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  • primary tumors
  • This involved confirming that the PDXs conserve the heterogeneous somatic landscape of the primary tumors from which they were derived. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The somatic landscape of primary tumors was representative of the published genomic data on OSCC, including amplifications of CCND1 and EGFR family members, inactivating mutations and loss of TP53 and CDKN2A, and chromosome 3q amplification. (aacrjournals.org)
  • metastasis
  • Our results describe a novel signaling event linking PI3K/Akt hyperactivation in tumor cells to direct regulation of Twist1 activation and tumor metastasis. (rero.ch)
  • Significance: We identified the first phospho-Twist1 transcriptional target TGF-β2, which mediates cross-talk between PI3K/Akt and TGF-β signaling and promotes tumor metastasis. (rero.ch)
  • In recent years, the targeted imaging of the C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), a chemokine receptor that has been associated with tumor metastasis, has become an area of intensive research. (jove.com)
  • xenograft
  • Purpose: Patient derived xenograft (PDX) models represent a platform for defining therapeutic opportunities based on their ability to maintain the genomic and molecular features of their respective tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Conservation was defined by the correlation of variant allele frequency (VAF) distributions and gene expression patterns, presence of larger somatic events, and predictions made about the subclonal architecture of the tumor and xenograft. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mutations that were detected in either the xenograft or primary tumor, but not its matched sample, consisted primarily of low-frequency mutations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The predicted clonal architecture, however, revealed correlative subclonal heterogeneity between matched xenograft and primary tumor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry of three GBMs, two patient biopsies and one GBM xenograft, confirmed that the expression of these genes was mainly confined to TAGs in the tumour bed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this experimental study was to determine the effect of mild hyperthermia on tumor response and angioneogenesis in an isolated limb perfusion model with a human melanoma xenograft. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ligands
  • This function is the outcome of the capacity of inhibitory NK receptors to block cytotoxicity upon interaction with their MHC-I ligands expressed on target cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • The present study indicates that the MHC-I-deficient lung adenocarcinoma had developed mechanisms of escape from the innate immune response based on down-regulation of NCR and ligands required for target cell recognition. (jimmunol.org)
  • The cytolytic and cytokine functions of NK cells are regulated by a complex balance between inhibitory and activating signals that are triggered via the engagement of different NK cell surface receptors with their specific ligands ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • METHODS: EV producing cells were transfected with vectors encoding for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nanobodies, which served as targeting ligands for tumour cells, fused to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor signal peptides derived from decay-accelerating factor (DAF). (uu.nl)
  • Tumor cell lysis was primarily mediated by NKG2D and NKp30 and partially by NKp46 and DNAM-1, in agreement with the expression of the corresponding ligands on tumor cells. (mesothelioma-line.com)
  • subset
  • Here, we assessed the expression of inhibitory molecules PD-1, CTLA-4, 2B4, CD160, senescence marker CD57, and CD28 on T cells of naive and treated myeloma patients in the bone marrow and peripheral blood and collected data on T cell subset distribution in both compartments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There was also evidence of 1q gain and monosomy 19 in a subset of tumor cells. (upmc.edu)
  • fibroblasts
  • In the non-pathological state, the roles of glial cells in the CNS overlap with functions of fibroblasts in other organs, such as secretion of ECM components, provision of structural support and homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Creation of pluripotent iPS cells from fibroblasts results in marked induction of DNMT3B3Δ5. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • bone marrow
  • In breast cancer, a similar link has been established between EMT markers in primary and disseminated bone marrow tumor cells and aggressive clinical behavior ( 14-18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, enhanced knowledge about the actual status of T cells in myeloma bone marrow is urgently needed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • T cells from the bone marrow of myeloma patients were more severely impaired than peripheral T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A bone marrow biopsy also revealed aggregates of malignant cells embedded within a fibrillary to collagenous matrix with tumor cells resembling those encountered previously in the cerebellum (Fig. 8 and 9 ). (upmc.edu)
  • Immunohistochemistry performed in the bone marrow biopsy showed that the tumor cells were also positive for S100 (Fig 15 ), synaptophysin, WT-1 (Fig. 16 ) and CD56, but negative for GFAP, CAM5.2, HMB-45 pancytokeratin, and myeloperoxidase. (upmc.edu)
  • carcinoma
  • We used a comprehensive genomics approach to analyze PDXs for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which had not been previously described. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, the carcinoma cell line was partially sensitive to allogeneic healthy donor NK cells expressing high levels of NCR. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we investigated how this relates to the overall sphingolipid composition of multidrug-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells and which mechanisms are responsible for adapted sphingolipid metabolism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We suggest this is common phenomenon in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines and other aggressive tumour cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Prognostic and clinicopathological role of high Ki-67 expression in patients with renal cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (questdiagnostics.com)
  • Ki-67 immunostaining and other prognostic factors including tobacco smoking in patients with resected nonsmall cell lung carcinoma. (questdiagnostics.com)
  • biology
  • Their ability to maintain the genomic heterogeneity detected in primary OSCC tumors presents a clinically relevant platform for understanding tumor biology and identifying novel therapeutic strategies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In an attempt to mitigate these delays and failures, there has been resurgence in the development of new molecular imaging probes for studies with positron emission tomography (PET) to characterize tumor biology. (jove.com)
  • inhibit
  • The endothelial growth factor antibodies used did not inhibit or stimulate cell growth when compared to control but did discourage vascular mimicry. (biomedsearch.com)
  • endothelium
  • Targeting tumor-associated vascular endothelium by replication-competent viral vectors is a promising strategy for cancer gene therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • novel
  • The finding that PE-NK cells are not functionally impaired and that they can efficiently kill tumor cells upon short-term IL-2 activation may offer important clues for the development of novel approaches in tumor immunotherapy. (mesothelioma-line.com)
  • Conclusions
  • CONCLUSIONS: We show that nanobodies can be anchored on the surface of EVs via GPI, which alters their cell targeting behaviour. (uu.nl)
  • glial
  • Little is known about the role of glial host cells in brain tumours. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TAGs were highly enriched for the expression of glial cell proteins including GFAP and myelin basic protein (MBP), and immature markers such as Nestin and O4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • antibodies
  • Furthermore, this study highlights GPI-anchoring as a new tool in the EV toolbox, which may be applied for EV display of a variety of proteins, such as antibodies, reporter proteins and signaling molecules. (uu.nl)
  • Pathology
  • MICROSCOPIC PATHOLOGY Histologically, there was a moderately to highly cellular neoplasm that extensively invaded the cerebellar cortex (Fig. 5 ) and, to a lesser extent, the underlying white matter, often entrapping both internal granular layer and Purkinje cell neurons, the latter involved in occasional vague perineuronal satellitosis. (upmc.edu)
  • angiogenesis
  • Cancer stem cells and angiogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • This has been termed "vasculogenic mimicry" and has implications beyond angiogenesis and adds another layer of complexity to the current concept for the generation of tumour micro-circulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • lysis
  • Target cells expressing MHC class I (MHC-I) 3 molecules are protected from NK cell lysis by interactions between these molecules and inhibitory NK receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, in the absence of these interactions, target cells become sensitive to NK lysis by triggering of NK cell-activating receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • vascular
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) is produced by most cancer cells as multiple isoforms, which display distinct biological activities. (city.ac.uk)
  • Dedifferentiated liposarcomas may display a variety of "heterologous" lines of differentiation, including osseous, vascular, skeletal, and/or smooth muscular. (hindawi.com)
  • Vascular mimicry in cultured head and neck tumour cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • INTRODUCTION: Vascuologenesis is the de novo establishment of blood vessels and vascular networks from mesoderm-derived endothelial cell precursors (angioblasts). (biomedsearch.com)
  • We present experimental evidence of vasculogenic mimicry in HNSCC cell lines and compare them with other tumours and a positive control vascular cell line. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It provides a feasible mechanism of early tumour vascular supply which can co-exist and incorporate with later angiogenic mechanisms. (biomedsearch.com)
  • vessels
  • Some of the antineoplastic effects of hyperthermia are caused by ischemia due to obstruction or destruction of the tumor vessels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • noninvasive
  • In the assessment of therapeutic effects, PET allows imaging of entire tumor burden in a noninvasive repeatable manner. (jove.com)
  • collagen
  • On 3D collagen, fs188 cells remained mesenchymal while fs164 and fs120 cells adopted rounded/amoeboid and a mix of rounded and elongated morphologies respectively. (city.ac.uk)
  • RESULTS: There were observable differences in growth of the cells on laboratory plastic and collagen matrix. (biomedsearch.com)
  • immune
  • Imiquimod, a drug used to treat skin cancer, has been shown to have a previously unknown effect on immune cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, a research group working with Prof. Maria Sibilia, Head of the Institute for Cancer Research at the Medical University of Vienna, has now succeeded in determining some unknown and surprising effects of Imiquimod (Imi) on special immune cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Mast cells are immune system cells that can release messenger substances for the control of an immune response. (innovations-report.com)
  • The group actually succeeded in demonstrating that CCL2 then causes the migration of additional immune system cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cancer-induced dysfunction of cytotoxic T cells at the tumor site may be responsible for immune evasion and therapeutical failure of immunotherapies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While our data suggest that terminally differentiated cells are preferentially deleted by therapy, immune-checkpoint molecules were still present on T cells supporting the potential of checkpoint inhibitors to reactivate T cells in myeloma patients in combination therapies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The experimental anti-cancer drug IL13-PE38QQR, which is being developed for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, is composed of parts of two proteins: the immune system cytokine IL13 and a toxin from the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • growth
  • Finally, ectopic overexpression of DNMT3B3Δ5 resulted in repetitive element hypomethylation and enhanced cell growth in a colony formation assay. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The tumor was also rich in basophilic mucin (Fig. 7 ), confirmed by an Alcian blue stain, and had a microcystic growth pattern. (upmc.edu)
  • heterogeneous
  • This includes maintenance of founding clone mutations and consistent VAF distributions, indicating that a heterogeneous tumor population engrafted. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These receptors include a heterogeneous family of molecules composed of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), which are exclusively expressed by NK cells and NKG2D, which is expressed by both NK cells and CTLs. (jimmunol.org)
  • stem cell
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate that DNMT3B3Δ5 may play an important role in stem cell maintenance or differentiation and suggest that sequences encoded by exon 5 influence the functional properties of DNMT3B. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Future challenges will be to identify and validate molecular targets involved in anaerobic metabolic pathways active in cancer stem-like cells and to determine how these pathways differ from regulatory pathways involved in normal stem cell function. (nih.gov)
  • expression
  • NK cells are able to discriminate between normal cells and cells that have lost MHC class I (MHC-I) molecule expression as a result of tumor transformation. (jimmunol.org)
  • To investigate the role of human NK cells and their various receptors in the control of MHC-I-deficient tumors, we have isolated several NK cell clones from lymphocytes infiltrating an adenocarcinoma lacking β 2 -microglobulin expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, their expression profiles displayed a significant overlap with gene clusters defining prognostic subclasses of human GBMs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Display of GPI-linked nanobodies on EVs did not alter general EV characteristics (i.e. morphology, size distribution and protein marker expression), but greatly improved EV binding to tumour cells dependent on EGFR density under static conditions. (uu.nl)
  • To increase the immunostimulatory signal, CD40L was engineered, by deleting the majority of the cytoplasmic domain, to increase its levels of expression and duration on the surface of CD8 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • MiR-106b-5p- and miR-17-5p-transfected MCF-7 cells showed decreased expression of TGFβRII, especially in cells transfected with both miRNAs. (springer.com)
  • These tumors exhibited increased concentrations of glucose and the angiogenic factor VEGF as well as higher expression of ErbB2/Neu compared with controls. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ki-67 expression in pulmonary tumors. (questdiagnostics.com)