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  • mice
  • Cell number is considered the main determinant of organ size, and differences in cell number explain much of the size difference between organisms, such as mice and humans. (fightaging.org)
  • The current consensus is that postnatal growth of the pancreas, in mice and by extension also in humans, relies on simple duplication of differentiated cells, consistent with the classic description of the pancreas as an "expanding tissue. (fightaging.org)
  • Acinar cells of the salivary glands present a similar trend, namely larger cells in mice compared with humans. (fightaging.org)
  • Because their growth is sustained by the persistent EC cell component ( Stevens and Little, 1954 ), teratocarcinomas can be serially transplanted between mice. (biologists.org)
  • We further show that the localization of Syne-1 to the NE of muscle cells is disrupted in Sun1 / 2 DKO mice. (pnas.org)
  • Each muscle fiber contains a neuromuscular junction (NMJ) that starts to form at approximately embryonic day 14 (E14) in mice ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • A line of mice has been generated in which the cells of the germ lineage express the beta-galactosidase reporter gene during embryogenesis. (ehu.es)
  • Here, we show that CCRL1 is expressed within the thymic cortex, predominantly by MHC-II(low)CD40(-) cortical thymic epithelial cells and at the subcapsular zone by a population of podoplanin(+) thymic epithelial cells in mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • To investigate the roles of mammalian Sal-related genes in organogenesis, the researchers studied mice carrying mutations in these genes. (biologists.org)
  • In 1978, he returned to the University of Cambridge and it was here that he discovered embryonic stem cells in mice with his collaborator Dr Matthew Kaufman in 1981. (bbc.co.uk)
  • tissue
  • Induction of cancer cell EMT generates rare transitory mesenchymal cells that support tumor growth, remodel the tumor microenvironment, and facilitate tissue invasiveness and metastasis. (springer.com)
  • However, differences between ES cells and primitive ectoderm cells have caused developmental biologists to question whether ES cells really have an in vivo equivalent, or whether their properties merely reflect their tissue culture environment. (biologists.org)
  • However, this term was never adopted, and the extent to which these pluripotent stem cell lines represent any specific embryonic cell type or reflect their artificial tissue culture environment is still an open issue today - two decades later. (biologists.org)
  • A material based on a natural product of bones and citrus fruit, called citrate, provides the extra energy that stem cells need to form new bone tissue, according to a team of Penn State bioengineers. (news-medical.net)
  • Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales. (biologists.org)
  • Nicolas Rivron is a stem cell biologist and a tissue engineer. (hubrecht.eu)
  • Scientist at the department of Tissue Regeneration, MIRA Institute (University of Twente) and Hubrecht Institute for developmental biology and stem cell research. (hubrecht.eu)
  • developmental
  • Gastrulation and later stages of histo- and organogenesis depend on changes in developmental stage, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereby adherent cells disintegrate their intercellular contacts, organize their motility apparatus, and move to new locations in the developing body. (springer.com)
  • Dr. Wu also conduct research in cardiac developmental biology/congenital heart disease, stem cell biology and translation of stem cells into new treatments for congenital heart disease, adult heart failure and rhythm disorders. (stanford.edu)
  • Over the past decade, considerable attention has been focused on using stem cell-derived MNs to model disease pathogenesis, driven by demonstrations that mouse and human embryonic stem cells (mESCs and hESCs) can be directed to form MNs in response to developmental signals that promote MN formation in vivo - . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Principal investigator at the Hubrecht Institute for developmental biology and stem cell research. (hubrecht.eu)
  • CARLSON (1994): According to the inside-outside hypothesis, the position of a blastomere determines its developmental fate (i.e., whether it will become part of the inner cell mass or trophoblast). (lifeissues.net)
  • Despite their simplicity, these minimal intercellular programs were sufficient to yield assemblies with hallmarks of natural developmental systems: robust self-organization into multidomain structures, well-choreographed sequential assembly, cell type divergence, symmetry breaking, and the capacity for regeneration upon injury. (sciencemag.org)
  • (B) Subset of cell surface markers used in the characterization of this developmental process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • molecular
  • Despite the major differences in final size among mammalian species, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying organ growth are usually thought to be highly similar. (fightaging.org)
  • A molecular pathway that's frequently mutated in many different forms of cancer becomes active when cells push parts of their membranes outward into bulging protrusions, Johns Hopkins researchers report in a new study. (news-medical.net)
  • This review will highlight recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that impact mitochondrial form and the integration of these mechanisms with one another and with cellular function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Scientists who recently identified the molecular start of Alzheimer's disease have used that finding to determine that it should be possible to forecast which type of dementia will develop over time - a form of personalized medicine for neurodegenerative diseases. (multibriefs.com)
  • contrast
  • In contrast to multipotent stem cells (including mesenchymal stem cells or MSCs), pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are intrinsically able to self-renew indefinitely and to give rise to virtually all cell types in the body, features that provide distinct advantages in relation to regenerative medicine applications and for which PSCs have been the subject of intense research over the past 30 years. (frontiersin.org)
  • By contrast, expanding a population of embryonic stem cells while maintaining the cells in an undifferentiated and pluripotent state would allow several thousand patients to be treated with cells isolated from a single fetus. (google.es)
  • A research team has created a system that uses a convolutional neural network to learn the features distinguishing different cancer cells, based on images from a phase-contrast microscope. (multibriefs.com)
  • species
  • Why Would Pancreatic Cell Size Correlate Well with Mammalian Species Longevity? (fightaging.org)
  • Researchers recently found that the size of pancreatic cells is inversely correlated with species longevity, given data obtained from a few dozen different types of mammal. (fightaging.org)
  • However, within a given species, different organs vary considerably in the relative contribution of cell number and cell size to total organ size. (fightaging.org)
  • Finally, we identify a surprising negative correlation between acinar cell size and organismal lifespan, based on analysis of 24 mammalian species. (fightaging.org)
  • Although to a more limited extent, iPSCs have also been generated from horses, a species in which, after humans, these cells are likely to hold the greatest potential in regenerative medicine. (frontiersin.org)
  • It could also assist with the derivation of ES cells from species whose ES cells have proved difficult to isolate. (biologists.org)
  • fibers
  • The nuclei in the muscle fibers are positioned in a nonrandom manner, with 3-8 nuclei (synaptic nuclei) clustered beneath each NMJ and other nuclei (nonsynaptic nuclei) distributed evenly along the cell membrane ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • signals
  • Cilia and flagella act as sensory organelles, allowing cells to perceive extracellular signals and execute signal transduction ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The ability of these networks to drive complex structure formation illustrates the power of interlinking cell signaling with cell sorting: Signal-induced spatial reorganization alters the local signals received by each cell, resulting in iterative cycles of cell fate branching. (sciencemag.org)
  • other channels sense the concentration of physiological signals and modulate key processes in all kinds of eukaryotic cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • structures
  • Both insect and mammalian cells are able to generate a full range of post-translational modification, with the one exception being that N-linked glycosylation in insect cells is less complicated, thereby restricted to simpler, mostly mannose structures unless the cell has been modified with additional enzymes to create mammalian-type structures in a system known as SweetBac. (samedanltd.com)
  • somatic
  • The mammalian ovary is composed of ovarian follicles, each follicle consisting of a single oocyte surrounded by somatic granulosa cells, enclosed together within a basement membrane. (jove.com)
  • Biology
  • Cohen, a Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and of Physics, is the lead author of a new study that upends the conventional theories about the fluid nature of cell membranes and how they react to tension. (news-medical.net)
  • Our group gathers scientists and engineers whose research is grounded in basic stem cell biology and in technological/computational approaches including microsystems, synthetic biology tools, single cell genomic, and high-content imaging. (hubrecht.eu)
  • tumor
  • In that sense, cancer cells undergoing EMT have some of the capacities that one would expect from the so-called "tumor-initiating cells. (springer.com)
  • Recently, there has been an increased awareness of the importance of lymphatic vessels in many common pathological conditions, such as tumor cell dissemination and chronic inflammation. (rupress.org)
  • Shortly
  • Shortly after fertilization, a mammalian egg begins to divide into identical, totipotent cells. (google.es)
  • By or shortly after birth, mammalian ovaries contain their lifetime's supply of primordial follicles, from which point onwards there is a steady release of follicles into the growing follicular pool. (jove.com)