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  • progenitor cell
  • We conclude that this resident Pax3/Pax7-dependent progenitor cell population constitutes a source of myogenic cells of prime importance for skeletal muscle formation, a finding also of potential value in the context of cell therapy for muscle disease. (nih.gov)
  • Although clonal analysis has also revealed the importance of cell-intrinsic mechanisms for regulating progenitor cell fate decisions, the degree to which the intrinsic program can be modified by extrinsic cues has not been rigorously tested because the identities of the inductive signals as well as molecular markers for distinct progenitors are poorly defined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • myofibers
  • The process of myofiber isolation which involves digestion of muscle tissue with matrix-degrading enzymes ( e.g ., collagenases) and mechanical shearing causes minor trauma which leads to the activation of satellite cells on myofibers. (bio-protocol.org)
  • We observed a massive reduction, but not complete loss, of Pax7-positive SCs on isolated myofibers of Pax7CE/loxP-Gu mice already 1211441-98-3 1 day after the end of the TAM treatment (Figure 1N). (a-443654.com)
  • During postnatal life, muscle growth relies on satellite cells, which are a subpopulation of somite-derived cells that reside between myofibers and the basal lamina [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Gene
  • the satellite cell population is heterogeneous and can be classified in a hierarchical manner based on function and gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • The investigation of the hitherto unappreciated layer of gene regulation mediated by miRNAs has also provided new insights into our understanding of stem cell biology and pointed to new directions for therapeutic applications of stem cells. (biologists.org)
  • f , The pluripotency gene Nanog gains H3K4me3 and is active only in iPS cells. (nih.gov)
  • g , The germline-specific gene Ddx4 gains H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in iPS cells only, and remains poised for activation in germ cells. (nih.gov)
  • RESULTS Conditional Deletion 1211441-98-3 of the Gene in Adult Skeletal Muscle Leads to Delayed Loss of SCs To analyze the role of Pax7 in adult muscle stem cells, we inactivated the gene in adult mice by treating 3-month-old Pax7CE/loxP-Gu mice (n = 3) and Pax7loxP-Gu/+ controls (n = 3) with 3 mg tamoxifen (TAM) per 40 g body weight for 5 days (Lepper et al. (a-443654.com)
  • This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. (genecards.org)
  • PAX7 (Paired Box 7) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding and transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific . (genecards.org)
  • During development and in adulthood, cellular identity is established and maintained by finely tuned mechanisms of gene repression and expression, preserved through rounds of cell division. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast, aRMS harbors the reciprocal chromosomal translocations t(2;13)(q35;q14) or t(1;13)(p36;q14), generating a chimeric fusion gene involving the PAX3 gene (chromosome 2) or PAX7 (chromosome 1) and FKHR (chromosome 13), a member of the fork-head family ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This vast difference in species-specific target-gene activation makes it difficult to interpret experiments involving either expression of human DUX4 in mouse cells or mouse Dux in human cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we asked whether REST directly regulates neural-specifying genes in mouse ES cells using siRNA-mediated REST knockdown and ES cells that lack functional REST protein as a result of gene targeting. (biologists.org)
  • mice
  • Although we did not observe differences in the numbers of quiescent Pax7 + satellite cells in adult uninjured hindlimb muscles, we did observe a significant reduction in the number of proliferating Pax7 + cells in the Id-mutant mice after muscle injury compared with either wild-type or Id3-null mice. (physiology.org)
  • Although in lethally irradiated mice, bone marrow-derived SCs replenish the depleted satellite cell pool and subsequently incorporate effectively into exercised skeletal muscle ( 9 ), less is known about the ability of bone-marrow-derived SCs to ameliorate muscle damage under more clinically relevant conditions. (pnas.org)
  • We have previously reported that postmitotic expression of a local isoform of insulin-like growth factor 1 (mIGF-1) induces myocyte hypertrophy ( 16 ), increases mass and strength of postnatal muscle, and preserves regenerative capacity in senescent and dystrophic mice ( 17 - 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • The SP from bone marrow cells was isolated from femur and tibia of 8-week-old c -kit / GFP transgenic mice by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. (pnas.org)
  • WT and MLC / mIgf-1 transgenic recipient mice were lethally irradiated with 9.8 Gy, and each recipient received 1 × 10 3 SP-derived-c -kit / GFP cells by tail-vein injection. (pnas.org)
  • Recipient mice also received 1.5 × 10 5 non-SP cells isolated from WT mice. (pnas.org)
  • Deletion of in mice leads to normal numbers of stem cells 1211441-98-3 at birth followed by excessive wasting of stem cells during the first weeks of postnatal development (Oustanina et al. (a-443654.com)
  • Concomitant with the loss of Pax7-positive SCs, we also noted a rapid decline of Pax7 mRNA concentrations in TAM-treated Pax7CE/loxP-Gu mice (Figures S3A and S3F) and a rapid decline of SCs as assessed by the expression of calcitonin receptor (Calcr), a marker. (a-443654.com)
  • To further investigate this phenomenon, we explore the osteogenic and adipogenic potential of satellite cells isolated from adult mice. (rutgers.edu)
  • The authors present a model of trabeculation in mice that integrated dynamic endocardial and myocardial cell behaviors and extracellular matrix remodelling, and revealed new epistatic relationships between the involved signaling pathways. (musclecellnews.com)
  • We have generated mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of the Nkx6.1 promoter, enabling fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), purification and culture of individual spinal progenitors at clonal density, and analysis of their progeny. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Myogenic progenitor cells isolated from these mice were severely deficient in their ability to form myotubes as compared with myogenic progenitor cells from wild-type littermates. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover
  • Moreover, modulating levels of Sox2 or Pax7 alters the apportionment of neural tube versus neural crest fates. (elifesciences.org)
  • Moreover, we find that a family of salamander methyltransferases is expressed specifically in adult appendages. (diva-portal.org)
  • Myoblasts
  • Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that activated Pax7 + myoblasts coexpressed nuclear pSmad1/5/8, Id1, and Id3 in injured mouse skeletal muscle sections. (physiology.org)
  • Finally, we examined the potential of stem cells to fuse with myoblasts after Sdf-1 treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Importantly, the Sdf-1 treated cells migrate and fuse with myoblasts more effectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • siRNA-mediated depletion of cytoglobin from C2C12 myoblasts increased levels of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic cell death both at baseline and in response to stress stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • RNAs
  • Scientists identified several types of small noncoding RNAs including known microRNAs that are differentially expressed in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) muscle cells compared to control. (musclecellnews.com)
  • repression of transcription factors
  • These observations suggest that some cells may become trapped in partially reprogrammed states owing to incomplete repression of transcription factors, and that DNA de-methylation is an inefficient step in the transition to pluripotency. (nih.gov)
  • During developmental processes, in response to external cues, changes in chromatin involving activation and repression of transcription factors and chromatin regulators (e.g., chromatin-modifying enzymes) underlie commitment of specific cells to defined lineages. (hindawi.com)
  • muscle
  • Skeletal muscle represents a plentiful and accessible source of adult stem cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we found that functional overload, which is widely used to model resistance exercise, causes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and converts satellite cells from quiescent state to activated state. (hindawi.com)
  • Exercise positively affects muscle fiber composition via regulation of satellite cells to improve muscle performance. (hindawi.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that the number of satellite cells is increased by long-term or acute exercise training in humans and animals [ 4 , 5 ] and decreases during aging in conjunction with a reduction in the muscle quality and functional potential [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Satellite cells can be mitotically quiescent or in an activated proliferative state during skeletal muscle turnover. (hindawi.com)
  • Physical exercise induces changes in extracellular signaling in skeletal muscle that affect satellite cells. (hindawi.com)
  • In resting muscle, these quiescent mononuclear cells express the paired box transcription factor Pax7 and, in some muscle types, Pax3. (physiology.org)
  • A Pax3/Pax7-dependent population of skeletal muscle progenitor cells. (nih.gov)
  • Using a stable green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter targeted to Pax3, we demonstrate that they constitute resident muscle progenitor cells that subsequently become myogenic and form skeletal muscle. (nih.gov)
  • In the absence of both Pax3 and Pax7, further muscle development is arrested and only the early embryonic muscle of the myotome forms. (nih.gov)
  • As skeletal muscle stem cells, satellite cells play an indispensible role in this process. (nih.gov)
  • For the last half century, the advance of molecular biology, cell biology, and genetics has greatly improved our understanding of skeletal muscle biology. (nih.gov)
  • Currently, the in vitro manipulation and culture of these cells is still in its infancy, yet muscle stem cells may be the most promising route toward the therapy of muscle diseases such as muscular dystrophies. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is due to the fact that the timing and mechanisms underlying head muscle stem cell development are still obscure. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our study reveals a common theme of head muscle stem cell development that is quite different from the trunk. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unlike trunk muscle stem cells, head muscle stem cells do not have a previous history of Pax7 expression, instead Pax7 expression emerges de-novo . (frontiersin.org)
  • Adult skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) accompany contractile muscle fibers and efficiently repair muscle after injury (reviewed in Relaix and Zammit, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • However, in a number of diseases including muscular dystrophies, cancer and HIV/Aids, the ability of muscle stem cells to repair muscle is compromised. (frontiersin.org)
  • We investigated the mechanism whereby expression of a transgene encoding a locally acting isoform of insulin-like growth factor 1 (mIGF-1) enhances repair of skeletal muscle damage. (pnas.org)
  • Recent studies have identified another source of muscle stem cells (SC), named side population (SP) on the basis of their Hoechst dye exclusion properties ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Indeed, the transplantation of bone marrow-derived SCs into the mdx dystrophic mouse model had a limited impact on muscle cell replacement ( 10 ), suggesting that the poor recruitment of circulating SCs is one of the limiting factors for tissue repair ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Previous work showed that murine Megf10 is required for preserving the undifferentiated, proliferative potential of satellite cells, myogenic precursors that regenerate skeletal muscle in response to injury or disease. (springer.com)
  • Our data establish the importance of MEGF10 in human skeletal muscle and suggest satellite cell dysfunction as a novel myopathic mechanism. (springer.com)
  • and 3) examine differences in the intrinsic regenerative capacity of muscle stem cells isolated from skeletal muscle of young and aged horses. (ufl.edu)
  • To further understand the underlying cause for the age-associated decrement of mitochondrial density and function in equine skeletal muscle, expression of factors involved in mitochondria biogenesis and mitochondria-selective autophagy pathways, two of the most prominent quality control mechanisms that have been described, were analyzed. (ufl.edu)
  • Myogenic stem cells, commonly referred to as satellite cells, are responsible for muscle growth and repair in adults. (ufl.edu)
  • In line with compromised myogenic potential of aged muscle-derived satellite cells, there were age-related alterations in mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy pathways, with satellite cells derived from TRI being more susceptible to impairments with age. (ufl.edu)
  • A subset of satellite cells purified from adult skeletal muscle is capable of repopulating the satellite cell pool, suggesting that it has direct therapeutic potential for treating degenerative muscle disease. (carleton.ca)
  • The myofiber culture system has served as an excellent platform to study the fundamental properties of muscle stem cells and the effects of various genetic manipulations on the basic properties of satellite cells. (bio-protocol.org)
  • 2014). Mechanical and enzymatic digestion of hind limb muscles releases mononuclear muscle cells into suspension. (bio-protocol.org)
  • This enables the researcher to successfully enrich satellite cells that uniformly express the paired-box transcription factor Pax7 and are capable of long-term self-renewal, skeletal muscle repair and muscle stem cell pool repopulation. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Taken together, these results strongly suggest that muscle satellite cells possess multipotential mesenchymal stem cell activity and are capable of forming osteocytes and adipocytes as well as myocytes. (rutgers.edu)
  • Inhibiting polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) had the most remarkable impact on growth inhibition (∼80%) and apoptosis on all three rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines tested, namely, RH30, CW9019 (aRMS), and RD (eRMS), whereas there was no effect on normal muscle cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This observation suggests competition for DNA binding sites in satellite cells might limit muscle repair and may be one aspect of DUX4-associated myotoxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Scientists investigated whether or not the receptor component protein (RCP) involved in the regulation of caveolin‐1/extracellular signal‐regulated kinases‐1 and ‐2 (ERK1/2) signal pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation is induced by static pressure. (musclecellnews.com)
  • Mammalian skeletal muscle can remodel, repair, and regenerate itself by mobilizing satellite cells, a resident population of myogenic progenitor cells. (pnas.org)
  • Muscle injury and subsequent activation of myogenic progenitor cells is associated with oxidative stress. (pnas.org)
  • Cytoglobin is a hemoprotein expressed in response to oxidative stress in a variety of tissues, including striated muscle. (pnas.org)
  • Exhaustion of muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) is thought to be an important factor contributing to the progressive weakness and atrophy of peripheral skeletal muscle that occurs with various skeletal myopathies and during normal aging ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Muscle tissue was obtained from a biopsy of the vastus lateralis for 99 men and was processed for immunohistochemical studies to determine myofibre distribution and area, capillarisation and satellite cell (SC) density. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One application for this would be cardiac cell therapy , should muscle satellite cells be able to be converted into viable cardiac muscle cells. (bionity.com)
  • heterogeneous
  • We demonstrate that cells isolated after progenitor domains are established are heterogeneous with respect to maintaining their identity after in vitro expansion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • myofiber
  • This results in the transformation of individual satellite cells into a syncytial contractile myofiber. (nih.gov)
  • pluripotent
  • Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state through the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors. (nih.gov)
  • Relative expression levels across differentiated, partially reprogrammed and pluripotent cell populations. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, we demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) induction of dorsal spinal cord-like tissues from human pluripotent stem cells. (biologists.org)
  • histone
  • the interaction links PAX7 to a WDR5-containing histone methyltransferase complex (By similarity). (genecards.org)
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Diseases associated with PAX7 include Rhabdomyosarcoma 2, Alveolar and Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma . (genecards.org)
  • 1.5 fold) in 10 of 10 rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines and in 47% and 51% of primary aRMS (17 of 36 samples) and eRMS (21 of 41 samples) tumors, respectively, compared with normal muscles. (aacrjournals.org)
  • molecular
  • These results indicate the effects of resistance exercise on the regulation of satellite cells and provide insight into the molecular mechanism of satellite cell activation following physical exercise. (hindawi.com)
  • In searching for new molecular therapeutic targets, we carried out genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) library screens targeting human phosphatases ( n = 206) and kinases ( n = 691) initially against an aRMS cell line, RH30. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results have the potential to help identify cell and molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Karolinska Institute, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. (diva-portal.org)
  • lineages
  • The results reveal significant overlap of transcription factors characteristic of multiple lineages in individual border cells from gastrula through neurula stages. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our results resolve a long-standing question and suggest that many individual border cells maintain ability to contribute to multiple ectodermal lineages until or beyond neural tube closure. (elifesciences.org)
  • Finally, it is possible that individual neural plate border cells initially are naïve and capable of giving rise to all ectodermal lineages. (elifesciences.org)