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  • dendritic cells
  • Remarkably, CD1.1 was mainly expressed by dendritic cells, B cells, and macrophages, suggesting a function in Ag presentation to Th cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Human CD1b-expressing monocytic and dendritic cells could present mycobacterial lipids loaded in an endosomal compartment to double negative αβ T cells ( 6 , 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In strong support of the hypothesis that CD1.1 is directly or indirectly involved in Ag presentation to Th cells, we found that it was conspicuously expressed at high levels on dendritic cells, MHC class II + macrophages, and B cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • APCs, especially dendritic cells (DCs), play an important role in the activation of Th1 response. (jimmunol.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) 5 are the APCs, which are specialized in capturing the Ags and then migrating to the lymph nodes ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in immune homeostasis through their ability to present Ags at steady state and mediate T cell tolerance. (jimmunol.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in immune tolerance ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Consistent with their seminal role in detecting infection, both mouse bone marrow-derived and splenic CD11c + dendritic cells (DCs) exhibited higher levels of uptake of Plasmodium chabaudi -parasitized RBCs (pRBCs) than of noninfected RBCs (nRBCs) as determined by our newly developed flow cytometric technique using the dye CFSE to label RBCs before coculture with DCs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Compared with other APCs such as B cells and macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) 3 are primarily responsible for priming naive CD4 + Th cells and stimulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines, which in turn determine the phenotype of an ensuing immune response to invading pathogens. (jimmunol.org)
  • In recent years, human dendritic cells (DCs) could be subdivided into CD304 + plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and conventional DCs (cDCs), the latter encompassing the CD1c + , CD16 + , and CD141 + DC subsets. (rupress.org)
  • induce
  • Furthermore, administration of an anti-IL-10R mAb to unmanipulated adult mice was sufficient to induce the development of colitis. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we examined whether IgE, a high-affinity, non-cross-linking natural ligand of FcεRI, could be used to target Ags to DCs and to induce Ag-specific T cell tolerance. (jimmunol.org)
  • Overall, our findings suggest that CCL21 promotes TLOs that differ from inflammatory TLOs found in T1D islets in that they resemble lymph nodes, contain FRC-like cells expressing β-cell autoantigens and are able to induce systemic and antigen-specific tolerance leading to diabetes prevention. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • genes
  • Over the years, the Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice has continued to assign new Ly and CD names to novel genes and Ags. (jimmunol.org)
  • The human homologues of a number of mouse Ags or genes, including members of the Ly-6 and Ly-49 families, have not yet been definitively identified. (jimmunol.org)
  • More recently, the human and mouse nomenclature committees adopted the gene Ptprc for the genes encoding CD45 in both species. (jimmunol.org)
  • The mouse CD1 locus contains a pair of highly homologous genes, CD1.1 and CD1.2, that encode conserved MHC-like β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 m 3 )-associated molecules that are the homologues of CD1d, one of five human CD1 isotypes ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • CattleDRA andDRB genes, cloned by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, were transfected into mouse L cells. (www.gov.uk)
  • Functional integrity of the transfected gene products was demonstrated by the ability of the transfectant cell line to present two antigens (the foot-and-mouth disease virus-derived peptide FMDV15, and ovalbumin) to antigenspecific CD4+ T cells from both the original animal used to obtain the genes, and also from an unrelated DRBF3+ heterozygous animal. (www.gov.uk)
  • It is now appreciated that disruption of immune regulatory networks, including deletion of cytokine genes, cell signaling molecules, and alterations in T cell subsets, can lead to an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD 3 )-like syndrome in mice ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Antibody diversity is first generated by rearrangement of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes during B cell development in the bone marrow, and later by antigen-driven diversification in germinal centers (GCs). (rupress.org)
  • During B cell development in chickens, for example, rearrangement involves a single V H and a single V L gene segment to form an essentially clonal population of cells that is later diversified by gene conversion, a process by which portions of the rearranged V genes are replaced by sequences donated from an array of pseudo-V genes located upstream of the functional V segment. (rupress.org)
  • TCRs
  • The majority of NKT cells express highly restricted TCRs with an invariant α-chain (Vα24-Jα18 in humans and Vα14-Jα18 in mice) and limited β-chains (Vβ11 in humans and Vβ8, Vβ2, and Vβ7 in mice). (jimmunol.org)
  • Mouse CD1.1 is an MHC class I-like, non-MHC-encoded, surface glycoprotein that can be recognized by T cells, in particular NK1.1 + T cells, a subset of αβ T cells with semiinvariant TCRs that promptly releases potent cytokines such as IL-4 and IFN-γ upon stimulation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Its recognition by a panel of 12 Vα14-positive and -negative CD1-specific αβ T cell hybridomas was blocked by two groups of mAbs that bound to adjacent clusters of epitopes, indicating that different αβ TCRs bind to the same region of CD1.1, presumably above the groove. (jimmunol.org)
  • BALB
  • Among different mouse strains, BALB/c and C57BL6 mice are susceptible to Coccidioides , whereas DBA/2 mice are resistant to Coccidioides infection ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The number of reactive cells was increased approximately 7-fold, nearly 8% of the initial population, in BALB/c mice that had been pre-sensitized with F 1 cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Acute myocardial damage similar to that seen in human myocarditis occurs in BALB/c mice after infection with coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) or encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC). (ahajournals.org)
  • tissues
  • Histologically, lung tissues of immunized mice were in better condition than the control mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, MECA-32 shows restricted distribution in the skeletal, cardiac and brain tissues of adult and embryonic mice. (bxcell.com)
  • We found that PLVAP-deficient mice have completely normal levels of both yolk-sac- and bone-marrow-derived macrophages, but that fetal liver monocyte-derived macrophage populations were practically missing from tissues. (bxcell.com)
  • Crown antibodies pass additional stringent quality requirements, including extended control sets, uniform results against multiple biologically relevant cell lines and tissues, and function in multiple applications. (abgent.com)
  • Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are ideal targets for cancer immunotherapy in virtue of their restricted expression profile in normal tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • deficient
  • In this study, we used a variety of methods to show that mammalian Ags for mouse i NKT cells need not be GSLs, including the use of cell lines deficient in GSL biosynthesis and an inhibitor of GSL biosynthesis. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD4 + CD45RB low cells from germfree mice were significantly reduced in their ability to transfer colitis to immune deficient recipients, suggesting the presence of commensal bacteria in the donor mice drives colitogenic T cells into the Ag-experienced/memory T cell pool. (jimmunol.org)
  • Intestinal inflammation is driven by resident bacteria, as colitis does not develop after T cell transfer to immune deficient recipients raised under germfree (GF) or restricted flora conditions ( 16 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • T cells capable of responding to enteric bacteria are present in T cell-restored immune deficient mice with colitis, and are most likely involved in the pathogenesis of the disease ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Adult PLVAP-deficient mice show major alterations in macrophage-dependent iron recycling and mammary branching morphogenesis. (bxcell.com)
  • B-cell maturation in chimaeric mice deficient for the heat stable antigen (HSA/mouse CD24). (uzh.ch)
  • To investigate the role of antigen-specific T cells in the pathogenesis of this disorder, we compared CB3 disease expression in T cell-deficient, athymic nude (nu/nu) mice, in heterozygote (nu/+) mice with normal T cell function, and in nu/nu mice reconstituted with spleen cells from CB3- or EMC-infected nu/+ mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • immune responses
  • i NKT cells amplify innate immune responses, and they are believed to play a central role in bridging innate and adaptive immune responses during microbial infections. (jimmunol.org)
  • Altogether, the results support the idea that CD1.1 may function in recruiting a form of innate help from specialized cytokine producer αβ T cells to APCs, a role that might be important at the preadaptive phase of immune responses to some microbial pathogens. (jimmunol.org)
  • The mechanisms by which T R cells regulate immune responses remain controversial ( 26 , 27 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • These results suggest that DCs selectively phagocytose pRBCs and present pRBC-derived Ags to CD4 + T cells, thereby promoting development of protective Th1-dependent immune responses to blood-stage malaria infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • peptide
  • In addition, elucidation of the structure of mouse CD1.1 revealed a very hydrophobic groove that could potentially accommodate hydrophobic lipid or peptide ligands ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Both the microbial peptide mimic of Fusobacteria and the bacteria directly activate IGRP-specific NY8.3 T cells and promote diabetes development. (rupress.org)
  • The RMFPNAPYL peptide from WT1 is presented by HLA-A2 in humans, as well as by H-2Db in C57BL/6 mice, and has been shown to be the target of WT1-specific responses in both species. (washington.edu)
  • Mice immunized with this peptide generate a diverse T cell response, recruiting T cells of multiple TCR Vbeta families and encompassing an avidity range of three logs. (washington.edu)
  • Screening of a combinatorial peptide library in positional scanning format led to the identification of a peptide derived from dystrophia myotonica kinase (DMK) that is recognized by AI4-like T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Importantly, the antigenic peptide is naturally processed and presented by DMK-transfected cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • One million cells in 1 ml of culture medium were incubated with 10muM of each peptide and 30Units of IL-2. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2) Human CD8 might have been essential to complete the HLA-peptide-T cell interaction. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Murine
  • Using a well-characterized murine model of adoptive T cell immunotherapy for established malignancy, we have demonstrated the feasibility of eliminating disseminated leukemia using T cells genetically modified by TCR gene transfer.We next examined the potential of targeting a clinically relevant tumor antigen, the transcription factor WT1, for which the expression patterns in normal and malignant cells are similar in mouse and man. (washington.edu)
  • recognition
  • Five mAbs that blocked CD1.1 recognition by all members of a panel of 12 CD1-specific T cell hybrids delineated two adjacent clusters of CD1.1 epitopes, presumably centered around the groove. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we developed a mouse model of adoptive immunotherapy reflecting immune recognition of syngeneic tumor cells naturally expressing an endogenous rejection Ag. (jimmunol.org)
  • This mechanism is thought to be of major importance for the recognition of viral or bacterial antigens when DCs are not directly infected. (rupress.org)
  • populations
  • New data in humans and mice now identify specific B cell populations that may have undergone antigen-independent hypermutation outside GCs. (rupress.org)
  • Even within age-matched groups, each individual mouse exhibited a unique distribution of β cell-reactive CD8 + T cells, both in terms of the number of tetramer-staining populations and the relative proportion of each population in the islet infiltrate. (jimmunol.org)
  • microbial
  • Thus, we provide evidence of molecular mimicry between microbial antigens and an islet autoantigen and a novel mechanism by which the diabetogenicity of CD8 + T cells can be regulated by innate immunity and the gut microbiota. (rupress.org)
  • undergone
  • In these instances, debris of cells that were infected and have subsequently undergone apoptosis as part of a cellular stress reaction is taken up and cross-presented by specialized DCs. (rupress.org)
  • uptake
  • The uptake of pRBCs by splenic CD11c + DCs was significantly enhanced after infection in vivo and was associated with the induction of DC maturation, IL-12 production, and stimulation of CD4 + T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production. (jimmunol.org)
  • Utilizing a human papillomavirus transgenic mouse model that develops cutaneous SCC in response to ultraviolet irradiation we identified tumor uptake of PA i n vivo . (frontiersin.org)
  • presentation
  • Although the function of CD1 remains elusive, several observations recently suggested that it might perform specialized functions of Ag presentation to specialized αβ T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • We found that Ag-conjugated human IgE Fc domain (Fcε) effectively delivered Ags to DCs and enhanced Ag presentation by 1000- to 2500-fold in human FcεRIα-transgenic mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • This presentation results in the unresponsiveness or deletion of self-reactive T cells ( 3 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • When IgE/FcεRI complexes are cross-linked by multivalent Ags, a strong inflammatory signal is transmitted to cells, resulting in degranulation of mast cells and basophils and Ag presentation and cytokine production in DCs and monocytes ( 21 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • To date, the low frequency of these DCs in human blood has essentially prevented functional studies defining their specific contribution to antigen presentation. (rupress.org)
  • More importantly, we demonstrate that CD141 + DCs excel in cross-presentation of soluble or cell-associated antigen to CD8 + T cells when directly compared with CD1c + DCs, CD16 + DCs, and pDCs from the same donors. (rupress.org)
  • Both in their functional XCR1 expression and their effective processing and presentation of exogenous antigen in the context of major histocompatibility complex class I, human CD141 + DCs correspond to mouse CD8 + DCs, a subset known for superior antigen cross-presentation in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • The adaptive immune response is initiated through presentation of antigen to T cells by DCs. (rupress.org)
  • reactivity
  • The genetic basis of this difference is not clear, but it appears to be associated with depressed Th1 cell reactivity ( 6 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • bacteria
  • bacteria was a natural Ag that could bind CD1d and stimulate the TCR of i NKT cells ( 15 - 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbes could trigger or protect from diabetes are not fully understood, especially the interaction of commensal bacteria with pathogenic CD8 T cells. (rupress.org)
  • clone
  • The AI4 clone was isolated from the earliest detectable islet infiltrates ( 7 ), and AI4 TCR transgenic NOD mice were subsequently shown to develop accelerated disease, even in the complete absence of CD4 + T cell help ( 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • human
  • As discussed in previous reviews ( 1 , 2 ), there is a need for unifying mouse and human nomenclature to facilitate communication between researchers studying these species. (jimmunol.org)
  • When a mouse Ly Ag is identified as a human CD homologue, the Ly number for the molecule is withdrawn and reassigned the appropriate CD number. (jimmunol.org)
  • If the mouse molecule was encoded by a gene that is assigned a Ly number, that gene name is withdrawn and reassigned a Cd number, unless another gene name was agreed on by the human and mouse nomenclature groups. (jimmunol.org)
  • As one example, the Ly-5 molecule of the mouse, encoded by Ly5 , was assigned CD45 in the human nomenclature for Ags and the gene name CD45 . (jimmunol.org)
  • Lyosphosphatidylcholine, a potential self-Ag that activated human i NKT cell lines, did not activate mouse i NKT cell hybridomas. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mouse ( 16 , 17 ) and human ( 18 ) CD1-specific cells exhibit a high frequency of autoreactivity to CD1-expressing cells, and are dependent on CD1 for selection ( 19 , 20 , 21 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This view was reinforced by the discovery that the human Ig loci were structured and rearranged in a manner essentially identical to that in mice ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • 2. Search for the major T cell antigens recognized by human T cells from the patients in the endemic area. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Based on our studies in the mouse, we were interested to determine whether human DCs express XCR1. (rupress.org)
  • cDNA
  • We intranasally immunized C57BL6 mice with syngeneic, bone marrow-derived DCs (JAWS II cells) transfected with a cDNA encoding the protective Coccidioides- Ag2/proline-rich Ag. (jimmunol.org)
  • The results suggest that the DCs have a potent immunostimulatory activity, and immunization with DCs transfected with Ag2/proline-rich Ag-cDNA induces protective immunity against C. posadasii in C57BL6 mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • immunotherapy
  • Adoptive T cell immunotherapy has shown promise in treating some cancers, but the challenge of isolating T cells with high avidity for tumor antigens limits large-scale applicability. (washington.edu)
  • However, CTA-targeted immunotherapy has been rather disappointing clinical setting for CTAs are downregulated by cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) methylation in their promoter regions, so that tumor cells have low immunogenicity. (hindawi.com)
  • species
  • Collectively, these results suggest that the events associated with B cell development in humans and mice may not be far removed from those in other species, such as sheep, in which antigen-independent diversification occurs in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). (rupress.org)
  • Comparison of proposed and proven mechanisms of B cell diversification in different species. (rupress.org)
  • Early B cell development in all species occurs in the bone marrow, where diversification is generated by recombination activating gene (RAG)-mediated combinatorial joining of the Ig gene segments. (rupress.org)
  • Infections of mice with rodent Plasmodium species are useful tools for investigating the immunobiology of blood-stage malaria. (jimmunol.org)
  • phenotypically and functionally
  • 5 ) on p. 1343 of this issue describe a phenotypically and functionally unique B cell subset that completes its development in the large intestine and shows evidence of postrearrangement repertoire diversification by SHM. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, retinal CD11c-eYFP + cells are phenotypically and functionally identical to microglia. (arvojournals.org)
  • hemopoietic cells
  • We have now generated a panel of nine anti-CD1 mAbs and examined the form and the pattern of CD1.1 and CD1.2 surface expression by hemopoietic cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • subsets
  • However, control of immune pathology is not restricted to CD4 + CD25 + cells, and there is evidence that CD4 + CD25 − T cells also possess some regulatory activity ( 18 , 20 , 25 ), although the relationship between these phenotypically distinct subsets of T R cells is not known. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD11c
  • We hypothesised that retinal CD11c-eYFP + cells are a subset of microglia and thus would have a limited capacity to present antigen to naïve T cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • CD11c-eYFP Crb1 wt/wt mice received an i.p injection of LPS (9mg/kg, n=23) or saline (n=18) and retinas were collected 24h later for confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. (arvojournals.org)
  • For functional studies, retinal CD11c-eYFP + cells and microglia (CD45 lo YFP - ) were isolated from CD11c-eYFP Crb1 wt/wt mice (n=20) 24h post-LPS injection by FACS. (arvojournals.org)
  • Retinal CD11c-eYFP + cells retracted their processes and displayed a stout morphology 24h post-LPS injection. (arvojournals.org)
  • To confirm that expression of CFSE by CD11c + cells following coculture with CFSE-labeled pRBCs represents internalization of pRBC by DCs, we showed colocalization of CFSE-labeled pRBCs and PE-labeled CD11c + DCs by confocal fluorescence microscopy. (jimmunol.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • Acinar cells were also labeled on lateral membranes, and the capillary endothelial cells were labeled on both the luminal and albuminal aspects of their surface membranes. (rupress.org)
  • MECA-32 is a 60 kDa transmembrane homodimer which is expressed on the surface of most endothelial cells. (bxcell.com)
  • molecule
  • The development and activation of i NKT cells is dependent on self-Ags presented by the CD1d Ag-presenting molecule. (jimmunol.org)
  • i NKT cells recognize lipid Ags presented by CD1d, an MHC class I-like Ag-presenting molecule. (jimmunol.org)
  • Surface molecule cross-linking often triggers stimulatory signaling in cells, the outcome of which varies depending on cell type ( 16 - 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • humans
  • In addition to differences in DNA sequence, evolutionary divergence between mice and humans may also be manifested in Ag distribution. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recent studies in mouse models and humans have shown that gut microbiota play an important role in disease development. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, altered gut microbiota are associated with β cell autoimmunity in humans at risk of developing T1D, underscoring a role for gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of antiislet cell autoimmunity and T1D development. (rupress.org)
  • Previous studies from this laboratory and others have shown that transfer of CD4 + CD45RB high T cells, a predominantly naive population, from the periphery of normal mice to SCID recipients leads to the development of a Th1-mediated colitis with similarities to IBD in humans ( 3 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Whereas FcεRI is expressed only by mast cells and basophils in steady state mice, it is additionally expressed by DCs and monocytes in humans ( 21 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • transfectant
  • The cattle DR-expressing L-cell transfectant generated was analyzed serologically, biochemically, and functionally. (www.gov.uk)
  • SCID
  • Injection of HAdV-2 into tumours established by NMuMG-T in SCID mice caused reduced tumour growth and signs of intratumoural lesions. (diva-portal.org)
  • innate
  • However, there is a substantial gap in our knowledge of how islet autoimmunity mediated by CD8 + T cells is shaped by innate immunity and the gut microbiota. (rupress.org)
  • These results highlight the importance of adaptive type 1 immune mechanisms for host resistance to blood-stage malaria and the need to identify critical components of the innate immune response that promote development of IFN-γ-producing CD4 + Th1 cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Early interactions between blood-stage parasites and cells of the innate immune system are thought to be important in shaping the adaptive immune response to blood-stage malaria. (jimmunol.org)
  • pathogenic
  • These pathogenic cells enrich within the CD25 − subset and are not recent thymic emigrants. (jimmunol.org)
  • This potentially pathogenic population of Ag-experienced T cells is subject to T cell-mediated regulation in vivo by both CD4 + CD25 + and CD4 + CD25 − cells in an IL-10-dependent manner. (jimmunol.org)
  • cytokine
  • Although several cytokines, such as IL-12 in synergy with IL-15 or IL-18, may result in Th1 cell development ( 3 , 4 ), IFN-γ is the central effector cytokine mediating protective immunity to blood-stage malaria infection ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • indicate
  • Taken together, these data indicate that colitogenic Th1 cells enter into the Ag-experienced pool in normal mice, but that their function is controlled by regulatory T cells and IL-10. (jimmunol.org)
  • These results indicate that immature but antigen-specific T cells play a role in the pathogenesis of ongoing myocarditis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Collectively, these observations indicate that the XCL1-XCR1 communication axis optimizes the cooperation of antigen-specific CD8 + T cells with XCR1 + DCs, which cross-present antigen to them. (rupress.org)