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  • patient
  • The technique could potentially be used to take skin cells from a patient to create "personalised" stem cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Each of these treatments captures a patient's own tumor-fighting cells, grows them to high numbers in the lab, and infuses them back into the patient. (webmd.com)
  • Physicians could also extract DNA from the person who is going to receive the cellular transplant - creating a patient-specific treatment - though that would end up being far more expensive than drawing from a library of ready-made cells. (wunc.org)
  • Scientists
  • Eighteen years ago, scientists in Scotland took the nuclear DNA from the cell of an adult sheep and put it into another sheep's egg cell that had been emptied of its own nucleus. (wunc.org)
  • So ideally scientists would like to be able to extract DNA from the cells of older people - not just cells from infants - to create therapies for adult diseases. (wunc.org)
  • In principle, scientists could produce a series of cell lines that would allow a close match for the majority of would-be cell recipients - just as transplant surgeons currently seek a close match for organ donors. (wunc.org)
  • stem cell res
  • Media coverage of this study was as varied as people's feelings are about stem cell research. (www.nhs.uk)
  • There are ethical concerns surrounding nuclear transfer, particularly regarding recruitment and compensation for egg donors needed for stem cell research. (empr.com)
  • naive
  • The B cells in the body have two important phenotypes (functional forms) -- the antibody secreting, terminally differentiated (that is, they cannot divide further) plasma cells, and the memory and the naive cells-both of which retain their proliferative potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complex is predominantly expressed on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II, which activates and clonally expands naive CD4+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • March 5, 2012 -- One of 11 patients facing death from treatment-resistant, late-stage melanoma is cancer free 3.5 years after experimental treatment with clones of his own immune cells. (webmd.com)
  • Successful treatment depended on isolating and cloning just the right kind of cancer -fighting immune cell. (webmd.com)
  • Butler says that Yee's team showed that anti-tumor immune cells can survive when patients are given much less toxic chemotherapy and lower doses of the immune-boosting drugs. (webmd.com)
  • In Ni-ACD other cells are involved including: Th17, Th22, Th1/IFN and the innate immune responses consistent with toll-like receptor 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is secreted by basophils and activated T cells to support growth and differentiation of T cells from the bone marrow in an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The resulting stem cells could then possibly be used to repair damaged tissue, or even treat genetic conditions. (www.nhs.uk)
  • After presumably adapting to tissue culture, cells from this clone developed into the relatively stable HEK 293 line. (wikipedia.org)
  • A comprehensive study of the genomes and transcriptomes of HEK 293 and five derivative cell lines compared the HEK 293 transcriptome with that of human kidney, adrenal, pituitary and central nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • Dolly, the first mammal to be genetically cloned from adult cells, poses for the camera in 1997 at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland. (wunc.org)
  • It also means that finally getting the sheep technology to work with cells from adult humans may not turn out to be a turning point for this technology, after all. (wunc.org)
  • survive
  • Under hypoxia, some cells survive and others are irreversibly injured and die. (nih.gov)
  • process
  • The process has been difficult to do with human cells. (wunc.org)
  • What we show for the first time is that you can actually take skin cells, from a middle-aged 35-year-old male, but also from an elderly, 75-year-old male" and use the DNA from those cells in this cloning process, Lanza says. (wunc.org)
  • genes
  • He'd like to see a library of cells created with those carefully chosen genes. (wunc.org)
  • Viruses offer an efficient means of delivering genes into cells, which they evolved to do, and are thus of great use as experimental tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • This danger can be avoided by the use of viruses which lack key genes, and which are thus unable to replicate after entering a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to propagate such viral vectors, a cell line that expresses the missing genes is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since HEK 293 cells express a number of adenoviral genes, they can be used to propagate adenoviral vectors in which these genes (typically, E1 and E3) are deleted, such as AdEasy. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • SCNT has been used to clone animals before, and is thought to have potential applications in the study and treatment of human diseases. (www.nhs.uk)
  • In the present study, 80 clones were isolated from the selected cells and their response to apoptotic injury was characterized. (nih.gov)
  • determined by a single
  • The results suggest that apoptotic resistance of the selected clones is not determined by a single factor or molecule but, rather, by various alterations at the core apoptotic pathway. (nih.gov)
  • another
  • Another important area where one can talk of "clones" of cells is neoplasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The client, instead of writing code that invokes the "new" operator on a hard-coded class name, calls the clone() method on the prototype, calls a factory method with a parameter designating the particular concrete derived class desired, or invokes the clone() method through some mechanism provided by another design pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • GoF, p126) The rule of thumb could be that you would need to clone() an Object when you want to create another Object at runtime that is a true copy of the Object you are cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract
  • To implement the pattern, declare an abstract base class that specifies a pure virtual clone() method. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any class that needs a "polymorphic constructor" capability derives itself from the abstract base class, and implements the clone() operation. (wikipedia.org)
  • At other times they complement each other: abstract factory might store a set of prototypes from which to clone and return product objects (GoF, p126). (wikipedia.org)
  • instance
  • For instance, two plasma cells belonging to the same clone could be derived from different memory cells (in turn with shared clonality) and could be residing in quite distant locations, such as the cervical (in the neck) and inguinal (in the groin) lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) was upregulated in several clones, but the upregulation did not correlate with cell death resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Graham performed the transformation a total of eight times, obtaining just one clone of cells that were cultured for several months. (wikipedia.org)
  • involve
  • Activated T cells can either induce their own proliferation and differentiation (autocrine signalling), or that of other T cells (paracrine signalling) - both involve IL-2 binding to the IL-2 receptor on T cells (upregulated upon cell activation, under the induction of macrophage-secreted IL-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • The treatment calls for patients to have their existing T cells wiped out by intensive chemotherapy , sometimes with whole-body radiation . (webmd.com)
  • The cell clones that most consistently demonstrated resistance or sensitivity to injury were further studied for their response to azide treatment. (nih.gov)
  • nuclear
  • Writing in the journal Cell Stem Cell , they say they started with nuclear DNA extracted from the skin cells of a middle-age man and injected it into human eggs donated by four women. (wunc.org)
  • Examples of such experiments include: Effects of a drug on sodium channels Inducible RNA interference system Isoform-selective protein kinase C agonist Interaction between two proteins Nuclear export signal in a protein A more specific use of HEK 293 cells is in the propagation of adenoviral vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • result
  • The resulting egg was implanted in the womb of a third sheep, and the result was Dolly, the first clone of a mammal. (wunc.org)
  • When a cell splits, two cells of identical genotype result. (wikipedia.org)
  • similar
  • These are then fused with human cells - in this case skin cells - and the fused cell begins behaving in a similar way to an embryo by producing human stem cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • A somewhat similar concept is that of clonal colony (also called a genet), wherein the cells (usually unicellular) also share a common ancestry, but which also requires the products of clonal expansion to reside at "one place", or in close proximity. (wikipedia.org)
  • human cells
  • This research is the first time the technique has been successful using human cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Dolly's birth set off a huge outpouring of ethical concern - along with hope that the same techniques, applied to human cells, could be used to treat myriad diseases. (wunc.org)
  • Source
  • Clonality implies the state of a cell or a substance being derived from one source or the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • In addition, cell lysates isolated from these clones showed lower caspase activation on addition of exogenous cytochrome c. (nih.gov)
  • skin
  • With enough exposures to nickel, the amassing clones of T-cells reach "threshold" and the skin develops a rash. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon re-exposure these now primed T cells will be activated and massively recruited to the skin, resulting in the elicitation phase and the clinical presentation of Ni-ACD. (wikipedia.org)
  • possible
  • However, this enzyme in "youthful" cells replaces these lost bits (nucleotides) of DNA, thus making almost unlimited cycles of cell division possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • technique
  • And the other technique, which produces " induced pluripotent stem cells ," skips the step that requires a human egg cell, so some people find it less fraught, ethically. (wunc.org)
  • calls
  • The UML sequence diagram shows the run-time interactions: The Client object calls clone() on a prototype:Product1 object, which creates and returns a copy of itself (a product:Product1 object). (wikipedia.org)
  • heart
  • And with a bit of coaxing, these cells could, theoretically, be prodded to turn into any sort of human cell - nerve, heart, liver and pancreas, for example. (wunc.org)
  • pattern
  • The HEK 293 pattern most closely resembled that of adrenal cells, which have many neuronal properties. (wikipedia.org)