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  • embryos
  • In accordance with the guidelines, these stem cell lines were derived from embryos that were donated under ethically sound informed consent processes," he added in a statement. (medindia.net)
  • They allow funding for research using human embryonic stem cells derived from embryos created by in vitro fertilization (IVF) for reproductive purposes and no longer needed, in a departure from the Bush administration's policy. (medindia.net)
  • Bush barred federal funding from supporting work on new lines of stem cells derived from human embryos in 2001, allowing research only on a small number of already existing embryonic stem cell lines. (medindia.net)
  • The line is the culmination of years of planning and preparation and was made possible by Michigan voters' November 2008 approval of a state constitutional amendment permitting scientists here to derive embryonic stem cell lines using surplus embryos from fertility clinics or embryos with genetic abnormalities and not suitable for implantation. (healthcanal.com)
  • Functional studies on these cells have so far been impossible because murine embryos of the corresponding stage are very small, and cardiac precursor cells cannot be identified because of the lack of cross striation and spontaneous contractions. (rupress.org)
  • In mouse embryos, Gdf3 is expressed in the inner cell mass and epiblast, and null mutants frequently exhibit abnormal formation or positioning of the AVE. This phenotype correlates with defects in mesoderm and definitive endoderm formation, as well as abnormal Nodal expression levels. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • ESCs, isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocyst stage embryos, were first derived from mouse embryos, 1-3 followed by the derivation of primate 4 , 5 and human 6 , 7 ESC lines. (wiley.com)
  • Although human embryonic stem cells can be isolated from aborted fetuses and/or embryos produced by in vitro fertilization techniques on an as-needed basis, alternate sources, such as cultured embryonic stem cell lines, are preferred both for ethical and economic reasons. (google.es)
  • Melton, in collaboration with Kevin Eggan and Douglas Powers of Boston IVF , has already created 31 stem cell lines using left-over frozen embryos donated by couples who went through in vitro fertilization (IVF), and has distributed those stem cell lines to scientists around the world. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Martin, G. R. (1981) Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells. (springer.com)
  • Evans, M. J. and Kaufman, H. M. (1981) Establishment in culture of pluripotent cells from mouse embryos. (springer.com)
  • Because of the known difficulties to obtain cardiomyocytes of the very early developmental stages from the mammalian embryos (eg, before day 12 to 13 of gestation in mouse), we have used for the present study an in vitro model of cardiomyogenesis based on pluripotent mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • At that stage of development, the donated embryos consist of a cluster of cells about the size of the period at the end of this sentence. (healthcanal.com)
  • In the months and years ahead, donated embryos will be used to create cell lines that carry the genes responsible for myotonic dystrophy, Huntington's disease, Rett syndrome, spinal muscular atrophy and Tay-Sachs disease, for example. (healthcanal.com)
  • Under the arrangement between the company and the university, patients with embryos that test positive for a genetic disease now have the option of donating those embryos to the U-M Consortium for Stem Cell Therapies if they have decided not to use them for reproductive purposes and the embryos would otherwise be discarded. (healthcanal.com)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells have been established as permanent lines of undifferentiated pluripotent cells from early mouse embryos. (ahajournals.org)
  • Stem cell biology has been the subject of much recent discussion, but only the totipotent fertilized oocyte and blastomere cells of embryos at the 2- to 8-cell stage are capable of generating a fully viable organism. (ahajournals.org)
  • therapies
  • However, those stem cells were triploid, meaning they had three sets of chromosomes, and therefore could not be used for new therapies. (medindia.net)
  • The investigators overcame the final hurdle in making personalized stem cells that can be used to develop personalized cell therapies. (medindia.net)
  • This is significant, because acceptance of these cells on the registry demonstrates our attention to details of proper oversight, consenting, and following of NIH guidelines established in 2009," says Gary Smith, Ph.D., who derived the line and also is co-director of the U-M Consortium for Stem Cell Therapies, part of the A. Alfred Taubman Medical Research Institute. (healthcanal.com)
  • As we discuss here, technical advances in the propagation and manipulation of human ES cells have improved our understanding of their growth and differentiation, providing the potential to investigate early human development and to develop new clinical therapies. (biologists.org)
  • This may mean that these stem cells will have unique characteristics and utilities in understanding CMT disease progression or screening therapies in comparison to other human embryonic stem cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We are proud to provide this cell line to the scientific community, in hopes that it may aid the search for new treatments and even a cure for CMT," says Gary Smith, Ph.D., who derived the line and also is co-director of the U-M Consortium for Stem Cell Therapies, part of the A. Alfred Taubman Medical Research Institute. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Stem cell lines that carry genetic traits linked to specific diseases are a model system to investigate what causes these diseases and come up with treatments," says Sue O'Shea, Ph.D., professor of Cell and Developmental Biology at the U-M Medical School, and co-director of the Consortium for Stem Cell Therapies. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells have no antigenicity and thus are well-suited for therapies involving introduction of stem cells into the human body. (google.es)
  • It is envisaged that the development of methods enabling controlled differentiation of mouse ES cell counterparts from human blastocysts would enable the provision of an unlimited supply of tissue for cell and tissue transplantation therapies for the repair and replacement of diseased, injured, and senescent tissue. (currentprotocols.com)
  • All our efforts are finally starting to bear fruit," said Gary Smith, co-director of the U-M Consortium for Stem Cell Therapies and leader of the cell-line derivation project. (healthcanal.com)
  • These are the first of many disease-specific human embryonic stem cell lines that researchers at the U-M Consortium for Stem Cell Therapies intend to develop," said consortium co-director Sue O'Shea, a professor of cell and developmental biology at the Medical School. (healthcanal.com)
  • ectoderm
  • Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • This previously unidentified progenitor occurs as a temporally discrete population during ES cell differentiation, and differs from the preceding and succeeding populations in gene expression and differentiation potential, with the unique ability to form surface ectoderm in response to BMP4 signalling. (biologists.org)
  • The ability to form, recognize and manipulate the differentiation of definitive ectoderm is crucial to understanding the determination of cell fate in the ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • The ability to progress via a definitive ectoderm intermediate will underpin the development of rational and efficient methodologies for the derivation of specific ectodermal cell populations from pluripotent cells in culture for use as experimental models or to produce cells with therapeutic applications. (biologists.org)
  • and predicts formation of a cell population equivalent to the definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • The epiblast cells egress through the PS to generate the nascent mesoderm in between the primitive ectoderm and the overlying visceral endoderm. (biologists.org)
  • genes
  • Recently, an alternative method for deriving pluripotent cells by retroviral transduction of a combination of embryonic genes into somatic cells was reported, first by Yamanaka's group, followed shortly thereafter by several other groups independently. (wiley.com)
  • The differentiated cells can be analyzed by real-time PCR and flow cytometry to confirm enrichment of EC-specific genes and proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • At one time, scientists believed the differences among cell types arose from various sets of genes switched on inside developing cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Then, studies showed that adult neurons uniquely lack a protein that permanently turns off neuronal genes in the rest of the body's cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In fact, the protein directs the complex network of genes that transforms an embryonic stem cell into a mature nerve cell, say Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This new study, published in the May 20, 2005, issue of the journal Cell, may be among the first to track a set of genes from stem cell to differentiated neuron. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In contrast to the tight packaging of neural genes in other cells, REST keeps the chromatin in embryonic stem and precursor neurons open and poised for gene activity. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The cell then triggers the expression of an ensemble of genes that coordinates nervous system development by removing REST in three distinct phases, ending with shutting down the REST gene. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer involves removing nuclei, which contain the cellular DNA (genes) from egg cells, and replacing them with the nuclei of donor cells. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The two new U-M lines would be the only lines on the federal registry to carry the genes for hemophilia B and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. (healthcanal.com)
  • However, multiple controversies continue to circulate around the role of particular genes in stem cells versus differentiated tissues (for example, N-cadherin [ 7 ]), and the extent to which the activation of various stem cell-like programs and pathways occurs across various tissues and diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • developmental
  • How useful a tool will these cells be for studying these developmental stages? (biologists.org)
  • and ( ii ) manipulated differentiation begins with the removal of differentiation inhibitory factors, but at some point the cells are usually disaggregated and cultured with specific added factors to purify or to increase the proportion of cells that acquire a particular developmental fate. (springer.com)
  • Gene keeps neural cells on correct developmental path ( Embryonic stem cells with identical gen. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It also reveals fundamental details of how stem cells retain developmental plasticity. (bio-medicine.org)
  • First, developmental mimicking attempts to generate HSCs from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) by recapitulating the embryonic developmental steps towards HSCs in vitro through temporally controlled exposure to signaling factors and inhibitors. (springer.com)
  • Culture of mouse ES cells as embryoid bodies (EBs) has provided a convenient system for studying early mouse developmental processes, including several aspects of extraembryonic lineage and axis formation associated with the pre‐ and peri‐gastrulating mouse embryo. (currentprotocols.com)
  • In early developmental stage (EDS) cells (from 7+3d to 7+5d), the stimulatory response to forskolin and 8-bromo-cAMP was relatively weak. (ahajournals.org)
  • endothelial
  • Sustained Expansion and Transgene Expression of Coagulation Factor VIII-Transduced Cord Blood-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells. (blutspende.de)
  • Editorial: Pearson JD: Using Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Gene Therapy. (blutspende.de)
  • Here, we describe a method for differentiating, isolating, and expanding endothelial cells (ECs) from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Methods for developing differentiated endothelial cells from EBs are well established and the corresponding gene expression patterns are well characterized ( 4 - 6 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Embryonic stem cells have been directly differentiated toward specific lineages without first making EBs by using conditioned medium for endothelial differentiation of ESC in collagen IV plates ( 7 , 8 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Embryoid bodies can be directed to give rise to hemangioblasts, which subsequently undergo further differentiation into either hematopoietic or endothelial cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • After EBs are formed and exposed to endothelial differentiation medium containing VEGF, a heterogeneous cell population, including mesenchymal, hematopoietic, and epithelial cells, emerges. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Endothelial cells typically comprise 15-20% of the differentiated ES cells. (springer.com)
  • The adherence of Mø to endothelial cells is one of the first events detected in experimental animals fed an atherogenic diet. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chen MJ, Yokomizo T, Zeigler BM et al (2009) Runx1 is required for the endothelial to haematopoietic cell transition but not thereafter. (springer.com)
  • In the present study, we therefore compared blood pressure variability in knockout mice that lack specifically the gene for endothelial nitric oxide synthase with their respective wild-type controls. (ahajournals.org)
  • On the basis of these results, we conclude that the blood pressure buffering effect of endogenous nitric oxide is mediated by the endothelial isoform of the nitric oxide synthase. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition, endothelial nitric oxide is most effective in buffering blood pressure oscillations at frequencies that range from 0.05 to 0.40 s −1 (Hz) in conscious mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • This mechanical stimulus would increase the cytosolic Ca 2+ content in the endothelial cells, which in turn would activate the endothelial isoform of NO synthase (eNOS). (ahajournals.org)
  • First, with the use of knockout mice in which the eNOS isoform was specifically mutated, 14 15 we investigated whether NO that is generated by the endothelial isoform of NO synthase is involved in the blood pressure-buffering effect of NO. Second, with the use of power spectral analysis, we determined the frequency range in which endothelium-derived NO can buffer blood pressure variability in mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • Harvard Stem Cell Institute
  • By HSCI, After more than two years of intensive ethical and scientific review, Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) researchers at Harvard and Children's Hospital Boston have been cleared to begin experiments using Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) to create disease-specific stem cell lines in an effort to develop treatments for a wide range of now-incurable conditions afflicting tens of millions of people. (rxpgnews.com)
  • gene expression
  • Using a Brachyury -GFP/E2-Crimson reporter mESC line, we isolated Brachyury- GFP + mesoderm cells using flow-activated cell sorting and compared their gene expression profiles and ex vivo differentiation patterns. (biologists.org)
  • Schmitt, R. M., Bruyns, E., and Snodgrass, H. R. (1991) Hematopoietic development of embryonic stem cells in vitro: cytokine and receptor gene expression. (springer.com)
  • Using this profile, we derive a quantitative measure of stem cell-like gene expression activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show how this 189 gene signature stratifies a variety of stem cell, malignant and normal tissue samples by their relative plasticity and state of differentiation within Concordia, a diverse gene expression database consisting of 3,209 Affymetrix HGU133+ 2.0 microarray assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This core stemness gene expression signature represents a quantitative measure of stem cell-associated transcriptional activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pluripotency
  • Although undesirable, teratomas have been used as a marker for the ability of stem cells to be able to develop pluripotency. (phys.org)
  • A protein that helps maintain mouse stem cell pluripotency has been identified by researchers at the RIKEN Omics Science Center. (phys.org)
  • hESCs
  • Much of our current knowledge of the molecular expression profile of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is based on transcriptional approaches. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Twenty-two phosphorylation events in cell signaling molecules, as well as potential new markers of undifferentiated hESCs were also identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fundamental to this understanding is the elucidation of the transcriptome and proteome of hESCs, using approaches that lay a framework for functional analyses of the unique properties of these cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • tissue
  • 4 Its use can be limited, however, by a requirement for the eliminated gene product in normal animal development, either in a cell type relevant to the disease under investigation or in an entirely unrelated tissue. (ahajournals.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells are the master cells of the body, capable of developing into any tissue type. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Under these assumptions, expression profiles derived from resected tumor samples (comprising both the cancer stem cells and their differentiated progeny) should broadly resemble those of the normal tissue of origin, with a degree of stem cell like activity also apparent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • neurodegenerative diseases
  • Led by HHMI associate Nurit Ballas, a postdoctoral fellow in Mandel's lab, the study may advance stem cell research aimed at understanding repairing spinal cord injuries or replacing malfunctioning brain cells in neurodegenerative diseases. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In the HSCI experiments, aimed at understanding diseases, the nuclei will be taken from skin cells donated by patients suffering from diabetes, blood diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. (rxpgnews.com)
  • biology
  • We expect these cells will be used by investigators worldwide to enhance our understanding of stem cell biology, and together with disease-specific lines, discover treatments and cures for genetic diseases," says Smith, who is a professor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University of Michigan Medical School. (healthcanal.com)
  • In this article, we review aspects of primate embryology that are relevant to ES cell biology, survey the similarities and differences between mouse and primate ES cells, and then discuss recent advances in hES cell technology, and in understanding primate ES cell differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • These analyses are only partly predictive of protein expression however, and do not shed light on post-translational regulation, leaving a large gap in our knowledge of the biology of pluripotent stem cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • feeder
  • In addition to eliminating teratomas, the proposed system also significantly reduces the workload involved in the preparation of new feeder lines," they concluded. (phys.org)
  • derive
  • Bertrand JY, Chi NC, Santoso B et al (2010) Haematopoietic stem cells derive directly from aortic endothelium during development. (springer.com)
  • 2001
  • Ambler CA, Nowicki JL, Burke AC, Bautch VL (2001) Assembly of trunk and limb blood vessels involves extensive migration and vasculogenesis of somite-derived angioblasts. (springer.com)
  • 18, 2001, entitled EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS, CLINICAL APPLICATIONS AND METHODS FOR EXPANDING IN VITRO, the contents of which are hereby expressly incorporated herein by reference. (google.es)
  • development
  • Functional ryanodine-sensitive Ca 2+ stores, detected by caffeine-induced Ca 2+ release, appeared in most GFP-positive cells 1-2 d after I Ca . Coexpression of both I Ca and ryanodine-sensitive Ca 2+ stores at day 10 of development coincided with the beginning of spontaneous contractions in most EBs. (rupress.org)
  • Such a pre-determination model of germ cell specification assures that germ cells are set-aside during the earliest steps of embryonic development, protecting them from the lineage specification and differentiation events that craft the body plan of the embryo. (stembook.org)
  • As mentioned, in many species, including mammals, orthologs of other Drosophila germ plasm components have been identified and have been shown to play a role in germ cell development. (stembook.org)
  • Such restriction of GJIC and the segregation of cells into communication compartment domains are almost always associated with embryogenesis and development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Second, HSC development from PSCs is recapitulated randomly inside a forming teratoma in vivo , and hematopoietic differentiation can be enhanced and directed using hematopoietic stromal cells and cytokines. (springer.com)
  • Cerdan C, Rouleau A, Bhatia M (2004) VEGF-A165 augments erythropoietic development from human embryonic stem cells. (springer.com)
  • 5 Despite recent advances in the understanding of the β-adrenergic modulation of the Ca 2+ channel during embryonic 6 and postnatal development, 7 the establishment of this important signaling cascade during cardiomyocyte development is still unresolved. (ahajournals.org)
  • Exploitation of ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes has facilitated the analysis of early cardiac development and has permitted in vitro "gain-of-function" or "loss-of-function" genetic studies. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recently, human ES cell lines have been established that can be used to investigate cardiac development and the function of human heart cells and to determine the basic strategies of regenerative cell therapy. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 As development proceeds and a stem cell becomes committed to a specific lineage or decreases its proliferative potential, it is usually described as a progenitor cell. (ahajournals.org)
  • isolation
  • however, isolation of the cell nuclei from these skin biopsies could not be conducted in the federally funded laboratories at Columbia, necessitating a safe-haven laboratory to complete the research. (medindia.net)
  • 2002
  • 2002 ). The functional significance of both these early germ cell markers is unclear, but Blimp-1 knockout studies have demonstrated an essential role for this gene in germ cell determination (Ohinata et al. (stembook.org)
  • SCNT
  • Even though many people questioned the necessity of continuing our SCNT work, we felt it was critical to advance all types of stem-cell research in pursuit of cures. (medindia.net)
  • Ms. Solomon opened NYSCF's privately funded laboratory on March 1, 2006, to facilitate the creation of type 1 diabetes patient-specific embryonic stem cells using SCNT. (medindia.net)