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  • bone marrow-derived
  • Although in lethally irradiated mice, bone marrow-derived SCs replenish the depleted satellite cell pool and subsequently incorporate effectively into exercised skeletal muscle ( 9 ), less is known about the ability of bone-marrow-derived SCs to ameliorate muscle damage under more clinically relevant conditions. (pnas.org)
  • Indeed, the transplantation of bone marrow-derived SCs into the mdx dystrophic mouse model had a limited impact on muscle cell replacement ( 10 ), suggesting that the poor recruitment of circulating SCs is one of the limiting factors for tissue repair ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Antibody
  • This first-in-class antibody against the CD29 molecule blocks Ebola virus entry into human cells in laboratory models. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • with infusion of saline alone (S), saline with non-specific antibodies (S-N), saline with PAPII alone (S-P), and saline with anti-Reg I alone (S-R). Anti-Reg/PAP Antibody for Administration Monoconal anti-Reg I antibody was purified from mouse ascites fluid after immunization with a Reg I producing hybridoma cell line . (world-of-links.com)
  • mice
  • Although we did not observe differences in the numbers of quiescent Pax7 + satellite cells in adult uninjured hindlimb muscles, we did observe a significant reduction in the number of proliferating Pax7 + cells in the Id-mutant mice after muscle injury compared with either wild-type or Id3-null mice. (physiology.org)
  • Reducing the number of muscle stem cells in the mice while these broken connections were healing further weakened the muscles. (elifesciences.org)
  • But in the Smurf-deficient mice, the hair cells looked like they were laid by a drunken mason. (technologynetworks.com)
  • We have previously reported that postmitotic expression of a local isoform of insulin-like growth factor 1 (mIGF-1) induces myocyte hypertrophy ( 16 ), increases mass and strength of postnatal muscle, and preserves regenerative capacity in senescent and dystrophic mice ( 17 - 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • The SP from bone marrow cells was isolated from femur and tibia of 8-week-old c -kit / GFP transgenic mice by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. (pnas.org)
  • WT and MLC / mIgf-1 transgenic recipient mice were lethally irradiated with 9.8 Gy, and each recipient received 1 × 10 3 SP-derived-c -kit / GFP cells by tail-vein injection. (pnas.org)
  • Recipient mice also received 1.5 × 10 5 non-SP cells isolated from WT mice. (pnas.org)
  • These myoendothelial cells regenerate myofibers in the injured skeletal muscle of severe combined immunodeficiency mice more effectively than CD56+ myogenic progenitors. (pitt.edu)
  • A thousand myoendothelial cells transplanted into the injured skeletal muscle of immunodeficient mice produced, on average, 89 muscle fibers, compared with nine and five muscle fibers for endothelial and satellite cells, respectively. (pitt.edu)
  • myofiber
  • This results in the transformation of individual satellite cells into a syncytial contractile myofiber. (nih.gov)
  • molecular
  • Although it is well known that the number of satellite cells increases following physical exercise, functional alterations in satellite cells such as proliferative capacity and differentiation efficiency following exercise and their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. (hindawi.com)
  • These results indicate the effects of resistance exercise on the regulation of satellite cells and provide insight into the molecular mechanism of satellite cell activation following physical exercise. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms by which exercise-stimulating extracellular factors control the satellite cell activation and differentiation remain unclear. (hindawi.com)
  • For the last half century, the advance of molecular biology, cell biology, and genetics has greatly improved our understanding of skeletal muscle biology. (nih.gov)
  • In this chapter, I outline what is known about the molecular pathology of FSHD and discuss several gene therapy approaches to interrupting the cycle of DUX4 expression and muscle cell death. (springer.com)
  • embryos
  • In the normal embryos, the hair cells were all pointing the same way in a beautiful array," Wrana says. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The 'neural plate border' of vertebrate embryos contains precursors of neural crest and placode cells, both defining vertebrate characteristics. (elifesciences.org)
  • We address this by performing a fine-scale quantitative temporal analysis of transcription factor expression in the neural plate border of chick embryos. (elifesciences.org)
  • Whereas basal chordate embryos possess a sharp demarcation between presumptive neural and epidermal fates at this border, much less in known about how cell fates as disparate as neural crest, placode and CNS cells become segregated at the neural plate border of vertebrate embryos. (elifesciences.org)
  • To this end, we performed quantitative analysis of the transcription factors Sox2, Pax7, Msx1/2, Tfap2a and Six1 in neural plate border cells of chick embryos as a function of time. (elifesciences.org)
  • neural
  • Cell fate analysis using a Sox2 (neural) enhancer reveals that cells that are initially Sox2+ cells can contribute not only to neural tube but also to neural crest and epidermis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Moreover, modulating levels of Sox2 or Pax7 alters the apportionment of neural tube versus neural crest fates. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our results resolve a long-standing question and suggest that many individual border cells maintain ability to contribute to multiple ectodermal lineages until or beyond neural tube closure. (elifesciences.org)
  • Evolution of vertebrates is intimately linked to the advent of two embryonic cell types: neural crest and ectodermal placode cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Neural crest cells differentiate into sensory and autonomic ganglia, pigment cells and elements of the craniofacial skeleton, whereas ectodermal placodes give rise to the ear, nose, lens and sensory ganglia of the head. (elifesciences.org)
  • Finally, it is possible that individual neural plate border cells initially are naïve and capable of giving rise to all ectodermal lineages. (elifesciences.org)
  • This results in DiI-labeled cells localized to multiple tissues (e.g. epidermis, neural tube, neural crest and placode). (elifesciences.org)
  • These studies confirmed that the neural plate border region contributes to a mixture of cell fates. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, DiI labeling typically labels small numbers (10-50) of cells, thus leaving open the question of whether the neural plate border contains multipotent and/or intermixed, fate restricted cells and their relative positions. (elifesciences.org)
  • these studies did not examine early neural plate border stages or the relationship between different transcription factors in the border region. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here, we characterize dynamic changes in neural plate border cells at high resolution and at the single cell level in the anterior neural plate border of the early chick embryo. (elifesciences.org)
  • Genes
  • Two critical genes that serve as beacons and give cells a much needed sense of direction in the chaotic days of early development have been identified by researchers at the University of Toronto . (technologynetworks.com)
  • Our experimental results were unexpected, but also exciting because they suggest the Smurf genes are coordinating different types of cell polarity," said Jeffrey L. Wrana. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In the past decade, Wrana has helped identify the importance of two Smurf genes (Smurf stands for Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor) in helping cells move and distinguish top from bottom. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Cells rely on cues from their neighbors to sense this kind of orientation, and Wrana has been trying to understand how the Smurf genes facilitate the process. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Our results were unexpected, but also exciting because they suggest the Smurf genes are coordinating different types of cell polarity," says Wrana, who also works at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto. (technologynetworks.com)
  • This disruption suggested the Smurf genes were critical for planar cell polarity. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Wrana found that the Smurf genes actually create this lopsidedness by destroying Prickle on one side of the cell. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The formation of mature muscle proceeds with the exit of MBs from the cell cycle, the expression of muscle‐specific genes, and the suppression of genes that are specific to other cell lineages and tissues ( Buckingham, 2006 ). (embopress.org)
  • satellite
  • Here, we found that functional overload, which is widely used to model resistance exercise, causes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and converts satellite cells from quiescent state to activated state. (hindawi.com)
  • The changes in satellite cell properties coincided with the inactivation of Notch signaling and the activation of Wnt signaling and likely involve modulation by transcription factors of the Sox family. (hindawi.com)
  • Exercise positively affects muscle fiber composition via regulation of satellite cells to improve muscle performance. (hindawi.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that the number of satellite cells is increased by long-term or acute exercise training in humans and animals [ 4 , 5 ] and decreases during aging in conjunction with a reduction in the muscle quality and functional potential [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Satellite cells can be mitotically quiescent or in an activated proliferative state during skeletal muscle turnover. (hindawi.com)
  • There have been few studies examining functional alterations in satellite cells such as proliferative capacity and differentiation efficiency following exercise. (hindawi.com)
  • Physical exercise induces changes in extracellular signaling in skeletal muscle that affect satellite cells. (hindawi.com)
  • These data suggest a model in which BMP signaling regulates Id1 and Id3 in muscle satellite cells, which directs their proper proliferation before terminal myogenic differentiation after skeletal muscle injury in postnatal animals. (physiology.org)
  • To cope with this, it possesses a tremendous capacity for rapid and effective repair that is widely held to be accomplished by the satellite cells lying between the muscle fiber plasmalemma and the basement membrane. (biologists.org)
  • Characteristics of the satellite cell. (nih.gov)
  • the satellite cell population is heterogeneous and can be classified in a hierarchical manner based on function and gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Functional differences in regenerative potential exist between satellite stem cells and satellite myogenic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Satellite cell activation, differentiation, and fusion. (nih.gov)
  • Initially satellite cells are mitotically quiescent (G 0 phase) and reside in a sublaminar niche. (nih.gov)
  • that is, satellite cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Skeletal muscles serve as a niche not only for satellite cells but also for a few other populations of stem cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because of these two distinct features, satellite cells are defined as bona fide adult stem cells. (hindawi.com)
  • however muscle stem cells (satellite cells, SCs), are deemed to have little impact on these processes. (elifesciences.org)
  • This observation suggests competition for DNA binding sites in satellite cells might limit muscle repair and may be one aspect of DUX4-associated myotoxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous work showed that murine Megf10 is required for preserving the undifferentiated, proliferative potential of satellite cells, myogenic precursors that regenerate skeletal muscle in response to injury or disease. (springer.com)
  • The satellite cells are also essential for muscle fibre hypertrophy and maintenance of muscle mass in the adult. (diva-portal.org)
  • Upon re-examination of biopsies from power-lifters, power-lifters using anabolic substances and untrained subjects it was observed that the new results on satellite cell frequency were significantly different from those obtained when using staining for NCAM and nuclei alone. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition three subtypes of satellite cells (94.4% NCAM + /Pax7 + , 4.2% NCAM + /Pax7 - and 1.4% NCAM - /Pax7 + ) were observed. (diva-portal.org)
  • Thus the multiple marker method gave more information about satellite cells heterogeneity in human muscle and we propose that this is more reliable than previous methods. (diva-portal.org)
  • Therefore, expansion of human satellite cells for therapeutic purposes has not been successful so far. (jain-foundation.org)
  • Despite their desirable properties primary satellite cells will hardly become available in very high numbers necessary to repopulate large limb muscles for therapeutic purposes. (jain-foundation.org)
  • We therefore aim to compare the regenerative capacity of primary human satellite cells to myocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells subsequent to the same preconditioning procedure. (jain-foundation.org)
  • Myoendothelial cells taken from the blood vessels are much more efficient at forming muscle than other sources of stem cells known as satellite and endothelial cells. (pitt.edu)
  • Myogenic stem cells, commonly referred to as satellite cells, are responsible for muscle growth and repair in adults. (ufl.edu)
  • We then asked whether the intrinsic changes within an aged satellite cell would cause alteration in regenerative capacity in equine. (ufl.edu)
  • In vitro studies with primary satellite cell cultures under standard conditions suggest that satellite cells isolated from aged horses displayed compromised proliferative, differentiation and fusion capacity in vitro. (ufl.edu)
  • In line with compromised myogenic potential of aged muscle-derived satellite cells, there were age-related alterations in mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy pathways, with satellite cells derived from TRI being more susceptible to impairments with age. (ufl.edu)
  • regenerative
  • Trainees and HQP interested in connecting with experts and leaders the field of stem cells and regenerative medicine should gather in the Governor General III Room for this valuable networking and career building event. (cvent.com)
  • and 3) examine differences in the intrinsic regenerative capacity of muscle stem cells isolated from skeletal muscle of young and aged horses. (ufl.edu)
  • lineages
  • During developmental processes, in response to external cues, changes in chromatin involving activation and repression of transcription factors and chromatin regulators (e.g., chromatin-modifying enzymes) underlie commitment of specific cells to defined lineages. (hindawi.com)
  • The results reveal significant overlap of transcription factors characteristic of multiple lineages in individual border cells from gastrula through neurula stages. (elifesciences.org)
  • planar cell pol
  • A better understanding of this phenomenon, called planar cell polarity, may also help scientists learn how improper cellular orientation can lead to spina bifida, polycystic kidney disease, and metastatic cancer. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Researchers had known that Wnt signaling helps establish planar cell polarity, so Wrana investigated whether Smurfs were involved, too. (technologynetworks.com)
  • To do their job, hair cells must line up neatly in a hexagonal pattern, like paving stones on a cobblestone street-a pattern made possible by planar cell polarity. (technologynetworks.com)
  • This lopsidedness appears critical for planar cell polarity. (technologynetworks.com)
  • histone
  • the interaction links PAX7 to a WDR5-containing histone methyltransferase complex (By similarity). (genecards.org)