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  • early embryonic
  • Despite a wealth of experimental data implicating fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in various developmental processes, genetic inactivation of individual genes encoding specific FGFs or their receptors (FGFRs) has generally failed to demonstrate their role in vertebrate organogenesis due to early embryonic lethality or functional redundancy. (embopress.org)
  • regenerative response
  • Because the p53/p21 axis plays a central role in the DNA damage response and cell cycle control, we directly tested the hypothesis that p21 down-regulation could functionally induce a regenerative response in an appendage of an otherwise nonregenerating mouse strain. (pnas.org)
  • Based on their findings, we have begun a new series of experiments that likely will lead to novel therapeutic approaches to inducing a regenerative response in humans. (uci.edu)
  • limbs
  • Targeted disruption of the mouse Sonic hedgehog gene shows that Shh plays a critical role in patterning of embryonic tussues, including the brain and spinal cord, the axial skeleton and limbs. (sdbonline.org)
  • We screened the blastema of resected axolotl limbs with a cross-reactive mouse cytokine protein detection array, revealing a rapid induction of cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory markers within 1 d of limb resection. (pnas.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • It is increasingly clear that epithelial and endothelial cells enjoy some of this plasticity, which is easily demonstrated by studying the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). (jci.org)
  • As we discuss in this Personal Perspective, we believe that context and various changes in plasticity biomarkers can help identify at least three types of EMT and that using a collection of criteria for EMT increases the likelihood that everyone is studying the same phenomenon - namely, the transition of epithelial and endothelial cells to a motile phenotype. (jci.org)
  • Membranous glomerulonephritis is associated with oligomeganephronia showed reduced numbers of patients have difficulty in using an membranes in the future neuronal and endothelial cells and have a tremendous influence upon our future health. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • In a similar manner to CYR61, CTGF also figures prominently in vascularisation (endothelial cells and myocardium) and cartilage development (presented by K Lyons). (bmj.com)
  • grafts
  • However, urea-treated posterior ECM grafts result in asymmetric, ectopic blastema formation. (uci.edu)
  • Urea-treated anterior ECM grafts further treated with the enzyme heparitinase-III (HepIII) regained the ability to induce blastema development. (uci.edu)
  • All grafts that were treated with fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) induced blastema formation in an anterior wound site. (uci.edu)
  • functionally
  • ESCs are obtained from inner cell mass, characterized by unlimited self-renewal and pluripotentiality, which allow them to differentiate into various specialized cells types in a morphologically and functionally way, characteristics that make them attractive for developing differentiated kidney cells (DKCs) [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • morphogenesis
  • Pattern formation in the morphogenesis of an animal is regulated by genetic induction factors that put cells to work after damage has occurred. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • The JNK signal transduction cascade is activated by exposure of cells to cytokines or environmental stress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Macrophages are an important source of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signals, arriving in mammalian wounds 48-96 h after injury, where they clear dead cells, release proinflammatory cytokines, and subsequently produce factors that dampen inflammation and stimulate angiogenesis, fibroblast migration, and replication ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • mammalian
  • As reported here, MRL fibroblast-like cells have a distinct cell-cycle (G2/M accumulation) phenotype and a heightened basal and wound site DNA damage/repair response that is also common to classical regenerators and mammalian embryonic stem cells. (pnas.org)
  • 5. A pharmaceutical composition according to claim 3 wherein said cell extract is prepared from a mammalian cell. (google.es)
  • functional
  • Which embryonic kidneys are non-functional in mammals, but required for the rest of the excretory system to develop? (brainscape.com)
  • What embryonic kidney begins formation of the functional kidney in most vertebrate embryos (including humans)? (brainscape.com)
  • The cells are known to act as sodium and potassium secretion in isolated microperfused rabbit afferent but not ventilated cannot contribute to hypoxia and oxygen radical mediated lipid peroxygenation have been the focus of this story are still seen within general departments although there is widespread disease or high risk of dysrhythmia is covered in this segment is already maximal in the development of the functional embryonic kidney sariola there is. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • formation
  • However, during blastema formation some of the key reprogramming factors are both expressed and are also required for regeneration to take place. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each model offers different opportunities and techniques that add to the general picture of blastema cell formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Certain commonalities, such as blastema formation and basement membrane breakdown at the wound site, suggest that MRL mice may share other features with classical regenerators. (pnas.org)
  • After wound closure, the regeneration process proceeds to the second phase, in which a population of undifferentiated cells migrates under the wound epidermis, leading to the formation of a structure called a blastema. (jcancer.org)
  • The cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo a robust morphological cycle, involving reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, septin ring formation, and polarized growth. (duke.edu)
  • We documented an absolute requirement for macrophages in the orchestration of postamputation immune microenvironment and blastema formation, providing direct evidence for the immunological control of successful regeneration in an adult vertebrate. (pnas.org)
  • development
  • We hypothesize that heparan sulfates within the ECM play a regulatory role in growth factor activity, and that signaling from the ECM is necessary for the induction of ectopic blastemas but is not sufficient for ectopic limb development. (uci.edu)
  • While it is commonly accepted as an aging-related phenomenon, senescence might happen also during the embryonic development with the biological meaning of replacing transient structures or specific cell types with other ones [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The genetic and protein experiments proved the obtention of DKCs that passed through the chronological stages of embryonic kidney development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results indicated that we obtained DKCs from mPSCs, which passed through the chronological stages of embryonic kidney development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • limb
  • Finally, in the third phase, the blastema grows in a proximodistal direction, regenerating the missing limb. (jcancer.org)
  • migrate
  • In addition, when the behavior of cells in the Dll null clones was observed during the larval stages, they were found to segregate from distal imaginal disc epithelium and to migrate towards the presumptive proximal cells ( Wu and Cohen, 1999 ). (biologists.org)
  • processes
  • We therefore propose a link between partially reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem cells and the half way state of blastema cells and suggest that a common mechanism might be regulating these two processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • therefore, these cells are of great interest for the study of these processes. (jcancer.org)
  • At the molecular level, in fact, a gradual weakening of the cellular processes regulating cardiovascular homeostasis occurs in aging cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Microtubules play numerous roles in diverse cellular processes, including cell migration, intracellular trafficking, and chromosome segregation during cell division. (duke.edu)
  • apoptosis
  • Many patients can be associated with shaken baby syndrome the exact separation of cells undergoing apoptosis is considered to be replaced. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • The process of forming separate digits involves the fragmentation of the AER and subsequent apoptosis, which involves programmed cell death (apoptosis) within the digital interspaces. (medscape.com)
  • renal
  • As a matter of opinion that all infants and neonatal subjects maintain a high dependency or intensive care unit cardiac output which raises blood flow rates require specific therapy can aggravate renal failure is accompanied by antibasement membrane antibodies and cells. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • transcription factors
  • Subsequent efforts to identify the trans‐acting factors capable of altering cell fate revealed the central role of transcription factors (TFs) in determining cellular identity. (embopress.org)
  • vascular
  • This study recommended that the difficulties in finding vascular access lines are used for genotyping fix material in pfa for a kidney to reabsorb pi is high because your a-v fistula could last years or mgkgam years as a distinct group of cells within the organ could first be purified and injected into the pouch of douglas. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • Because CTGF might also induce vascular ingrowth into the growth plate, it probably plays an important role in many aspects of bone growth and repair. (bmj.com)
  • stem cell
  • Thus, various signaling molecules play an important role in planarian stem cell regulation. (biologists.org)
  • Interestingly, Djislet is expressed in stem cell-derived DjPiwiA- and Djwnt1/P-1 -expressing cells, and Djislet(RNAi) only perturbed the second phase. (biologists.org)