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  • primary tumor
  • Comparative analysis between the primary tumor (PT, n=27 patients), circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA, n=31 patients), single (n=146 CTCs) and pools (n=70 CTC suspensions, ranging 5-120 cells/suspension) of CTCs from 26 patients and metastases/DTCs (n=11 patients) was performed. (oatext.com)
  • Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cells that have shed into the vasculature or lymphatics from a primary tumor and are carried around the body in the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern cancer research has demonstrated that CTCs derive from clones in the primary tumor, validating Ashworth's remarks. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Through cycloheximide research, we discovered that g53 proteins half-life was much longer in Dox+ cells likened to Dox? (bostonscienceandengineeringlectures.com)
  • cells (Fig. 3b), but Pict1 insufficiency had no impact on g21 proteins half-life (data not really shown). (bostonscienceandengineeringlectures.com)
  • Research using the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 demonstrated that the boost in g53 proteins half-life was credited to security from proteasomal destruction (Fig. 3c), recommending that the raised p53 variety in Pict1-lacking cells is certainly not really credited to transcriptional results. (bostonscienceandengineeringlectures.com)
  • We are currently focusing on identifying the target proteins the mediate the anti-proliferative signaling by artemisinin and assessing the synergistic anti-proliferative effects of combinations of artemisinin and other anti-cancer phytochemicals on human reproductive cancer cells both in cellular and in vivo contexts. (berkeley.edu)
  • Using functional annotation, we found that proteins belonging to pathways associated with regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, EGF/EGFR, TGF-β, MAPK signaling, integrin-mediated cell adhesion, and lipid metabolism were significantly enriched in the OA samples (p ≤10 −5 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In EMT, tumor cells would down regulate their epithelial proteins such as E-cadherin and cytokeratins (CKs) and increase expression of mesenchymal proteins like α-SMA and fibronectin [ 2 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • At the hemidesmosome, plectin and BPAG1 associate with transmembrane proteins α6β4 integrin, a type of cell adhesion molecule, and BP180/collagen XVII, linking K5/K14 filaments in the basal cells to the basal lamina. (wikipedia.org)
  • LPS stimulation induces a series of interactions with several accessory proteins which form the TLR4 complex on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different ECM proteins (such as collagen, elastin, fibronectin, laminin, and others) allow cells to adhere and migrate, while forming focal adhesions in the front and disassembling them in the back. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can be guided by a gradient of those proteins (haptotaxis) or a gradient of soluble substrates in the liquid phase surrounding the cell (chemotaxis). (wikipedia.org)
  • The contacts (cell-junctions) are created by transmembrane glycoproteins named cadherins (E-cadherin, N-cadherin or cadherin 11) and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • First, cytotoxic drugs that act on differentiated and proliferating tumor cells and which, per se , may promote induction of EMT or autophagy in surviving tumor cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our studies showed that the level of brachyury expression directly correlates with resistance to cytotoxic treatments and that treatment in vitro or in vivo with cycles of chemotherapy selects for a population of highly mesenchymal, invasive and brachyury positive tumor cells. (cancer.gov)
  • lung
  • LCLC-RP were first recognized as a distinct entity under the 3rd (published in 1999) revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) lung tumor histological typing scheme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies have shown beyond doubt that the old classification paradigm of "small cell carcinoma vs. non-small cell carcinoma" is now obsolete, and that the correct "subclassification" of lung cancer cases is necessary to assure that patients receive optimum management. (wikipedia.org)
  • While occasional scattered rhabdoid cell formation occurs with considerable frequency in lung carcinomas, this is not considered to be of clinical significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to current classification criteria, a tumor can only be diagnosed as LCLC-RP when an undifferentiated large-cell lung carcinoma contains a rhabdoid cell component that makes up at least 10% of the tumor mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Giant-cell carcinoma of the lung (GCCL) is a rare histological form of large-cell lung carcinoma, a subtype of undifferentiated lung cancer, traditionally classified within the non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it is common in the lung cancer literature to refer to histologically mixed tumors containing significant numbers of malignant giant cells as "giant-cell carcinomas", technically a diagnosis of "giant-cell carcinoma" should be limited strictly to neoplasms containing only malignant giant cells (i.e. "pure" giant-cell carcinoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in a more recent series of 4,212 consecutive lung cancer cases, only one (0.024%) lesion was determined to be a "pure" giant-cell carcinoma after complete sectioning of all available tumor tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • This early use of electrospun fibrous lattices for cell culture and tissue engineering showed that various cell types including Human Foreskin Fibroblasts (HFF), transformed Human Carcinoma (HEp-2), and Mink Lung Epithelium (MLE) would adhere to and proliferate upon the fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, epithelial tumors, such as breast, colon, small cell lung and renal cell carcinomas, as well as T-cell leukemia cells, were completely unresponsive to treatment with betulinic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sentinel" Circulating Tumor Cells Allow Early Diagnosis of Lung Cancer in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Our laboratory has identified the T-box transcription factor brachyury as a novel tumor antigen, a driver of human tumor EMT and drug resistance, and a target for T-cell mediated immunotherapy. (cancer.gov)
  • Typically, markers expressed in LCLC-RP include those seen in "generic" NSCLC's, such as epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, 61%), various cytokeratins (CK's, 80%), and markers associated with the underlying "parent" pulmonary carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • We also demonstrated that brachyury plays a role in mechanisms of tumor resistance to conventional therapies, including chemotherapy and radiation. (cancer.gov)
  • Additional studies will be required to determine the association between EMT and immune escape mechanisms in other tumor types. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The biologic determinants of the different pathways used by tumor cells to evade immunity are not completely understood but are likely related with the balance between tumor antigenic load and the presence of adaptive immunosuppressive mechanisms. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Artemisinin induces a cell cycle arrest of both early stage and late stage human breast cancer cells and human prostate cancer cells through distinct mechanisms. (berkeley.edu)
  • Cell-cell communication mechanisms are widely studied experimentally (in vivo and in vitro), and computationally (in silico). (wikipedia.org)
  • P27 can also be regulated by changing its subcellular location Both mechanisms act to reduce levels of p27, allowing for the activation of Cdk1 and Cdk2, and for the cell to begin progressing through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Snail and Slug are known to regulate the expression of p63 isoforms, another transcription factor that is required for proper development of epithelial structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies are under broad investigation for applications in tissue repair but suffer from poor cell persistence and engraftment upon transplantation. (bostonscienceandengineeringlectures.com)
  • In mice T is expressed in the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage embryo (but not in the majority of mouse embryonic stem cells) followed by the primitive streak (see image). (wikipedia.org)
  • As CSCs form a small proportion of the tumor, this may not necessarily select for drugs that act specifically on the stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer stem cells were first identified by John Dick in acute myeloid leukemia in the late 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cancer stem cell model, also known as the Hierarchical Model proposes that tumors are hierarchically organized (CSCs lying at the apex (Fig. 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the cancer population of the tumors there are cancer stem cells (CSC) that are tumorigenic cells and are biologically distinct from other subpopulations They have two defining features: their long-term ability to self-renew and their capacity to differentiate into progeny that is non-tumorigenic but still contributes to the growth of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion molecule
  • EMT-induced modulation of E-cadherin and cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) mediated increased susceptibility to NK cytotoxicity. (jci.org)
  • Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a transmembrane glycoprotein mediating Ca2+-independent homotypic cell-cell adhesion in epithelia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it is identified as a cell adhesion molecule, EpCAM does not structurally resemble any of the four major families of cell adhesion molecules, namely cadherins, integrins, selectins, and members of the immunoglobulin super-family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that over-express brachyury have down-regulated expression of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin, which allows them to undergo EMT. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • The aim of this article is to inform readers of novel and evolving concepts regarding early detection of tumor recurrence. (jcancer.org)
  • Thus, we identify a novel tumor suppressor mechanism in the mammalian intestine that arises from the posttranslational regulation of FBW7 by USP9X independent of somatic FBW7 mutations. (jci.org)
  • clonal
  • Further, it is suggested that original reports of maspin as a tumor suppressor may reflect clonal artefacts rather than true maspin function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clonal evolution model, which occurs in both the CSC model and stochastic model, postulates that mutant tumor cells with a growth advantage outproliferate others. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two models are not mutually exclusive, as CSCs themselves undergo clonal evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • antitumor
  • Third inducers of autophagic cell death (autosis) in order to deplete tumor cells that are constitutively in an autophagic state or are induced to enter an autophagic state in response to antitumor therapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • extracellular matrix
  • This is a multi-step process which begins with tumor cell invasion through the extracellular matrix into the bloodstream. (abcam.com)
  • The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides not only the structural and biochemical support, but also plays a major role in regulating cell behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • polarity
  • In a complementary area of research, we have uncovered the first direct mechanistic connection between glucocorticoid receptor action and tight junction formation (and induction of cell polarity) under conditions in which mammary epithelial tumor cells undergo a stringent cell cycle arrest. (berkeley.edu)
  • Epithelial cells are closely connected to each other by tight junctions, gap junctions and adherens junctions, have an apico-basal polarity, polarization of the actin cytoskeleton and are bound by a basal lamina at their basal surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • contributes
  • Keratin intermediate filaments make up the cytoskeletal scaffold within epithelial cells, which contributes to the cell architecture and provides the cells with the ability to withstand mechanical, and non-mechanical, stresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer cells
  • Comparing normal human breast cells to human breast cancer cells with immunohistochemical staining showed that SIM2s was expressed more in the normal than the cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • The altered expression of p63 isoforms reduced cell-cell adhesion and increased the migratory properties of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of Wnt pathway in breast cancer cells induces the EMT regulator SNAIL and upregulates the mesenchymal marker, vimentin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cancer cells, EpCAM is expressed in a dispersed pattern across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The test uses an in-vitro diagnostic system developed at INSERM, the Université Paris Descartes and Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) in order to isolate cancer cells from blood without loss and identify them through a diagnostic cytopathology-based approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because ISET relies on cytopathology (i.e. specific visual identification of cancer cells) rather than isolating cells by biomarkers, its developers claim that the test has a relatively low false-positive rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, EMT entails profound morphological and phenotypic changes to a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This step occurs very early when the cell is exiting the quiescent phase and thus is independent of Skp2 degradation of p27. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristic
  • The characteristic feature of this highly lethal malignancy is the distinctive light microscopic appearance of its extremely large cells, which are bizarre and highly pleomorphic, and which often contain more than one huge, misshapen, pleomorphic nucleus ("syncytia"), which result from cell fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopic
  • The whorled eosinophilic inclusions in LCLC-RP cells give it a microscopic resemblance to malignant cells found in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a rare neoplasm arising from transformed skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Shah and Beverly, 2015 ) can induce proliferating and differentiated tumor cells to undergo either EMT or autophagy. (frontiersin.org)
  • In collaborative studies, we have developed a recombinant yeast-brachyury vector and characterized its ability to induce CD8+ and CD4+ brachyury-specific T cell-immune responses in vivo in murine models and in vitro with human cells. (cancer.gov)