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  • CTLs
  • Increase of the expression of MHC-I molecule can be of therapeutic significance since it makes tumor cells more susceptible to lysis by CTLs [ 4 , 5 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Tumor associated antigens expressed by malignant cells are transported by TAP-1 and TAP-2 into the endoplasmic reticulum and loaded onto MHC-I, then translocate to the cell surface to present to CD8 + CTLs. (jcancer.org)
  • The antigens recognized on target cells by CTLs are "pepMHC" complexes, i.e., short peptides bound to protein products of class I major histocompatibility (MHC) genes. (pnas.org)
  • lymphoid organs
  • We demonstrate that although MDSCs from peripheral lymphoid organs and the tumor site share similar phenotype and morphology, these cells display profound functional differences. (rupress.org)
  • MDSC from peripheral lymphoid organs suppressed antigen-specific CD8 + T cells but failed to inhibit nonspecific T cell function. (rupress.org)
  • macrophages
  • APCs with the potential to express IDO include human monocyte-derived macrophages ( 11 ), human monocyte-derived dendritic cells cultured under specific conditions ( 12 - 19 ), and certain subsets of murine dendritic cells ( 20 - 25 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 3 A number of immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that the immune cell infiltrate of many germ cell tumors includes substantial yet variable numbers of T cells, macrophages, and B cells ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast to MDSC from the spleen, MDSC from the tumor site rapidly differentiated into macrophages. (rupress.org)
  • Exposure of spleen MDSC to hypoxia resulted in the conversion of these cells to nonspecific suppressors and their preferential differentiation to macrophages. (rupress.org)
  • myeloid cells
  • Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) represent a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells with major regulatory functions and rise during pathological conditions, including cancer, infections and autoimmune conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Inability to reinstate physiological myelopoiesis would fall in an "emergency state" that perpetually reprograms myeloid cells toward suppressive functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Immunologic stress, such as infection and cancer, modifies the magnitude and composition of the hematopoietic output, a feature of immune regulation defined as "emergency" hematopoiesis, to guarantee proper supply of both lymphoid and myeloid cells to increased demand ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This highly coordinated process is orchestrated by cytokines and growth factors, which act through activation of specific transcription factors that differentially drive terminal differentiation of myeloid cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, it is not known whether intratumoral DCs/myeloid cells or tumor cells can activate naive CD8 T cells within the tumor mass. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • infiltration
  • We therefore examined the ability of tumor lysate-pulsed DCs to activate peripheral tumor-reactive CTL activity and CD8+ T-cell infiltration into tumors in situ in recurrent malignant glioma patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Emerging data suggest that epigenetic modulation is important for controlling T cells infiltration and differentiation [ 10 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • murine
  • In that study, the combination of 1-methyl-tryptophan with cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, doxorubicin, or paclitaxel was able to cause regression of established tumors in a demanding model of autochthonous HER-2/ neu -induced murine breast cancers ( 33 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • infiltrate
  • A significant CD8+ T-cell infiltrate was noted intratumorally in three of six patients who underwent reoperation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Like several other tumor types, germ cell tumors often harbor an immune cell infiltrate that can include substantial numbers of B cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • To gain a deeper understanding of the role B cells play in this tumor family, we characterized the immune cell infiltrate of all three germ cell tumor subtypes and defined the molecular characteristics of the B cell Ag receptor expressed by tumor-associated B cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • To investigate these possibilities, we looked for evidence of an Ag-driven immune response within the tumor tissue by examining the nature of the B cell infiltrate in germ cell tumors using immunohistochemistry and then undertaking a molecular characterization of the B cell and plasma cell Ig repertoire. (jimmunol.org)
  • responses
  • Our findings provide mechanistic evidence that PVSRIPO functions as a potent intratumor immune adjuvant that generates tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. (sciencemag.org)
  • It is generally admitted that CD8 + T cells are directly involved in antitumor cytotoxic responses. (jcancer.org)
  • And, perhaps in a more radical shift, the goal of the therapy is not to activate the immune system to attack particular targets on tumor cells, but rather to remove inhibitory pathways that block effective antitumor T cell responses. (sciencemag.org)
  • These targeted therapies have led to promising clinical responses, albeit generally of short duration, in patients whose tumors express the appropriate target biomarker. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, this recognition was imperfect, or the tumor would have regressed on its own, and the degree and durability of the responses were infrequently satisfactory, whether due to induced tolerance or antigen modulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • But, presentation of tumor antigen does not generally trigger productive responses of naïve T cells, due to a lack of co-stimulatory signals ( 8 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • By introducing a nominal CD8 T cell epitope into a spontaneous mouse prostate cancer model, we investigated CTL responses to tumor antigens at different T cell functional stages. (pnas.org)
  • necrotic
  • PDT treatment resulted in the induction of apoptotic and necrotic cell death and expression of HSP27, HSP60, HSP72/73, HSP90, HO-1, and GRP78 in C-26 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • suppressor cells
  • The immune control or progressive growth of the tumor depends upon many factors including strength of the cellular immune response (degree of sensitization of lymphoid cells), "sneaking through" or appearance of serum blocking factor (1, 3-5), and suppressor cells (6-8). (springer.com)
  • Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a major component of the immune-suppressive network described in cancer and many other pathological conditions. (rupress.org)
  • Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are one of the major components of the immune-suppressive network responsible for T cell defects in cancer. (rupress.org)
  • secrete
  • Tandem T cells secrete high levels of interleukin-2 and IFNγ on tumor contact that first-generation T cells lacked, but secretion was exhaustible, suggesting a need for interleukin-2 supplementation in therapy even for these second-generation agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • differentiation
  • Under steady-state conditions, myelopoiesis is a strictly regulated process that consists of a series of cell lineage commitments, encompassing sequential steps of differentiation that govern the transition of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to myeloid precursors and then to mature immune cells, which is necessary to maintain the physiological levels of circulating neutrophils and monocytes ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)