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  • vitro
  • 11 Also, after treatment with the DNA demethylation agent 5-azacytidine, a murine MSC-like cell line was shown to express cardiac differentiation markers and exhibit spontaneous membrane depolarization in vitro. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition to increased in vitro killing of diverse tumor targets, the in vivo tumor clearance by H9 hESC-derived NK cells was more effective compared with NK cells derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB). (nih.gov)
  • B) In vitro direct cytolysis was evaluated by standard 4-hour 51 Cr-release assay after 35 days in NK-cell culture. (nih.gov)
  • Although it is a maxim of mammalian cell cycle regulation that the E2F1-3 activator subclass is required for cell proliferation, the evidence for this is based almost exclusively on in vitro studies using cells derived from murine and human tissues or on the in vivo analysis of Rb mutant mice 1 , 2 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • populations
  • While identification of stem cell populations for specific tissues is a critical step, it is also important to know how to control their growth and development, to allow the production of specific mature cell types in the lab. (innovations-report.com)
  • We find that after helminth infection, or immunization with helminth antigens, reactive lymphoid organs of 4get IL-4/GFP reporter mice contain populations of IL-4/GFP-expressing CD4 + T cells that display the TFH markers CXCR5, PD-1, and ICOS. (rupress.org)
  • We hypothesized that TFH cells and associated Th effector populations could share certain attributes and might reflect various stages of differentiation within the same lineage. (rupress.org)
  • Studying patterns of gene expression in these two populations of chronic-HCV-associated T cells enabled the investigators to distinguish between expression changes related to T-cell receptor-mediated signaling and stimuli related to an inflammatory environment. (eurekalert.org)
  • Similarly, the accurate analysis of the cell populations implicated in the regeneration of the dead tissue is complex and these factors together may account for the negative findings. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2006). These results suggest that the different D-type cyclins have specific functions in proliferating and differentiating cell populations during neurogenesis. (scielo.br)
  • Finally, we demonstrate that the aggregation and rotary suspension method can be used to support culture and maintenance of hPSC-derived cell populations representing each of the three germ layers, underscoring the utility of this platform for culturing many different cell types. (ca.gov)
  • The disproportionately large number of I-cell nests of 2 suggests that these include the autoreproductive stem cells responsible for maintaining the populations of I-cell derivatives in growing hydra. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • mice
  • Thus, mice with the nude gene have no T-cells and as a result have virtually no means of fighting off disease unless they are raised and live in germ-free environments. (innovations-report.com)
  • But when they looked at the thymus in these mice, they found, to their surprise, that it was abnormal but still made some T-cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Normal nude mice never even start to develop T-cells, because the TE cells remain immature," said Manley. (innovations-report.com)
  • The stem cells, labeled with lacZ , were injected into the left ventricle of CB17 SCID/ beige adult mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 When bone marrow cells from a normal male mouse were injected intravenously into the tail vein of affected mdx female mice, skeletal myotubes in the recipients were found to contain Y-positive nuclei. (ahajournals.org)
  • Consistent with a relationship between Th2 and TFH cells, IL-4 protein production, reported by expression of huCD2 in IL-4 dual reporter (4get/KN2) mice, was a robust marker of TFH cells in LNs responding to helminth antigens. (rupress.org)
  • TFH cell development after immunization failed to occur in mice lacking B cells or CD154. (rupress.org)
  • The relationship of TFH cells to the Th2 lineage was confirmed when TFH cells were found to develop from CXCR5 − PD-1 − IL-4/GFP + CD4 + T cells after their transfer into naive mice and antigen challenge in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • We find that in mice infected with S. mansoni , or in mice immunized with an extract of schistosome eggs, TFH cells comprise a major component of the Th cell response and express genes that would normally be considered markers of Th2 cells. (rupress.org)
  • We show that CD4 + CD8 − Foxp3 − thymocytes and recent thymic emigrants (RTEs), contrarily to peripheral naïve mature cells, efficiently differentiate into Treg on transfer into lymphopenic mice. (pnas.org)
  • By varying donor and recipient mice and conducting ex vivo assays, we document that the preferential conversion of newly formed T cells does not require intrathymic preactivation, is cell-intrinsic, and correlates with low and high sensitivity to natural inhibitors and inducers of Foxp3 expression, such as IL-6, T-cell receptor triggering, and TGF-β. (pnas.org)
  • NOD/SCID mice were inoculated with luc + K562 tumor cells, and cells were allowed to engraft for 3 days before animals were given 1 systemic (intravenous) infusion of NK cells. (nih.gov)
  • To determine whether treatment of gliotoxin leads to successful replacement of photoreceptor cells following retinal transplantation in Transducin knockout mice, which are photoreceptor dysfunctional model. (arvojournals.org)
  • To promote grafted cell integration, Transducin knockout mice received gliotoxin subretinal injection 2 days before transplantation. (arvojournals.org)
  • Donor retinal cells were isolated from neonatal (P0-2) mice carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein transgene (EGFP). (arvojournals.org)
  • The donor cells were transplanted into adult Transducin knockout mice by subretinal injection. (arvojournals.org)
  • EGFP-positive cells integrated into the host retina of Transducin knockout mice and extended neurites. (arvojournals.org)
  • Recent studies in mice have challenged the ability of bone marrow cells (BMCs) to differentiate into myocytes and coronary vessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, we have implemented a simple protocol that can easily be reproduced and have reevaluated whether injection of BMCs restores the infarcted myocardium in mice and whether cell fusion is involved in tissue reconstitution. (ahajournals.org)
  • We and others 11-13 reported that T-cell and B-cell aggregates emerge in adventitia of aorta segments adjacent to atherosclerotic lesions of apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE −/− ) mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mouse aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC) express tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFR-1) and lymphotoxin β -receptor (LT β R). Circumstantial evidence has linked the SMC LT β R to tertiary lymphoid organogenesis in hyperlipidemic mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Transplantation of ASCs in the subretinal space of NAIO3 mice resulted in an increase in RPE cell count compared to controls. (arvojournals.org)
  • Using a panel of tissue-specific cre -transgenic mice and conditional E2f alleles we examine the effects of E2f1 , E2f2 and E2f3 triple deficiency in murine ES cells, embryos and small intestines. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • phenotype
  • 10 Mouse MSC-like cells converted to a myogenic phenotype after infusion and homing to cardiotoxin injured skeletal muscle. (ahajournals.org)
  • Finally, ex vivo analysis of human thymocytes and peripheral blood T cells revealed that human RTE and newly developed T cells share an increased potential to acquire a FOXP3 bright CD25 high Treg phenotype. (pnas.org)
  • The claim has also been made that BMCs acquire a cell phenotype different from the blood lineages only by fusing with resident cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • tissue
  • Together, they give us the whole picture of why we believe jagged is a crucial mediator of epithelial-mesenchymal heterogeneity of cells in the tissue and an important player in this metastatic escape,' he said. (news-medical.net)
  • Th2 cells and their associated cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 play a crucial role in promoting host survival during infection with parasitic helminths that have tissue-dwelling phases ( 8 ), and they can mediate expulsion of intestinal helminths ( 9 ). (rupress.org)
  • Many have attributed cloning's limited success to a theory that clones must be derived from adult stem cells, which reside in a specific area of each tissue and remain quiescent until they are activated by the presence of disease or tissue injury. (medgadget.com)
  • Much more likely is that these animals were derived from fully differentiated tissue cells," Dr. Yang argues. (medgadget.com)
  • Importantly, SMC acquired features of lymphoid tissue organizers, which control tertiary lymphoid organogenesis in autoimmune diseases through hyperinduction of CCL7, CCL9, CXCL13, CCL19, CXCL16, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusion- SMC may participate in the formation of tertiary lymphoid tissue in atherosclerosis by upregulation of lymphorganogenic chemokines involved in T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte, and macrophage/dendritic cell attraction. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although Schwann cells (SCs) and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are the main cell source for nerve tissue engineering, the clinical application is limited because of donor site morbidity, the invasive procedure, and the decreased number of SCs and BM-MSCs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Further, we provide examples to demonstrate how aggregation can be used as a tool to select specific subpopulations of cells to create homotypic spheroids, or as a means to introduce multiple cell types to create heterotypic tissue constructs. (ca.gov)
  • We have used tissue maceration to quantitate interstitial cell nests in Hydra attenuata and thiolacetic acid-lead nitrate staining to quantitate differentiating nematocytes. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • researchers
  • You will hear from Museum scientists, medical researchers at the frontiers of the field, and a panel of bioethics experts who will address the ethical implications of stem cell research and therapy. (coursera.org)
  • Finally, the researchers have made skin cells. (coursera.org)
  • A jagged little protein appears to be key to how cancer stem cells differentiate and enable metastasis, according to researchers at Rice University and the Duke University School of Medicine. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers led by members of Rice's Center for Theoretical Biological Physics (CTBP) extended their models of hybrid epithelial-mesenchymal cancer stem cells that have the ability to not only resist chemotherapy but also band together in small groups and metastasize. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers saw similar results when they added alpha-ketoglutarate to other cocktails of molecules that are used to produce other cell types. (scienceblog.com)
  • Until recently, however, researchers have understood little about how T-cells are generated. (innovations-report.com)
  • Researchers at Case Western Reserve University have discovered how to quickly and accurately predict which lung cancer patients will benefit from chemotherapy by analyzing how immune cells the body sends out to fight the disease are arranged. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Associate professor Dr. Hanna Mikkola reports that her team of researchers have found a link between trophoblasts and premature differentiation of blood stem cells. (doctortipster.com)
  • The study shows a new discovery in the development of blood stem cells whilst offering new findings that could lead to further development of artificial hepatopoietic niches that could help researchers understand the defects that originate from the placenta. (doctortipster.com)
  • This is the first demonstration that an animal can be derived directly from a fully differentiated cell, report lead researchers Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang, Ph.D., of the University of Connecticut, and Tao Cheng, M.D., of the University of Pittsburgh, in the journal Nature Genetics. (medgadget.com)
  • As proof, researchers report they created two mouse pups from a type of blood cell that itself is incapable of dividing to produce a second generation of its own kind. (eurekalert.org)
  • Similarly
  • In this work, we tested the hypothesis that, similarly to thymic Treg, the precursors of peripheral Treg are immature T cells. (pnas.org)
  • The anatomic location for the initiation of antigen-dependent B-cell responses is similarly puzzling, 8,9 and impacts of antigen-specific T and B cells on disease progression remain to be delineated. (ahajournals.org)
  • Similarly, in the developing midbrain-hindbrain region the D-type cyclins were expressed in different subsets of cells. (scielo.br)
  • Similarly, the unique epigenome in each cell directs the cell to interpret its genetic information differently in response to common environmental factors. (redorbit.com)
  • vivo
  • Transcriptional profiling of TFH cells has revealed a distinct repertoire of expressed genes that demarcates them from Th1, Th2, or Th17 cells ( 3 ), and TFH cells have been reported to differentiate normally in vivo where conditions for Th1, Th2, or Th17 cell development are impaired ( 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • However, little is know about the ability of hESC-derived NK cells to mediate an effective in vivo antitumor response. (nih.gov)
  • Using bioluminescent imaging, we now demonstrate that H9 line hESC-derived NK cells mediate effective clearance of human tumor cells in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • This work contextualizes the activator versus repressor functions of E2F1-3 in vivo, revealing distinct roles in dividing versus differentiating cells and in normal versus cancer-like cell cycles in vivo . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • morphologically
  • A limited number of cells survived past 1 week and over time morphologically resembled the surrounding host cardiomyocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Within the infarct, in 10 days, nearly 4.5 million biochemically and morphologically differentiated myocytes together with coronary arterioles and capillary structures were generated independently of cell fusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • lineages
  • Th1 and Th2 lineages of CD4 + T cells have long been considered to play a pivotal role in helping B cells to class-switch Ig isotype synthesis, with the canonical Th1 and Th2 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4 playing critical roles in promoting the production of IgG2a and IgG1/IgE, respectively ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • By this approach, we have demonstrated that BMCs, when properly administrated in the infarcted heart, efficiently differentiate into myocytes and coronary vessels with no detectable differentiation into hemopoietic lineages. (ahajournals.org)
  • In conclusion, BMCs adopt the cardiac cell lineages and have an important therapeutic impact on ischemic heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • Several studies have suggested that adult bone marrow cells (BMCs) can differentiate into cell lineages distinct from the organ in which they reside. (ahajournals.org)
  • distinct
  • Collectively, these data suggest that TFH cells constitute a distinct lineage. (rupress.org)
  • Stem cells use signals to begin the process of differentiation, whereby they mature from an unspecialized cell into a specialized cell that has distinct functions and form. (reference.com)
  • Scientists have long suspected that the distinct properties of different cells were attributable to their particular epigenomes "" the collection of attendant molecules, compounds and chemicals that direct and influence the behaviors and functions of genes. (redorbit.com)
  • tumors
  • Their new paper in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences backed by experiments at Duke shows how and why some cells differentiate within tumors and how they spread. (news-medical.net)
  • Non-NK cell-treated control animals did receive the IL-2/IL-15 cytokine regimen and typically developed large tumors as indicated by luciferase expression. (nih.gov)
  • phenotypes
  • The inactivation of Rb in differentiating cells resulted in a switch of E2F1-3 from repressors to activators, leading to the superactivation of E2F responsive targets and ectopic cell divisions, and loss of E2f1-3 completely suppressed these phenotypes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • precursors
  • Most Forkhead box P3 + (Foxp3 + ) CD4 regulatory T cell (Treg) precursors are newly formed thymocytes that acquire Foxp3 expression on antigen encounter in the thymus. (pnas.org)
  • Our findings indicating that RTEs are the precursors of Tregs differentiated in the periphery should guide the design of Treg-based therapies. (pnas.org)
  • Since nests of 4 or more I-cells are found only where nematocyte differentiation takes place, these nest classes are probably nematocyte precursors. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Since differentiation of nerves occurs in the hypostome and basal disk where only single or paired I-cells are found, these size classes include nerve precursors. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • neurogenesis
  • Damaged human brain cells do not regenerate because the process that creates brain cells, neurogenesis, ceases before birth for many brain structures and i. (reference.com)
  • tumor
  • This heterogeneity remains a major roadblock to any clinical advances, because no 'magic bullet' can eradicate all types of cells in a tumor,' she said. (news-medical.net)
  • Thus after most therapies, a few cells are left unharmed, a scenario that can lead to tumor relapse. (news-medical.net)
  • Duke graduate student Larisa Gearhart-Serna, co-lead author of the paper, used a novel tumor organoid model of inflammatory breast cancer cells that is enriched with cancer stem cells developed previously in Devi's lab to show that reducing the presence of JAG1 affected the cancer stem-like properties and capacity to proliferate. (news-medical.net)
  • Phenotypic analysis demonstrates the hESC-derived NK cells are uniformly CD94+CD117(low/-), an NK-cell population characterized by potent cytolytic activity and thus more competent to mediate tumor clearance. (nih.gov)
  • NK cell-mediated killing was assessed by incubating effector cells with tumor targets from K562 (n = 7), MCF7 (n = 3), NTERA2 (n = 3), PC3 (n = 3), and U87 (n = 3) at indicated effector-to-target cell ratios. (nih.gov)
  • Objective- Mouse aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC) express tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFR-1) and lymphotoxin β-receptor (LTβR). (ahajournals.org)
  • Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive primary brain tumor in which the majority of cancer cells are undifferentiated. (springer.com)
  • EGFRvIII plays a critical role in tumor progression, promoting acquisition of stem cell-like features including an undifferentiated state and therapy resistance. (springer.com)
  • Brain tumor stem cells. (springer.com)
  • Oh SY, Kim H. Molecular culprits generating brain tumor stem cells. (springer.com)
  • Crosstalk between glioma-initiating cells and endothelial cells drives tumor progression. (springer.com)
  • progeny
  • EGFP and the Y-chromosome were used as markers of the progeny of the transplanted cells in the recipient heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • We propose solutions to several challenges associated with the consistent formation and extended culture of cell spheroids generated from hPSCs and their differentiated progeny. (ca.gov)
  • retinal
  • We previously demonstrated that treatment of gliotoxin was useful for the integration of retinal transplanted cells (T. Masumi et al. (arvojournals.org)
  • Morphologies of grafted cells were examined at 14d, 21d and 1M after transplantation in retinal cross section. (arvojournals.org)
  • Our results revealed that transplanted retinal cells could integrate and differentiate into photoreceptors in the photoreceptor dysfunctional host with gliotoxin treatment. (arvojournals.org)
  • undergo
  • The ideal candidate for cellular cardiomyoplasty is likely to be a less committed cell that can undergo full cardiogenic differentiation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 Recently, Bittner et al 13 showed that bone marrow-derived cells could be recruited to both skeletal and cardiac muscle in the mdx mouse, in which these striated muscles undergo continual remodeling. (ahajournals.org)
  • occur
  • 8 T-cell and B-cell responses typically require antigen-presenting DC in T-cell areas, follicular DC in activated germinal centers of B-cell follicles, and high rates of T-cell recirculation, none of which has been shown to occur in atherosclerotic plaques. (ahajournals.org)
  • immune
  • Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) investigators have identified differences in gene transcription within key immune cells that may distinguish those individuals infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) who develop chronic infection from those whose immune systems successfully clear the virus. (eurekalert.org)
  • While the adaptive immune system responds to HCV in individuals who develop chronic infection - producing CD8 and CD4 T cells specifically targeting the virus - the number of virus-specific T cells eventually diminishes, and those that remain lose their functionality, a phenomenon called T-cell exhaustion. (eurekalert.org)
  • 8 Thus, how and where (auto)immune reactions generate self-reactive T cells and B cells to trigger plaque instability and myocardial infarction are all important issues that remain to be defined. (ahajournals.org)
  • gene
  • It showed for the first time that the role of the nude gene in T-cell production is far more complicated than previously thought. (innovations-report.com)
  • The most significant differences in gene transcription in HCV-specific CD8 T cells among the three groups were in genes related to cellular metabolism - the process of converting nutrients into energy - and to the regulation of gene transcription via the chromosomal structure called the nucleosome. (eurekalert.org)
  • Effectiveness of gene delivery systems for pluripotent and differentiated cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Blocking mTORC 1 permitted autophagy and metaplastic gene induction but blocked cell cycle re‐entry at S‐phase. (embopress.org)
  • A fundamental question is how the identical genome sequence gives rise to a diversity of cell types with different gene expression profiles and cellular functions," said David Hawkins of the Ludwig Institute and co-first author of the study. (redorbit.com)
  • regenerative
  • MSCs have proven to be important for regenerative medicine and stem cell therapy because they can potentially repair many different types of organ damage, as they have the ability to differentiate into various cell types including bone, muscle and fat. (technologynetworks.com)
  • To the contrary, we found that cloned pups can be produced from adult, fully differentiated somatic cells, a conclusion that goes against popular opinion and current hypotheses," says Dr. Yang, animal science professor, director of the University of Connecticut's Center for Regenerative Biology and co-corresponding author of the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • In 1900, Adami speculated that a sequence of context‐independent energetic and structural changes governed the reversion of differentiated cells to a proliferative, regenerative state. (embopress.org)
  • germ
  • which of the three layers known as germ layers the cell will become part of. (coursera.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Germ cells" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Production and Division of Sperm Mitotic and Meiotic events - spermatogenesis - Primordial germ cells differentiate into early germ cells - in males, spermatogonia - Majority of spermatogonia are A 1 - can reproduce mitotically to make more A 1 or change their fate and become Type A 2 spermatogonia. (coursehero.com)
  • protein
  • At the center, they found JAG1, a ligand, or small protein, that interacts with a signaling pathway critical to regulating the fate of cells. (news-medical.net)
  • The D-type cyclins form complexes with the cyclin dependent (CD) kinases CDK4 and CDK6 and promote the G1-S phase transition of the cell cycle by antagonizing the retinoblastoma suppresser protein pRB. (scielo.br)
  • Electrotransfer studies indicate that Ins(1,4,[32P]5)P3 binds specifically to a 260 kDa protein of HL-60 cell membranes. (biochemj.org)
  • This Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding protein selectively binds Ca(2+)-mobilizing inositol phosphates and other inositol phosphates which also bind to the purified InsP3 receptor, suggesting that the Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding protein of HL-60 cell membranes is the InsP3 receptor. (biochemj.org)
  • The results suggest that there is an absolute increase in the level of the InsP3 receptor during HL-60 cell differentiation and that the expression of this signal-transducing protein may be specifically regulated by differentiation factors. (biochemj.org)
  • The expression of E2f1 , E2f2 and E2f3 in wild type ES cells was generally higher than in MEFs and the loading of E2F3 protein on classic E2F target promoters was comparable between the two proliferating cell types ( Supplementary Fig. 2a-c ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Until now, the injected virulence protein CagA, which triggers multiple deleterious changes in host cells, was the only molecule known to be translocated by H. pylori's T4SS. (laboratoryequipment.com)
  • Overexpression of EGFRvIII in glioma cell lines augmented JAGGED1 expression at the transcriptional level through the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. (springer.com)
  • somatic cell
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the scientific term for cloning, involves creating an embryo by using a nucleus that's been removed from a somatic cell - any cell other than a reproductive cell - and transferring it into an unfertilized egg that has had its chromosomes removed. (medgadget.com)
  • Because the resulting new embryo contains the entire genome of the donor somatic cell it is an identical copy. (medgadget.com)
  • It brings together a century of research into a wide range of important biological questions - particularly whether genetic changes are irreversible after somatic cell specialization has taken place during cell development. (powells.com)
  • It brings together research on a wide range of developmental and genetic problems---particularly the genomic multipotency of metazoan cells after somatic cell specialization has taken place during development. (powells.com)
  • genes
  • Since alpha-ketoglutarate is known to change how genes are regulated by removing methyl chemical groups from the DNA in a cell, Teitell and TeSlaa suspected that the molecule was helping cells turn off genes related to pluripotency and turn on genes related to more efficient differentiation. (scienceblog.com)
  • Interestingly, we observed that AAVs severely diminished the viability of undifferentiated cells, an effect mediated by induction of cell cycle arrest genes and apoptosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • And yet they share the same genome or set of genes with lineage-committed cells, cells fated to be or do one thing. (redorbit.com)
  • We've found evidence that lineage-committed cells are characterized by significantly expanded domains of repressive chromatin that selectively affect genes involved in pluripotency and development. (redorbit.com)
  • genetic
  • The cell experiences many genetic and physical changes along the way. (coursera.org)
  • Now, thanks to what a researcher at the University of Georgia calls a "lucky lab accident," a new "genetic switch" involved in T-cell maturation has been discovered. (innovations-report.com)
  • nuclei
  • TIFAsomes (red strings) formed upon injection of a small sugar molecule (HBP) by H. pylori into the host cells to cause translocation of the pro-inflammatory NF-kB transcription factor (diffused green) into the nuclei, as visualized in the right-side micrograph channel. (laboratoryequipment.com)
  • tissues
  • In those studies, they discovered how ligands that activate the pathway go rogue to hold migrating cancer cells together and help them attach to connective tissues at new locations. (news-medical.net)
  • To compare these epigenomic landscapes, Ren and colleagues looked at chromatin-modification profiles and DNA methylomes in hESCs and primary fibroblasts, the latter a type of cell commonly found in animal connective tissues. (redorbit.com)
  • nuclear
  • Of the 1,828 nuclear transfers we performed with stem cells, very few could develop to the blastocyst stage and not one clone was produced. (medgadget.com)
  • Many integrated cells of host retina migrated to the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and exhibited typical morphology of photoreceptor cells-with cell body localized in the ONL and extended outer segment-like structure into the outer segment layer. (arvojournals.org)
  • induction
  • Recently, it has become clear that a subset of CD4 + cells, termed T follicular helper (TFH) cells largely on the basis of their localization in B cell follicles, plays a crucial role in B cell response induction. (rupress.org)
  • Consequently, EGFRvIII overexpression drove partial dedifferentiation of glioma cells, as determined by tumorsphere-forming ability and expression of stem cell markers, through JAGGED1 induction. (springer.com)
  • expression
  • Our studies in this area have, on the basis of surface marker expression, identified subsets of Th2 cells ( 15 ), one of which is notable for its expression of PD-1, a molecule that has been reported to be expressed by TFH cells ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Differentiate into Oligodendrocyte Progenitors Using the Expression of Olig2 Transcription Factor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • molecules
  • Teitell and his colleagues wondered whether molecules involved in metabolism, or metabolites, might be more than just byproducts of this shift, and might actually help the stem cells differentiate. (scienceblog.com)
  • The chemical secretions of neighboring cells, the molecules within the area around the cell, and even physical contact with other cells are external signals that cause differentiation to begin. (reference.com)
  • Interestingly, there are two major strains distinguished by the presence or absence of a type IV secretion system (T4SS) - a machinery used by the bacteria to inject molecules directly into the host cells, subverting their function. (laboratoryequipment.com)
  • antigen-specific
  • Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) -expressing CD4 regulatory T cells (Tregs) are antigen-specific suppressor cells that prevent autoimmunity and allergy, dampen protective responses, and restrict associated immunopathologies ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • divide
  • Cell division is limited by a process called cellular senescence, during which cells in culture divide more slowly before stopping entirely. (reference.com)
  • virtually
  • In contrast, the hypostome, basal disk and the regions immediately adjacent to them have no nests of differentiating nematocytes, virtually no nests of 4, 8, or 16 I-cells and reduced numbers of 1 and 2 I-cell nesls. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • skeletal muscle
  • heart or skeletal muscle or red blood cells among others. (coursera.org)
  • A particular interest has developed for the use of skeletal muscle satellite cells and myoblasts, because these cells have the potential for autologous transplantation (see review 2 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • receptor
  • The notch-delta pathway creates communication between cells, but things become problematic when the receptor is jagged instead of delta,' he said. (news-medical.net)
  • Treg were first shown to differentiate in the thymus from newly developed thymocytes on T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement by antigen expressed and/or presented locally ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Targeting a glioblastoma cancer stem-cell population defined by EGF receptor variant III. (springer.com)
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and Ink4a/Arf: convergent mechanisms governing terminal differentiation and transformation along the neural stem cell to astrocyte axis. (springer.com)