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  • receptors
  • Our data demonstrated that Abl and Arg were activated downstream of chemokine receptors and mediated the chemokine-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of human enhancer of filamentation 1 (HEF1), an adaptor protein that is required for the activity of the guanosine triphosphatase Rap1, which mediates cell adhesion and migration. (sciencemag.org)
  • They are initially negative for CD16, killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs), 3 perforin, and most natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs). (jimmunol.org)
  • Specialized gamma delta T cells , (a small minority of T cells in the human body , more frequent in ruminants ), have invariant T-cell receptors with limited diversity, that can effectively present antigens to other T cells and are considered to be part of the innate immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Broadly, ILCs are defined by their lymphoid lineage and their lack of RAG-mediated recombined antigen receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • and signal 2 is thus required, which is delivered through interactions between costimulatory receptors and complementary ligands on T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we describe clinical features of XLP1, how molecular and biological studies of the gene product, SAP, and the associated signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family receptors have provided insight into disease pathogenesis including specific immune cell defects, and current therapeutic approaches including the potential use of gene therapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • tumor cells
  • In addition, a single area of iatrogenically displaced tumor cells was identified in the granulation tissue of the core biopsy site (Figure 8). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Natural killer cells have been described as innate immune effectors, able to exert a prompt cytolytic activity against infected and tumor cells without prior stimulation ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cytotoxic T cells (T C cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also implicated in transplant rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • This month's cover image shows a liver tumor nodule following injection of colorectal cancer cells depleted of PKLR (liver and red blood cell pyruvate kinase), with staining for tumor cells (luciferase, green), apoptotic cells (cleaved caspase-3, red), and nuclei (DAPI, blue). (jci.org)
  • Tumor cells are positive in monocytic leukemia and true histiocytic lymphomas for CD14. (biogenex.com)
  • functionally
  • The classic view of granulocytes as terminally differentiated, short-lived phagocytes is therefore changing to phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous cells that are engaged in cross-talk with other leukocyte populations and provide an additional link between innate and adaptive immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • This was important functionally, as administration of an anti-CD134L mAb inhibited the proliferation of T cells in the MLNs as well as their expression of the gut-homing integrin α 4 β 7 . (jimmunol.org)
  • CD25 + CD4 + cells have also been shown to prevent the development of autoimmune disease induced after T cell depletion, indicating that functionally specialized Treg cells, present in the Ag-experienced pool of normal mice, play an important role in the control of peripheral T cell responses ( 18 , 19 , 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • stromal cells
  • 7 , - , 9 More recently, IL-17-producing T cells have been reported in the RA synovium, where they are thought to promote inflammation by activating local stromal cells. (bmj.com)
  • Based on these results, it has been proposed that a membrane-bound OC factor on stromal cells would stimulate differentiation of OC progenitors as well as activate mature OCs. (rupress.org)
  • As a consequence, activated stromal cells up-regulate the expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and the structural chemokines CCL21, CCL19, and CXCL13. (rupress.org)
  • Chemokine
  • Chemokine signaling is critical for T cell function during homeostasis and inflammation and directs T cell polarity and migration through the activation of specific intracellular pathways. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we uncovered a previously uncharacterized role for the Abl family tyrosine kinases Abl and Arg in the regulation of T cell-dependent inflammatory responses and showed that the Abl family kinases were required for chemokine-induced T cell polarization and migration. (sciencemag.org)
  • Phosphorylation of HEF1 by Abl family kinases and activation of Rap1 were required for chemokine-induced T cell migration. (sciencemag.org)
  • These findings suggest that Abl family kinases are potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of T cell-dependent immune disorders that are characterized by chemokine-mediated inflammation. (sciencemag.org)
  • molecules
  • Helper T cells become activated when they are presented with peptide antigens by MHC class II molecules, which are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells recognize their targets by binding to antigen associated with MHC class I molecules, which are present on the surface of all nucleated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through IL-10 , adenosine, and other molecules secreted by regulatory T cells , the CD8 + cells can be inactivated to an anergic state, which prevents autoimmune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • To be classified as a professional APC, a cell should have the ability of antigen acquisition and processing as well as exhibit accessory molecules allowing them to interact with T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD154 , also called CD40 ligand or CD40L , is a cell surface protein that mediates T cell helper function in a contact-dependent process and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mature types of mTECs express MHC molecules and co-stimulatory molecules essential for antigen presentation to developing T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is now widely accepted that T cell activation involves signals transduced by the TCR complex after recognition of Ag as well as from costimulatory molecules after encounter with their ligands present on APC ( 21 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • These conclusions were reached on the basis of a series of elegant experiments using mice genetically engineered to lack either major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I or class II molecules, or mice lacking CD4 + or CD8 + T cells (4-11). (scielo.br)
  • helper
  • This includes helper , killer , regulatory , and potentially other T cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T helper cells ( T h cells ), also known as CD4 cells , are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system , particularly in the adaptive immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Such CD4 + T cells are generally treated as having a pre-defined role as helper T cells within the immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • CD154 acts as a costimulatory molecule and is particularly important on a subset of T cells called T follicular helper cells (T FH cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • The importance of helper T cells can be seen from HIV , a virus that primarily infects CD4 + T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen presentation stimulates naïve CD8+ and CD4+ T cells to respectively become mature "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells and "helper" CD4+ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T helper cell type 1 (Th1) response is essential to resist leishmaniasis, whereas the Th2 response favors the disease. (scielo.br)
  • subset
  • Recently, these regulatory T (Treg) cells have been shown to be contained within the CD25 + CD45RB low CD4 + subset and to be dependent on CTLA4 for their function ( 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The CD4 + subset of T cells is crucial for resistance, whereas CD8 + T cells seem to participate more in the memory events of the immune response than as effector cells involved in parasite elimination. (scielo.br)
  • homeostasis
  • The role of CTLA-4 in regulating homeostasis and antigen reactivity of CD8 + T cells has been examined in three different MHC class I-restricted TCR transgenic mouse strains ( 21 - 23 ). (pnas.org)
  • Malignancies
  • Malignancies arising from benign glandular inclusions in lymph nodes have rarely been described in pelvic lymph nodes containing mullerian carcinomas, (6,7) thyroid, (8) salivary glands, (9) and the axilla. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Together, this study identifies CD37 as a tumor suppressor that directly protects against B cell lymphomagenesis and provides a strong rationale for blocking the IL-6 pathway in patients with CD37- B cell malignancies as a possible therapeutic intervention. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Three of these males had IM either immediately prior to or concurrent with the development of disease, which included fatal IM, hemophagocytic syndrome, and B cell malignancies, as well as humoral immune defects such as dysgammaglobulinemia. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD56
  • Ninety-five percent of the NK cells in blood are CD56 dim CD16 + perforin + cells, while the remainder are CD56 bright CD16 − perforin − cells ( 3 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • cytokine
  • Therefore, the primary objective of this study was systematically to assess the cytokine messenger RNA expression profiles in the five largest cell populations in the synovial fluid and peripheral blood of RA patients. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions RANKL, the key cytokine driving bone destruction by osteoclast activation, is produced by synovial B cells in RA. (bmj.com)
  • Early studies of T-cell cytokine production in RA indicated that synovial T cells produce low levels of interleukin (IL) 2 and interferon gamma (IFNγ). (bmj.com)
  • Ag-specific T cell cytokine expression is dictated by the context in which TCR engagement occurs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Detailed examination of the DNA methylation patterns in T cells have been reported for the prototypical Th1 cytokine gene Ifng and the Th2 cytokine gene cluster consisting of Il4 , Il13 , and Il5 . (jimmunol.org)
  • The absence of CTLA-4 also augments the responder frequency of cytokine-secreting AND TCR + RAG −/− T cells. (pnas.org)
  • arise
  • 3 , 4 ] Although the exact origin and function of the Merkel cell remains under investigation, it is thought to have features of both epithelial and neuroendocrine origin and arise in cells with touch-sensitivity function (mechanoreceptors). (cancer.gov)
  • liver
  • Here, we describe a xenograft model for mimicking human UM liver metastasis by injecting human UM cells into the vitreous cavity in nude mice. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Anti-CD14 antibody labels Kupffer cells in liver sinusoids. (biogenex.com)
  • They injected healthy liver cells from a genetically-identical donor animal into lymph nodes of mice at various locations. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • Our goal is not necessarily to replace the entire liver, for example, but to provide sufficient cell mass to stabilize liver function and sustain the patient's life," Dr. Lagasse said. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • markers
  • Historically, memory T cells were thought to belong to either the effector or central memory subtypes, each with their own distinguishing set of cell surface markers (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • This conclusion was based in part on the notion that it is possible to readily identify which DCs traveled to lymph nodes through afferent lymph based on combinations of various markers, such as higher expression of MHC II in the steady state ( 18 , 19 ). (rupress.org)
  • mediate
  • The nature of the cells that mediate the different facets of immunological memory remains unresolved. (nih.gov)
  • T cells mediate acquired resistance to leishmaniasis. (scielo.br)
  • myeloid cells
  • In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. (hindawi.com)
  • donor
  • In close collaboration with universities and physicians world-wide, our comprehensive stem cell treatment protocols employ well-targeted combinations of autologous bone marrow stem cells, autologous adipose stem cells, and donor human umbilical cord stem cells to treat: multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, heart disease, and autoimmune diseases. (cellmedicine.com)
  • naive
  • The CCR7+ and CCR7- T cells, which we have named central memory (TCM) and effector memory (TEM), differentiate in a step-wise fashion from naive T cells, persist for years after immunization and allow a division of labour in the memory response. (nih.gov)
  • In naive CD4 T cells, the Ifng locus is largely demethylated and remains so following activation under Th1-biasing conditions. (jimmunol.org)
  • We demonstrate that CTLA-4 regulates the peptide-specific proliferative response generated by naive and previously activated AND TCR + RAG −/− T cells in vitro . (pnas.org)
  • harbor
  • Even in individuals who have full suppression of viral replication on ART, there are resting memory CD4 + T cells that harbor stably integrated HIV genomes, which are capable of producing infectious virus upon T cell activation. (jci.org)