Loading...
  • mRNAs
  • In most of the species studied, including the fruit fly, nematode, sea urchin, frog and possibly in fish, the establishment of axes, diversification of cell types and morphological changes during early embryogenesis rely partly on the maternally stored mRNAs (e.g. (biologists.org)
  • In an interesting twist, it turns out that for mRNAs that must be degraded during the cell cycle, their fate is decided at the time of their birth. (ibiology.org)
  • Localization of mRNAs at Synaptic Sites on Dendrites. (bookdepository.com)
  • Localizing mRNAs are shuttled to specific areas of the cell or the organism along cytoskeletal elements such as microtubules or actin filaments. (biologists.org)
  • The mRNAs typically travel from the cell body in granules that contain several copies of the mRNA or several types of mRNA. (biologists.org)
  • Maturation of eukaryotic mRNAs involves intricate co- and posttranscriptional RNA processing, which has critical functions in regulating gene expression and diversifying the transcriptome. (plantphysiol.org)
  • It is now clear that these different classes of RNA, including rRNAs, tRNAs, mRNAs and snRNAs, are specifically directed into distinct but in some cases partially overlapping nuclear export pathways. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, recent reports have shown that the protein interacts with the 3′UTRs of specific mRNAs. (biologists.org)
  • Exosomes contain specific repertoires of mRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) and other non-coding RNAs that can be functionally transferred to recipient cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1993
  • In sqd mutants, grk RNA is mislocalized and translated around the entire anterior of the oocyte producing ectopic EGFR activation and induction of excess dorsal cell fates, which results in an expansion of dorsal appendage material around the anterior circumference of the egg ( Kelley, 1993 ). (biologists.org)
  • The initial polarizing signal from the oocyte to the follicle cells is determined by gurken ( grk ) , which encodes a secreted transforming growth factor α (TGFα)-like protein ( Neuman-Silberberg and Schüpbach, 1993 ). (biologists.org)
  • 1993 ) Discrete sequence elements control posterior pole accumulation and translational repression of maternal cyclin B RNA in Drosophila . (biologists.org)
  • gene expression
  • Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that goblet cell-specific expression of reporter begins deep in the crypts, as does endogenous MUC2 gene expression. (physiology.org)
  • the mammalian intestinal mucosa undergoes constant and rapid renewal throughout life and provides an excellent opportunity for the study of gene expression and differentiation in highly specialized cells ( 8 ). (physiology.org)
  • TDP-43 (also known as TARDBP) regulates different processes of gene expression, including transcription and splicing, through RNA and DNA binding. (biologists.org)
  • Drosophila
  • 1992 ) Use of a yeast site-specific recombinase to produce female germline chimeras in Drosophila . (biologists.org)
  • 1996 ) hedgehog is required for the proliferation and specification of ovarian somatic cells prior to egg chamber formation in Drosophila . (biologists.org)
  • 1995 ) Mechanisms of cell rearrangement and cell recruitment in Drosophila ovary morphogenesis and the requirement of bric-a-brac . (biologists.org)
  • In the developing Drosophila embryo, the first dramatic defect resulting from failure in the proper formation of junctions is seen during the apical constrictions of the ventral cells of the blastoderm epithelium that lead to the invagination of the mesoderm ( 17 , 71 ). (asm.org)
  • 1998
  • Egfr activation in the follicle cells produces two delayed consequences: generating DV polarity of the embryo and patterning the eggshell dorsal appendages ( Roth, 1998 ). (biologists.org)
  • accumulation
  • Unlike other reverse transcriptases, telomerase is unique in that it is a ribonucleoprotein complex, where the RNA component [telomerase RNA (TR)] not only provides the template for the synthesis of telomere DNA repeats but also plays essential roles in catalysis, accumulation, TR 3′-end processing, localization, and holoenzyme assembly. (pnas.org)
  • A cell line containing an integrated latent genome that could be induced to express viral RNA after phorbol ester stimulation showed an increase in viral RNA accumulation in mitochondria parallel with the increase in HIV expression levels. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • RhoGEF2 accumulates apically in mesodermal cells prior to constriction and is necessary for the apical accumulation of myosin and apical constriction ( 5 , 26 , 28 , 54 ). (asm.org)
  • oocyte
  • We find that some otu alleles produce dorsalized eggs and it appears that Otu cooperates with Hrb27C and Sqd in the oocyte to mediate proper grk localization. (biologists.org)
  • Grk is a TGFα-like ligand that is produced in the oocyte and signals to the EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) expressed in all follicle cells that comprise the epithelium surrounding the germline cells. (biologists.org)
  • The initial asymmetry for embryonic DV polarity is established at mid-oogenesis in the oocyte and is subsequently conveyed to the surrounding follicle cells. (biologists.org)
  • cytokines
  • 3 4 These cells release numerous lymphokines, cytokines, immunoglobulins, growth factors, and inflammatory mediators, which can be identified by immunohistochemistry. (bmj.com)
  • 3 The messenger RNAs of many cytokines and growth factors can be detected by molecular histological techniques. (bmj.com)
  • Human cells possess intricate nucleic acid recognition processes for monitoring cellular stress and pathogen infection, which trigger the production and release of interferons and cytokines to alert neighboring cells including cells of the immune system. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Therapeutics
  • Primary cells provide extremely accurate information and relevant results in research, serving as the most ideal cell models for a vast variety of research, from fundamental cell biology and physiology, developmental biology, disease mechanisms, to drug screening and therapeutics development. (list.ly)
  • Our central goals are to identify the factors and signaling pathways that promote prostate cancer initiation and progression to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in tumor initiating cells in order to develop novel therapeutics to target these tumor cells. (stanford.edu)
  • Also, our most recent identification of a VEGF-A-responsive large intergenic RNA(lincRNA), that we termed lincRNA-VEGFR1 (LIVE1), is a key mediator of angiogenesis in a glioblastoma xenograft model and demonstrates the exciting potential of lincRNA-based therapeutics. (utoronto.ca)
  • maternal
  • These analyses revealed that a small fraction of the maternal RNAs were localized in the eight-cell embryo, and that 7.9% of the clones were exclusively maternal, while 40.6% of the maternal clones showed expression in the later stages. (biologists.org)
  • bind
  • The TEN domain interacts with the ss telomere DNA repeats, the TRBD domain binds multiple sites of TR, and the RT and C-terminal extension domains bind the RNA/DNA hybrid and catalyze the addition of DNA repeats onto the 3′ end ( 27 , 31 - 34 ). (pnas.org)
  • Like sqd , hrb27C mutants lay eggs with dorsoventral defects and Hrb27C can directly bind to grk RNA. (biologists.org)
  • The C-terminal tail of TDP-43 does not bind RNA but is necessary to modulate the splicing of CFTR exon 9, probably through the recruitment of an hnRNP complex. (biologists.org)
  • eggshell
  • Their diverse localizations have suggested that the different dec-1 derivatives might play different roles in the assembly and stabilization of the mature eggshell (Nogueron et al. (biologists.org)
  • heterogeneous
  • Singer begins by explaining that cell cultures are heterogeneous and analyzing single cells provides spatial and temporal information not available from bulk analysis. (ibiology.org)
  • interactions
  • Although our knowledge of the components of the mRNP complexes is growing, the list we give here is by no means comprehensive and merely a general impression of the multitude of interactions necessary for the localization process. (biologists.org)
  • Both aspects are relevant for the investigation of microbe-habitat interactions why a correlative detection of microbial cells would be useful. (asmscience.org)
  • exon
  • Previously, we have shown that TDP-43 strongly inhibits exon splicing through the specific recruitment to 3′ splice sites (for a review see Buratti and Baralle, 2008 ). (biologists.org)
  • intron
  • The half-lives of intron locus RNAs were quantified by measuring RNA levels following actinomycin D treatment in a qRT-PCR-based assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The termini of the precursor RNA that is processed to produce the intron were identified and we demonstrate that the m106 open reading frame, which resides on the spliced mRNA derived from precursor processing, can be translated during infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Detection
  • The basic principal and potential of this method is described in this chapter giving an overview on the development steps of gold-targeted cell detection as well. (asmscience.org)
  • epithelial
  • Although telomerase has a low or undetectable level of activity in most somatic cells, it is active in some germline, epithelial, and hematopoietic cells, and it is highly active in the majority (∼90%) of cancer cell lines ( 10 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Small intestinal epithelial cells begin their existence as the daughter cells of one or a small number of stem cells located approximately four cell positions from the base of the crypts. (physiology.org)
  • The downregulation of adherens junctions is a prerequisite for epithelial-mesenchymal transitions, for example, during gastrulation, neurulation, or metastatic behavior of tumor cells. (asm.org)