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  • brain
  • A new study out today in the journal Nature Communications shows that cells normally associated with protecting the brain from infection and injury also play an important role in rewiring the connections between nerve cells. (rochester.edu)
  • While this discovery sheds new light on the mechanics of neuroplasticity, it could also help explain diseases like autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and dementia, which may arise when this process breaks down and connections between brain cells are not formed or removed correctly. (rochester.edu)
  • These findings show that a precisely choreographed interaction between multiple cells types is necessary to carry out the formation and destruction of connections that allow proper signaling in the brain. (rochester.edu)
  • The study is another example of a dramatic shift in scientists' understanding of the role that the immune system, specifically cells called microglia, plays in maintaining brain function. (rochester.edu)
  • Microglia have been long understood to be the sentinels of the central nervous system, patrolling the brain and spinal cord and springing into action to stamp out infections or gobble up dead cell tissue. (rochester.edu)
  • The formation and removal of the physical connections between neurons is a critical part of maintaining a healthy brain and the process of creating new pathways and networks among brain cells enables us to absorb, learn, and memorize new information. (rochester.edu)
  • While this constant reorganization of neural networks - called neuroplasticity - has been well understood for some time, the basic mechanisms by which connections between brain cells are made and broken has eluded scientists. (rochester.edu)
  • Performing experiments in mice, the researchers employed a well-established model of measuring neuroplasticity by observing how cells reorganize their connections when visual information received by the brain is reduced from two eyes to one. (rochester.edu)
  • It is possible that when the microglia's synapse pruning function is interrupted or when the cells mistakenly remove the wrong connections - perhaps due to genetic factors or because the cells are too occupied elsewhere fighting an infection or injury - the result is impaired signaling between brain cells. (rochester.edu)
  • These findings demonstrate that microglia are a dynamic and integral component of the complex machinery that allows neurons to reorganize their connections in the healthy mature brain," said Grayson Sipe, a graduate student in Majewska's lab and co-author of the study. (rochester.edu)
  • University laboratory research demonstrates in cell culture that mercury, a poisonous heavy metal, quickly damages brain cells. (youtube.com)
  • This microscope video shows what happens when dissolved mercury is added to a cell culture of brain cells. (youtube.com)
  • Olken, Hyman is the author of 'Opening the Door to the Brain : Granular Cell Neuron Masses' with ISBN 9780934818056 and ISBN 0934818053. (valorebooks.com)
  • Kuffler SW, Nicholls JG (1976) From Neuron to Brain . (springer.com)
  • Eroglu's earlier work has shown that thrombospondins are released by brain cells called astrocytes and boost new synapse formation between neurons in the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • The granule cells in the dentate gyrus are distinguished by their late time of formation during brain development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The germinal sources of granule cells and their migration pathways have been studied during rat brain development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dentate gyrus is one of the few regions of the adult brain where neurogenesis (i.e., the birth of new neurons) takes place. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are some of the largest neurons in the human brain (Betz cells being the largest), with an intricately elaborate dendritic arbor, characterized by a large number of dendritic spines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, Hameroff read The Emperor's New Mind and suggested to Penrose that certain structures within brain cells (microtubules) were suitable candidate sites for quantum processing and ultimately for consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hameroff's contribution to the theory derived from studying brain cells (neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases and illnesses that harm the brain and the hippocampus can also damage spatial view cells, which are located in the hippocampus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the brain, dendrin can be found in neurons and is most notably associated with sleep deprivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendrin was originally discovered in rat neurons and encoded by the brain specific transcript 464 by M. Neuner-Jehle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dynamical neuroscience describes the non-linear dynamics at many levels of the brain from single neural cells to cognitive processes, sleep states and the behavior of neurons in large-scale neuronal simulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the vast majority of neurons in the mammalian brain are formed prenatally, parts of the adult brain (for example, the hippocampus) retain the ability to grow new neurons from neural stem cells, a process known as neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite its name, BDNF is actually found in a range of tissue and cell types, not just the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once again, lipopigments build up and brain function is decreased as the neuron cells die. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axons of the mitral cells transfer information to a number of areas in the brain, including the piriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala. (wikipedia.org)
  • motor neuron
  • NSC34 motor neuron cells were pretreated with 2.5 μg/mL BV and stimulated with 10 μM rotenone to induce cell toxicity. (blogspot.com)
  • Pretreatment with 2.5 μg/mL BV had a neuroprotective effect against 10 μM rotenone-induced cell death in NSC34 motor neuron cells. (blogspot.com)
  • Moreover, BV treatment inhibited the activation of JNK signaling and cleaved caspase-3 related to cell death and increased ERK phosphorylation involved in cell survival in rotenone-treated NSC34 motor neuron cells. (blogspot.com)
  • See also motor neuron , neurotransmitter . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A heterozygous deletion in GRID2 in humans causes a complicated spastic paraplegia with ataxia, frontotemporal dementia, and lower motor neuron involvement whereas a homozygous biallelic deletion leads to a syndrome of cerebellar ataxia with marked developmental delay, pyramidal tract involvement and tonic upgaze, that can be classified as an ataxia with oculomotor apraxia (AOA) and has been named spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive type 18 (SCAR18). (wikipedia.org)
  • mouse neurons
  • The transdifferentiation technique was first developed in Wernig's laboratory in 2010 when he and his colleagues showed that they could convert mouse skin cells into mouse neurons without first inducing the cells to become pluripotent - a developmentally flexible stage from which the cells can become nearly any type of tissue. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Deng worked for four years with Zhen Chai and Yang Zhao, also of Peking University, to identify the small molecules that could create chemically induced mouse neurons. (phys.org)
  • glial
  • Nestin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were detected by immunocytochemistry, Western blotting, and real time RT-PCT. (hindawi.com)
  • Biology
  • 1983) Molecular Biology of the Cell . (springer.com)
  • Blood is one of the easiest biological samples to obtain," said Marius Wernig, MD, associate professor of pathology and a member of Stanford's Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. (technologynetworks.com)
  • By learning more about how these cells work, we are one step closer to understanding the disease states in which these cells should be studied," said Cagla Eroglu, an assistant professor of cell biology and neurobiology at the Duke University Medical Center, who led the research. (eurekalert.org)
  • neuronal cell
  • In this study, we tested the effects of BV on neuronal cell death by examining rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. (blogspot.com)
  • The Characterization of the neuronal cell adhesion and endurance is done with the help of fluorescence optical light microscopy. (diva-portal.org)
  • By coordinating multiple signaling pathways, these small molecules modulate neuronal transcription factor gene expression and thereby promote the neuronal cell transition. (phys.org)
  • Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is a neuropathological condition with severe neuronal cell loss and gliosis in the hippocampus, specifically in the CA-1 (Cornu Ammonis area 1) and subiculum of the hippocampus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitral cells are a neuronal cell type in the mammalian olfactory bulb, distinguished by the position of their somata located in an orderly row in the mitral cell layer of the bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Human immune cells in blood can be converted directly into functional neurons in the laboratory in about three weeks with the addition of just four proteins, researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have found. (technologynetworks.com)
  • CITATION: "Human Umbilical Tissue-Derived Cells (hUTC) Promote Synapse Formation and Neurite Outgrowth via Thrombospondin Family Proteins," Sehwon Koh, Namsoo Kim, Henry H. Yin, Ian R. Harris, Nadine S. Dejneka, and Cagla Eroglu. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cell surface proteins, including neurotransmitter receptors, are highly mobile in the plasma membrane due to lateral diffusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the aid of specific proteins, mainly cadherins, the hemichannels are able to dock with hemichannels of adjacent cells forming gap junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) endoplasmic reticulum (ER), (as seen with neuroserpin mutations that cause familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies) extracellularly excreted proteins, amyloid-β in Alzheimer's disease There are two main avenues eukaryotic cells use to remove troublesome proteins or organelles: ubiquitin-proteasome: protein ubiquitin along with enzymes is key for the degradation of many proteins that cause proteinopathies including polyQ expansions and alpha-synucleins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the primary route cells use to degrade proteins.Decreased proteasome activity is consistent with models in which intracellular protein aggregates form. (wikipedia.org)
  • They belong to a class of growth factors, secreted proteins that are capable of signaling particular cells to survive, differentiate, or grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are small proteins that secrete into the nervous system to help keep nerve cells alive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both gene sets are responsible for producing proteins and enzymes that are heavily involved in protein degradation and excretion in the cell - specifically, the nerve cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations to the CLN6 and PPT1 genes result in Kufs disease Type A. CLN6 produces proteins that facilitate fat transport throughout a cell, as well as excretion out of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mice, each mitral cell sends a single primary dendrite into a glomerulus receiving input from a population of olfactory sensory neurons expressing identical olfactory receptor proteins, yet the odor responsiveness of the 20-40 mitral cells connected to a single glomerulus (called sister mitral cells) is not identical to the tuning curve of the input cells, and also differs between sister mitral cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiology
  • PCP4 accelerates both the association and dissociation of calcium (Ca2+) with calmodulin (CaM) in the cytoplasm of Purkinje cells, and its absence impairs the physiology of these neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • M s s {\displaystyle M_{ss}} and N s s {\displaystyle N_{ss}} are both functions of V {\displaystyle V} . So we have two coupled functions, g ( V , N ) {\displaystyle g(V,N)} and g ( V , N ) {\displaystyle g(V,N)} . Different types of neuron models utilize different channels, depending on the physiology of the organism involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • In physiology, a refractory period is a period of time during which an organ or cell is incapable of repeating a particular action, or (more precisely) the amount of time it takes for an excitable membrane to be ready for a second stimulus once it returns to its resting state following an excitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The refractory period in cardiac physiology is related to the ion currents that, in cardiac cells as in nerve cells, flow into and out of the cell freely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purkinje
  • Purkinje cells, or Purkinje neurons (/pərˈkɪndʒiː/ pər-KIN-jee), are a class of GABAergic neurons located in the cerebellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purkinje cells are found within the Purkinje layer in the cerebellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purkinje cells are aligned like dominos stacked one in front of the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parallel fibers pass orthogonally through the Purkinje neuron's dendritic arbor, with up to 200,000 parallel fibers forming a Granule-cell-Purkinje-cell synapse with a single Purkinje cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purkinje cells send inhibitory projections to the deep cerebellar nuclei, and constitute the sole output of all motor coordination in the cerebellar cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Purkinje layer of the cerebellum, which contains the cell bodies of the Purkinje cells and Bergmann glia, express a large number of unique genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • One illustrative example is the Purkinje cell protein 4 (PCP4) in knockout mice, which exhibit impaired locomotor learning and markedly altered synaptic plasticity in Purkinje neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is evidence in mice and humans that bone marrow cells either fuse with or generate cerebellar Purkinje cells, and it is possible that bone marrow cells, either by direct generation or by cell fusion, could play a role in repair of central nervous system damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further evidence points yet towards the possibility of a common stem cell ancestor among Purkinje neurons, B-lymphocytes and aldosterone-producing cells of the human adrenal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purkinje cells show spontaneous electrophysiological activity in the form of trains of spikes both sodium-dependent and calcium-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • P-type calcium channels were named after Purkinje cells, where they were initially encountered (Llinas et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • We now know that activation of the Purkinje cell by climbing fibers can shift its activity from a quiet state to a spontaneously active state and vice versa, serving as a kind of toggle switch. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings have been challenged by a study suggesting that such toggling by climbing-fiber inputs occurs predominantly in anaesthetized animals and that Purkinje cells in awake behaving animals, in general, operate almost continuously in the upstate. (wikipedia.org)
  • But this latter study has itself been challenged and Purkinje cell toggling has since been observed in awake cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • A computational model of the Purkinje cell has shown intracellular calcium computations to be responsible for toggling. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intrinsic activity mode of Purkinje cells is set and controlled by the sodium-potassium pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the site of ChABC injections, there was profuse outgrowth of the terminal branches of Purkinje cell neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • GluD2-containing receptors are selectively/predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum where they play a key role in synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and motor coordination. (wikipedia.org)
  • A gain of channel function, resulting from a point mutation in mouse GRID2, is associated with the phenotype named 'lurcher', which in the heterozygous state leads to ataxia and motor coordination deficits resulting from selective, cell-autonomous apoptosis of cerebellar Purkinje cells during postnatal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • A possible correlation between GRID2 and the pre-B lymphocyte protein 3 (VPREB3) has been suggested, due to the apparent importance of B-lymphocytes in the origins of cerebellar Purkinje neurons in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurodegenerative
  • Keeping in mind these caveats, clearly the study reported here will advance research aimed at validating the use of stem cells to treat neurodegenerative disease. (medpagetoday.com)
  • She added that making neurites and forming new connections between them are crucial for helping neurons grow when faced with injury and neurodegenerative diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • There are many parallels between different neurodegenerative disorders including atypical protein assemblies as well as induced cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • dendrites
  • In primary neurons mRNAs are translated in proximal dendrites but repressed in distal dendrites and display "bursting" translation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Appropriately named, dendrin in its mRNA form is often found in the dendrites of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendrin is found in the neuron's cell body and its dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell often have multiple primary dendrites innervating different glomeruli and they are sometimes called simply projection neurons, to indicate that they are the main neural element which project outside the olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • It may be necessary for far more DA neurons to survive, and, of course, the survival must be long lasting, an aspect of therapy that was not assessed in the current study," he said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In this work we investigate the adhesion and survival of rat cortical neurons on positively charged surface. (diva-portal.org)
  • The neural cell survival and adhesion is studied on the Au nanoparticles that work as carriers for positive charges. (diva-portal.org)
  • A comparison is made between two types of surfaces for cell survival and attachment. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, blocking TSP1, 2 and 4 did not affect neuron survival, suggesting that there is some other factor in the UTC cells that promotes cell longevity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Growth factors such as neurotrophins that promote the survival of neurons are known as neurotrophic factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitral cell
  • Mitral cell output is not a passive reflection of their input from the olfactory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • One prominent hypothesis is the notion that mitral cells transform the strength of olfactory input into a timing code, where odor concentration is encoded in the phase of mitral cell firing relative to the sniff cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This escape from inhibition can be sped up by increasing the stimulating odorant concentration, and thus mitral cell firing phase acts as one possible way the olfactory system encodes concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of the mitral cell lateral dendrite and granule cell circuit is currently a bit more uncertain. (wikipedia.org)
  • impulses
  • In contrast, neurons are long and skinny cells capable of conducting electrical impulses along their length and passing them from cell to cell. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Based on feedback from the visual system, the lens of the eye adjusts its thickness to focus light on the photoreceptive cells of the retina, also known as the rods and cones, which detect the photons of light and respond by producing neural impulses. (wikipedia.org)
  • This waveform is analogous to electrochemical impulses believed to transmit information between biological neuron cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • generate
  • The researchers wondered if there was an easier, more efficient way to generate patient-specific neurons. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Jian Zhao, of the human study, says: "It should be possible to generate different subtypes of neurons with a similar chemical approach but using slightly modified chemical cocktails. (phys.org)
  • These sparsely scattered cells constantly generate granule cell neurons, which add to the total population. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • Transmission Electron Micrograph (TEM) of neuron cell body, the bulbous end of the neuron which contains the cell nucleus. (sciencephoto.com)
  • pedunculus of pineal body), but gradually came to refer to a neighboring group of nerve cells with which the pineal gland was believed to be associated, the habenular nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • By way of the fasciculus retroflexus (habenulointerpeduncular tract) it projects to the interpeduncular nucleus and other paramedian cell groups of the midbrain tegmentum. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAGI/S-SCAM is a component of the cytoskeleton that is used to keep dendrin in the cytoplasm of a neuron, and prevents the protein from diffusing into the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this location in the neuron, it is thought that dendrin is involved in retrograde signaling from the synapse to the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • hippocampal
  • Next, dentate precursor cells move out of this same area of the hippocampal neuroepithelium and, retaining their mitotic capacity, invade the hilus (core) of the forming dentate gyrus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histopathological hallmarks of hippocampal sclerosis include segmental loss of pyramidal neurons, granule cell dispersion and reactive gliosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesial temporal sclerosis is a specific pattern of hippocampal neuron cell loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • The researchers obtained primate embryonic stem cells from the inner cell mass of pre-implantation blastocysts. (medpagetoday.com)
  • This is the first report, to our knowledge, demonstrating the efficacy of transplantation therapy using embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived DA neurons in an experimental primate model of PD," the researchers wrote. (medpagetoday.com)
  • However, the researchers added that "before the clinical application of human ES cell transplantation can be attempted, extensive studies assessing the safety and efficacy of ES cell transplantation in monkey models will be necessary. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Fresh or frozen human blood samples can be directly transformed into patient-specific neurons to study disorders such as schizophrenia and autism, Stanford researchers find. (technologynetworks.com)
  • But despite the cells' vastly different shapes, locations and biological missions, the researchers found it unexpectedly easy to complete their quest. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Researchers are looking at actin polymerization and calcium uptake in human cells to study mitochondrial division. (the-scientist.com)
  • DURHAM, N.C. -- Cells isolated from human umbilical cord tissue have been shown to produce molecules that help retinal neurons from the eyes of rats grow, connect and survive, according to Duke University researchers working with Janssen Research & Development, LLC. (eurekalert.org)
  • supportive
  • NSCs are self-renewing multipotent stem cells that can be proliferated in vitro in supportive culture systems such as Gibco StemPro NSC SFM and can further be differentiated into downstream lineages. (thermofisher.com)
  • His interest centred on the cytoskeleton, which provides an internal supportive structure for neurons, and particularly on the microtubules, which are the important component of the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • hippocampus
  • The dentate gyrus is composed of unidirectional projections dispersed towards CA3 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spatial view cells are the cells that respond in the hippocampus when a particular location is being recalled. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are identified in the hippocampus of test subjects by monitoring individual neurons while the test subject is moved around in a cue controlled spatial environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurons associated with remembering the location and object are often found in the primate hippocampus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These signs point to the possible damage to spatial view cells found in the hippocampus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tests in which the monkey was not allowed to have active locomotion provided very few results of spatial view cells being detected in the hippocampus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of neuron cell loss, primarily in the hippocampus, can be observed in approximately 65% of people suffering from this form of epilepsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral
  • Neurons in the lateral habenula are 'reward-negative' as they are activated by stimuli associated with unpleasant events, the absence of the reward or punishment especially when this is unpredictable. (wikipedia.org)
  • This output inhibits dopamine neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta and the ventral tegmental area, with activation in the lateral habenula linking to deactivation in them, and vice versa, deactivation in the lateral habenula with their activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • Mitral cells are closely related to the second type of projection neuron in the mammalian bulb, known as the tufted cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In lower vertebrates, mitral and tufted cells cannot be morphologically distinguished from tufted cells, and their morphology is substantially different from the mammalian mitral cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulus
  • Also, these cells are confirmed to be spatial view cells by observing that there is minimal randomized firing of the cells without the appropriate stimulus present. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells found in the CA1, parahippocampal gyrus, and presubiculum regions often provide a longer response even after the stimulus is removed for up to several minutes in complete darkness. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2) The method forms a non-connectionist model in which the ability to superimpose a very large set of analog stimulus-response patterns or complex associations exists within the individual neuron cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • retina
  • The light energy that comes from the rays bouncing off of an object is converted into chemical energy by the cells in the retina of the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidneys
  • Podocytes are epithelia cells in the kidneys that do not readily divide and act as a barrier that prevent urinary protein loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphology
  • In practice, however, this is complicated considerably by the very complex morphology of neurons and the overlap of contributions from adjacent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The morphology of mitral cells was an advantage in early studies of synaptic processing, because the soma and the primary dendrite could be independently stimulated by appropriate positioning of stimulating electrodes in different layers of the olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerves
  • My thesis focused on understanding the relationship nerves and neurons have with their environment during development and normal function in order to identify means by which the regenerative process might be manipulated and enhanced. (umd.edu)
  • body
  • Spatially integrating over even larger populations of cells, i.e. lumps of nervous or muscular tissue, will produce signals commonly called local field potentials (LFP) that can be recorded either in the tissue or with suitable equipment at the body surface as, e.g., electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG), or electromyogram (EMG). (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • First, I detailed the changes in membrane stability within the two cell types. (umd.edu)
  • Both cell types saw a decreased trend in both velocity and correlative movement following development of contact with the other pointing to increased cellular membrane stability upon establishment of cellular contact. (umd.edu)
  • As the basilar membrane vibrates, each clump of hair cells along its length is deflected in time with the sound components as filtered by basilar membrane tuning for its position. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each gap junction is composed of two hemichannels, or connexons, which consist of homo- or heterohexameric arrays of connexins, and the connexon in one plasma membrane docks end-to-end with a connexon in the membrane of a closely opposed cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • After being inserted into the plasma membrane of the cell, the hemichannels freely diffuse within the lipid bilayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the membrane potential of a neuron increases sufficiently, channels in the membrane open up to allow more ions in or out. (wikipedia.org)
  • In neurons, it is caused by the inactivation of the Na+ channels that originally opened to depolarize the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • K+ ions moving out of the cell bring the membrane potential closer to the equilibrium potential for potassium. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the potential reaches the activation threshold (-55 mV), the depolarization is actively driven by the neuron and overshoots the equilibrium potential of an activated membrane (+30 mV). (wikipedia.org)
  • When the cell's membrane voltage overshoots its resting membrane potential (near -60mV), the cell enters a phase of hyperpolarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • The scientists transplanted 300,000 to 600,000 cells per side into the bilateral putamen of these monkeys, then continuously monitored the behavior of the treated animals compared to a control group of MPTP-treated monkeys. (medpagetoday.com)
  • intro needed here) The motivation for a dynamical approach to neuroscience stems from an interest in the physical complexity of neuron behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • synaptic
  • They observed that the microglia targeted the synaptic cleft - the business end of the connection that transmits signals between neurons. (rochester.edu)