better understand the disease. (bootstrike.com)
  • Many Medical researchers believe that stem cell treatments have the potential to change the face of human disease and alleviate suffering. (bootstrike.com)
  • Medical researchers believe that stem cell therapy has the potential to dramatically change the treatment of human disease. (bootstrike.com)
  • Both the inner workings of tissues and organs and their dysregulation, which leads to disease, depend on the tight web of relationships between different cell populations, and on the concerted regulation of their function mediated by genetic and environmental effects. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In January, the results of the world's first human trial using embryonic stem cells to treat eye disease appeared in the Lancet. (washdiplomat.com)
  • The trial, conducted by scientists at the Jules Stein Eye Institute at the University of California-Los Angeles and funded by California biotech firm Advanced Cell Technology, involved two female patients - an elderly woman with dry age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness in the United States, and a woman in her 50s with Stargardt disease. (washdiplomat.com)
  • Creating patient-specific cell lines that can be used to treat eye disease is one of Tsang's primary research goals. (washdiplomat.com)
  • If the disease is part of the patient's own genetic code, transplanting new corneal or retinal cells with the patient's existing genetic programming could just reintroduce the same disease. (washdiplomat.com)
  • With a condition such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), that might not even be so bad, says Dr. Lucian Del Priore, professor of clinical ophthalmology at Columbia and a noted researcher in the application of stem cell technology to eye disease. (washdiplomat.com)
  • Many patients with eye disease already receive a personalized genetic "prescription. (washdiplomat.com)
  • Sickle Cell Anemia is a lifelong disease that is inherited. (smore.com)
  • In a guest blog, Professor David Roberts from the Nuffield Division of Clinical Laboratory Sciences at Oxford University explains the role of non-DNA genetic information in disease and development. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Symptoms of Alport syndrome, the second most common genetic cause of kidney failure, usually appear in children, affecting the kidneys' filtration system and typically leading to end-stage renal disease in the patient's teens, 20s or 30s. (emaxhealth.com)
  • regulates
  • The retinoblastoma (RB1) tumor suppressor gene encodes a protein that regulates cell proliferation by controlling progression through the cell cycle, specifically through the G1 checkpoint. (atcc.org)
  • scientists
  • To get at the heart of the matter, a team of scientists from Beijing and Taipei wanted to get a new hint at cancer vulnerability from a mutational perspective by probing the most famous cultured cancer cells, HeLa cells. (phys.org)
  • In future work , the scientists want to exploit their cancer cell fitness and growth rate findings to understand how cancer cells can become even more vulnerable to recent breakthroughs with checkpoint inhibitor drugs. (phys.org)
  • In the United States, scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute,the University of California San Francisco, Stemagen (La Jolla, CA) and possibly Advanced Cell Technology are currently researching a technique to use somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce embryonic stem cells. (bootstrike.com)
  • Stem cells, however, are already used extensively in research, and some scientists do not see cell therapy as the first goal of the research, but see the investigation of stem cells as a goal worthy in itself. (bootstrike.com)
  • Led by Professor Charles Swanton, the Francis Crick Institute scientists, part-funded by Cancer Research UK, have now found two ways that cancer cells are able to survive and grow with this chaos. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using a modified version of this approach, scientists could create circuits that work together to produce biological therapeutics such as antibodies, after sensing a particular molecule emitted by a brain cell or other cell. (phys.org)
  • It could also allow scientists to pursue potentially useful applications that have been tried before but abandoned because the genetic circuits interfered with each other too much. (phys.org)
  • Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces in Potsdam and the University of California at San Diego have shown how various genetic circuits in bacterial cells are influenced by growth conditions. (healthcanal.com)
  • reveal
  • In this study, HeLa cells are not used to reveal the process of tumorigenesis but mainly a model for addressing the underlying evolutionary forces, which need to be powerful enough to measure in laboratory settings. (phys.org)
  • Professor Karen Vousden, Cancer Research UK's chief scientist, said: "These two studies reveal more about how cancer cells are able to survive with a genetic makeup that would lead to the death of normal cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cell type-specific genetic and optogenetic tools reveal hippocampal CA2 circuits. (nih.gov)
  • findings
  • The findings open an exciting avenue to explore the molecular mechanisms involved in the reformation of the nuclear compartment after cell division. (news-medical.net)
  • chromosome
  • Next, they picked about 20 cells from each of the single cell originated clones from B8 and counted their chromosome numbers. (phys.org)
  • transgenic mouse
  • Using highly cell type-specific transgenic mouse lines, optogenetics and patch-clamp recordings, we found that dentate gyrus cells, long believed to not project to CA2, send functional monosynaptic inputs to CA2 pyramidal cells through abundant longitudinal projections. (nih.gov)
  • Dynamics
  • Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales. (biologists.org)
  • cathepsin
  • These cells showed increased levels of cathepsin L and reduced amounts of 53BP1. (phys.org)
  • Eliminating cathepsin L from BOGA cells or dosing them with vitamin D, a cathepsin L inhibitor, prevented the decline in 53BP1 abundance. (phys.org)
  • Removing cathepsin L from BOGA cells increased 53BP1 levels and diminished the number of RAD51 foci. (phys.org)
  • How cancer cells boost nuclear cathepsin L levels is unclear, she notes. (phys.org)
  • For the current study, Rouge and her team conducted in vitro testing with two trigger enzymes often present in elevated concentrations in malignant cells - cathepsin B (an intracellular protease), and MMP9 (an extracellular protease). (eurekalert.org)
  • circuits
  • However, as these circuits become more complex, the genetic components can interfere with each other, making it difficult to achieve more complicated functions. (phys.org)
  • MIT researchers have now demonstrated that these circuits can be isolated within individual synthetic "cells," preventing them from disrupting each other. (phys.org)
  • The researchers can also control communication between these cells, allowing for circuits or their products to be combined at specific times. (phys.org)
  • The MIT team encapsulated their genetic circuits in droplets known as liposomes, which have a fatty membrane similar to cell membranes. (phys.org)
  • genome
  • The integrity of the genome relies on the ability of the cells to build and maintain a well-defined boundary between the nuclear compartment and the cytoplasm, known as the nuclear envelope. (news-medical.net)
  • explains
  • It also explains why, even if chemotherapy treatment successfully killed 90 percent of a cancer cell population, it may still not be enough. (phys.org)
  • We would take stem cells from the skin of patients with the most severe macular degeneration, correct the genetic defect, and re-implant them," he explains. (washdiplomat.com)
  • It's a new pathway that explains how breast cancer cells lose 53BP1," says Gonzalo. (phys.org)
  • phenotype
  • Phenotype shown of cells 7 days post transduction. (nih.gov)
  • CD27 + memory peripheral blood cells acquire a stable GC-like phenotype following transduction with BCL6 and Bcl-xL and subsequent culture. (nih.gov)
  • a ) Phenotype of BCL6+Bcl-xL transduced CD27 + memory B cells (6XL, black histogram line) compared to tonsil GC cells (GC, CD38 + CD20 + , shaded grey), tonsil naïve and memory cells (N/M, CD38 − CD20 low , red histogram), and tonsil plasma cells (PC, CD38 ++ CD20 low , blue histogram). (nih.gov)
  • BCL6+Bcl-xL transduced monoclonal cell lines show an identical phenotype (not shown). (nih.gov)
  • membranes
  • After injections of 50,000 new RPE cells into their diseased eyes, both women were doing well and the cells had attached to the eyes' membranes as doctors had hoped, although it was still too soon to say how their vision would improve, if at all. (washdiplomat.com)
  • nucleus
  • In SCNT the nucleus, which contains the organism's DNA, of a somatic cell (a body cell other than a sperm or egg cell) is removed and the rest of the cell discarded. (bootstrike.com)
  • At the same time, the nucleus of an egg cell is removed. (bootstrike.com)
  • The nucleus of the somatic cell is then inserted into the enucleated egg cell. (bootstrike.com)
  • After being inserted into the egg, the somatic cell nucleus is reprogrammed by the host cell. (bootstrike.com)
  • The egg, now containing the nucleus of a somatic cell, is stimulated with a shock and will begin to divide. (bootstrike.com)
  • Baltimore, MD- A tremendous amount of genetic material must be packed into the nucleus of every cell-a tiny compartment. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • Through in-depth analyses of DNA interactions occurring in the nuclei of cells that lack lamins, the team demonstrated that lamins maintain the relative positions of DNA segments throughout the nucleus. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • Cell fusion is a genetic engineering process in which the nucleus is removed from a plant cell and replaced by a nucleus from a different plant that might be from a different species or genera. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Cell fusion genetic engineering allowed the creation of hybrid broccoli (and other brassicas) by combining a broccoli nucleus with radish organelles. (motherearthnews.com)
  • populations
  • Expanding stem cell populations extracted from patients remains a large problem. (bootstrike.com)
  • Also, even once these populations are expanded, implanted stem cells may not expand or grow efficiently enough to add enough corrective factor to be beneficial for treatment. (bootstrike.com)
  • b ) Percentages of the individually transduced populations over time within a single non-sorted culture maintained with CD40L-L cells and IL-21. (nih.gov)
  • c ) Cultured double-transduced cells were left unsorted (left panel) or the individual populations were sorted (right panel) and cultured separately. (nih.gov)
  • cytogenetic
  • Therefore, despite single-cell origin, the progeny quickly generated aneuploidy within only 20-30 cell divisions, again illustrating frequent cytogenetic change in cancer cells. (phys.org)
  • single-cell
  • When the population size of E6 reached approximately 5 × 104 cells (15~16 divisions), five single-cell clones were generated and established in culture. (phys.org)
  • After many mitotic divisions in culture, this single cell forms a blastocyst (an early stage embryo with about 100 cells) with almost identical DNA to the original organism. (bootstrike.com)
  • In the last 10 years and more, it has become clear that many biological phenomena cannot be studied by analyzing cells in bulk and outside of their natural environment, but their underlying mechanisms can only be mechanistically investigated if observed both at the single-cell level and in situ. (cam.ac.uk)
  • They won't interfere with each other in the way they would if they were all put into a single cell or into a beaker," says Edward Boyden, an associate professor of biological engineering and brain and cognitive sciences at MIT. (phys.org)
  • lines
  • Most cell lines with growth rates (phys.org)
  • In 2005, a South Korean research team led by Professor Hwang Woo-suk, published claims to have derived stem cell lines via SCNT, but supported those claims with fabricated data. (bootstrike.com)
  • Many nations currently have moratoria on either ES cell research or the production of new ES cell lines. (bootstrike.com)
  • At Columbia, we're generating patient-specific cell lines that allow us to test hundreds of new medications," said Del Priore. (washdiplomat.com)
  • In our study, we have compared RNA from DC with RNA from a panel of leukocyte cell lines. (springer.com)
  • The focus of this study was to examine the CTC-iChip and determine if the device could properly capture CTCs to aid the formation of cell lines to represent the genetic status of all existing tumor sites. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Cell lines with longevity were successfully established from 6 patients. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Additional samples from 3 of these patients were used to set up new cell lines to track the effectiveness of therapy via tumor change. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • We generated cloned lines of B cells specific for respiratory syncytial virus and used these cells as a source of antibodies that effectively neutralized this virus in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • chemotherapy
  • During chemotherapy, most growing cells are killed by the cytotoxic agents. (bootstrike.com)
  • That might explain why cells that lack BRCA1 and eliminate 53BP1 can withstand traditional chemotherapy compounds and PARP inhibitors, a new generation of anti- cancer drugs that are in clinical trials. (phys.org)
  • With this systemic means of delivery often come widespread adverse effects that can sometimes be worse than the illness being treated - a fact that is particularly true in the case of chemotherapy, which is designed to kill cells but cannot distinguish between those that are healthy and those that are diseased. (eurekalert.org)
  • synthetic
  • There, they bind to corresponding SNAREs found on surfaces of other liposomes, causing the synthetic cells to fuse. (phys.org)
  • pancreatic
  • iNKT-conditioned DCs in NOD mice preferentially accumulated in pancreatic lymph nodes where some diabetogenic T-cells subsequently underwent apoptotic deletion, but with a larger proportion becoming functionally anergized ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Color-coding cancer and stromal cells with genetic reporters in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model of pancreatic cancer enhances f. (nih.gov)
  • nuclear
  • Process of Therapetic Cloning - Somatic cell nuclear transfer can create clones for both reproductive and therapeutic purposes. (bootstrike.com)
  • But this research team, led by Carnegie's Yixian Zheng, showed that when cells are lacking in lamins, changes in how the DNA on the nuclear periphery is packaged alter the structural positions of DNA segments in the nuclear interior. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • A new study, led by Leandro Ventimiglia in Professor Juan Martin-Serrano's lab of the School of Immunology & Microbial Sciences, characterizes the cellular machinery required to organize the reformation of the nuclear envelope after cell division, providing new insights into the mechanisms used by the cells to faithfully transmit its genetic information to the next generation. (news-medical.net)
  • CC2D1B is necessary to organize the timely recruitment of the components required to build and seal the nuclear envelope around the DNA during the latest stages of cell division. (news-medical.net)
  • Graphical representation of how lack of CC2D1B causes weakened nuclear envelope during cell division. (news-medical.net)
  • It contains the mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA from one cell and the nuclear DNA from a different one. (motherearthnews.com)
  • abundant
  • Right: When nutrients are abundant, the cell increases in size, which leads to a decrease in the regulator (green). (healthcanal.com)
  • bacterial
  • As a demonstration, the researchers created a circuit that uses bacterial genetic parts to respond to a molecule known as theophylline, a drug similar to caffeine. (phys.org)
  • clones
  • We examined variation in growth rate among individual HeLa cells by monitoring clones from a common ancestral HeLa cell population," said corresponding author Xuemei Lu. (phys.org)
  • molecule
  • Invariant natural killer T (iNKT)-cells are a small regulatory lymphocyte subset characterized by their unique ability to recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like CD1d molecule ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The NAN enables both a small molecule drug and a nucleic acid - RNA or DNA - to be delivered to a cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • When this molecule is present, it triggers another molecule known as doxycycline to leave the liposome and enter another set of liposomes containing a mammalian genetic circuit. (phys.org)
  • Transmission
  • The new study, however, has uncovered a novel mechanism through which somatic-to-germline transmission of genetic information is made possible. (sott.net)
  • Nonetheless, as the authors of the new study point out, until their study, "no instance of transmission of DNA- or RNA-mediated information from somatic to germ cells has been reported as yet. (sott.net)