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  • neurons
  • Axons from excitatory mossy cells, interneurons and neurons from the contralateral hippocampus [ 1 ] target the inner molecular layer, while inputs from medial and lateral entorhinal cortex target the middle and outer molecular layers, respectively ( Fig. 1 ). (iospress.com)
  • Later-generated granule cells take up positions beneath previously generated neurons, forming the age gradient. (iospress.com)
  • Migration of adult-generated neurons follows the developmental pattern, with the new cells typically migrating only tens of microns from the subgranular zone to occupy the innermost region of the granule cell body layer [ 3, 4 ]. (iospress.com)
  • They are generated in the thalamus through alternating excitation of relay cells and reticular neurons (Figure 1(b) ). (hindawi.com)
  • Thalamocortical relay cells excite inhibitory neurons of the adjacent reticular nucleus. (hindawi.com)
  • Relay cells in turn are reexcited via postinhibitory rebound from reticular neurons. (hindawi.com)
  • Thalamus and cortex are reciprocally connected by axons of relay cells and pyramidal neurons. (hindawi.com)
  • The hippocampus consists of Cornu Ammonis (CA) areas CA1, CA2, and CA3, containing pyramidal neurons and the dentate gyrus, containing granule cells. (pnas.org)
  • Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were obtained from LSO neurons in a brain slice preparation, and IPSCs were evoked by electrical stimulation of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), a known glycinergic projection in adult animals. (jneurosci.org)
  • Projections from thalamic core cells synapse on neurons in all cortical layers to some extent (Keller and White, 1989) but predominantly in deep layer III and in layer IV in granular cortex, as well as on the apical dendrites of layer VI neurons (Molinari et al. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Yet the recent development of genetic techniques for sensitizing neurons to optical stimulation ( 7 - 12 ) and silencing ( 13 - 16 ) have, for the first time, provided cell type-specific control of neuronal activity, which has been successfully used to address significant biological questions ( 1 - 3 , 17 - 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, although optical activation of ChR2 has been suitable to induce population activity in a large number of neurons, directed, efficient, and fast stimulation of single cells has not been feasible. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, the participation of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the γ rhythm varies across local circuits and conditions, particularly in the cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although these dynamics present a challenge to interpreting the functional role of γ oscillations, these patterns of activity emerge from synaptic interactions among excitatory and inhibitory neurons and thus provide important insight into local circuit operations. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, these oscillations emerge from dynamic interactions among excitatory and inhibitory neurons and thus provide a crucial and informative real-time window into local circuit operations. (jneurosci.org)
  • NMDA
  • The results reveal an age-related increase in susceptibility to LTP-induction that is normally inhibited by ICS and suggest that the age-related shift in Ca 2+ regulation and Ca 2+ -dependent synaptic plasticity is coupled to changes in cell excitability and NMDA receptor function through ICS. (physiology.org)
  • ionotropic
  • Although GABA and glycine elicit similar postsynaptic ionotropic responses, our results raise the possibility that GABAergic transmission in neonates may play a developmental role distinct from that of glycine. (jneurosci.org)
  • granule
  • During the development of temporal lobe epilepsy, newly-generated hippocampal granule cells integrate abnormally into the brain. (iospress.com)
  • While findings are mixed and many unanswered questions remain, numerous studies now demonstrate that ablating newborn granule cells can have disease modifying effects in epilepsy. (iospress.com)
  • Taken together, findings provide a strong rationale for continued work to elucidate the role of newborn granule cells in epilepsy: both to understand basic mechanisms underlying the disease, and as a potential novel therapy for epilepsy. (iospress.com)
  • The hippocampal dentate gyrus contains three primary subregions: the dentate molecular layer, the granule cell body layer and the dentate hilus. (iospress.com)
  • Within the granule cell body layer, cell positioning tends to follow an age gradient, with the oldest cells located proximal to the molecular layer, while cells generated later in development take up positions closer to the hilus. (iospress.com)
  • Specifically, during development, granule cells are produced from precursors located in what will become the hilar region, and migrate outward to form the cell body layer [ 2 ]. (iospress.com)
  • Adult-generated granule cells are produced from a residual population of progenitor cells located in the subgranular zone, a thin layer of cells sandwiched between the granule cell body layer and the dentate hilus. (iospress.com)
  • long-term potenti
  • Although many of these properties are similar to those seen in synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP), the increase in CA1 pyramidal cell excitability was not blocked by inhibitors of several protein kinases required for the induction of LTP by theta frequency stimulation. (jneurosci.org)
  • amacrine
  • Receptive field properties of starburst cholinergic amacrine cells in the rabbit retina. (nih.gov)
  • Patch-clamp recordings were made from ON starburst cholinergic amacrine cells with somas located in the ganglion cell layer of an isolated, dark-adapted rabbit retina preparation. (nih.gov)
  • density
  • The mutant dentate granules cells exhibited an increased frequency, but normal amplitude, of excitatory synaptic events, and this change was associated with an increase in the neurotransmitter release probability and dendritic spine density. (nih.gov)
  • thalamus
  • This implies that the effects of 5-HT 2A receptor activation on the activity of L5 pyramidal cells may be responsible for mediating a range of behaviors linked to limbic circuitry with connectivity between the PFC, striatum, thalamus, claustrum, striatum, amygdala, and the hippocampal formation. (springer.com)
  • In the literature, discussion of different regions of thalamus uses the terms primary sensory, or 'specific' to describe the thalamic nuclei or regions that receive direct excitatory input from the periphery, eg. (frontiersin.org)
  • frequency
  • Together, our results suggest that very brief bouts of theta frequency synaptic activity induce a selective, persistent, and dendritically localized increase in CA1 pyramidal cell excitability that might have an important role in both information storage and metaplasticity. (jneurosci.org)
  • activation
  • Here, excitatory synaptic activation is modeled to infer biophysical parameters, aid analysis interpretation, explore mechanisms, and formulate predictions by contrasting simulated somatic recordings with experimental data. (springer.com)
  • Light responses were completely suppressed during application of 100 microM D,L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (APB), consistent with activation exclusively through rod bipolar cells (on) and ON-cone bipolar cells. (nih.gov)
  • However, targeted single-cell-level optogenetic activation with temporal precessions comparable to the spike timing remained challenging. (pnas.org)
  • glutamate receptor
  • Different glutamate receptor types appear on depolarizing (ON-center) and hyperpolarizing (OFF-center) bipolar cells (Fig. 2) (Miller and Slaughter, 1986). (utah.edu)