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  • antioxidant
  • Ciofani and his team tested nanoceria as antioxidant in skeletal muscle cells during their maturation process (differentiation) under different gravity levels, obtained by culture on Earth and aboard the International Space Station (ISS) during the Italian Space Agency Biomission Vita (NANOROS project, 2016-7-U.0). (nanowerk.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to explore the cytoprotective effects of the antioxidant Bucida buceras extract in co-treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) delivery as a single addition or with continuous generation using glucose oxidase (GOx) in ARPE-19 cell cultures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mechanism of Bucida buceras extract is believed to be associated with their antioxidant capacity to protect cells against oxidative stress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to preventing cell death treatment with antioxidant plant could also reverse the significant decrease in GSH level, catalase activity and reducing power caused by H 2 O 2 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, SOD is an important antioxidant defense in nearly all living cells exposed to oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • redox
  • In eukaryotes, these redox reactions are carried out by a series of protein complexes within the inner membrane of the cell's mitochondria, whereas, in prokaryotes, these proteins are located in the cells' intermembrane space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although circadian rhythms are endogenous ("built-in", self-sustained), they are adjusted (entrained) to the local environment by external cues called zeitgebers (from German, "time giver"), which include light, temperature and redox cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Most importantly, nanoceria promotes the transcription of genes (Lmna and H2afx) associated with DNA protection from oxidative stress. (nanowerk.com)
  • This is the first report demonstrating that a therapeutic dose of nonradioactive iodide has potent efficacy and high selectivity against lung cancer when used in combination with genetic modification of cancer cells to express the NIS/TPO genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To improve the iodide concentrating capacity of lung cancer cells, we transduced tumor cells with retroviral vectors containing functional NIS and TPO genes to take advantage of the effects of nonradioactive iodide. (aacrjournals.org)
  • protein
  • Cells subjected to either glucolipotoxicity or tunicamycin exhibited increased ROS generation, gene and protein (PERK, GRP-78, IRE1 α , and CHOP) expression of ER stress markers. (hindawi.com)
  • ER stress is known to activate a series of signals that comprise the unfolded protein response (UPR). (hindawi.com)
  • The transferrin protein binds to the transferrin receptor and is taken into the cell by endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein and its receptors are overexpressed in cancer cells owing to their increased demand for iron, and it is believed that Tf transport is the reason ruthenium compounds accumulate in tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study demonstrated that GAPDH is S-nitrosylated by NO in response to cell stress, which causes it to bind to the protein SIAH1, a ubiquitin ligase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the kidney, KKLF protein was localized in interstitial cells, mesangial cells, and nephron segments where CLC-K1 and CLC-K2 were not expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that functions as a serine/threonine kinase, and is a key player in cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many details of the repair cycle, including the finding that the FtsH protease plays an important role in the degradation of the D1 protein, have been discovered since. (wikipedia.org)
  • tightly
  • Conditions that decrease gravity load for several days or weeks, such as prolonged bed rest or long space flights, cause the deterioration and weakening of the postural muscles, and this phenomenon has been shown to be tightly correlated with oxidative stress,' Gianni Ciofani, an Associate Professor at Polytechnic University of Torino and the Principal Investigator of the Smart Bio-Interfaces group at the Italian Institute of Technology, tells Nanowerk. (nanowerk.com)
  • Parkinson's
  • Several studies in cell and invertebrate models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) suggested potential neuroprotective effects of SIRT2 inhibition, in striking contrast with other sirtuin family members. (wikipedia.org)
  • compensate
  • Thus, rapidly proliferating cells, for example, cancer cells or infective bacterial cells, have to compensate increased oxidant amounts, rendering them sensitive to pro‐oxidant therapies [ 6 , 7 ]. (embopress.org)
  • in alkaliphile bacteria the electrical energy even has to compensate for a counteracting inverse pH difference. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • RT-PCR analysis confirmed that different cell lines and tissues predominantly express the FOXM1c transcript. (jove.com)
  • Although this TPO -enhanced NIS-based gene therapy (12) produces concentration of radioiodide in cancer cells, radiation-induced toxicity to normal tissues could limit its clinical application. (aacrjournals.org)
  • physiological
  • The suppressor cells are not affected by glucosteroid response-modifying factor, so the effective setpoint for the immune cells may be even higher than the setpoint for physiological processes (reflecting leukocyte redistribution to lymph nodes, bone marrow, and skin). (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • 95% of NIS/TPO -modified lung cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The iodide concentrating capacity in the transduced lung cancer cell clones was markedly increased, up to 320-fold as determined by 125 I uptake assays. (aacrjournals.org)
  • c-Myc was depleted using c-Myc-specific siRNAs in cultured breast cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hypoxic environment of cancer cell tissue facilitates this reduction and the specific action on cancer cells over healthy cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • KP1019 does not appear to be susceptible to the same cancer cell mechanism of acquiring drug resistance as other metal-based drugs, and remains potent in cell-lines known for their drug resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin
  • Recent studies have suggested that chronic ER stress originating from glucolipotoxicity is one of the major culprits that can very well explain the underlying causes of both insulin resistance and β -cell dysfunction [ 4 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • ER stress has been linked to insulin resistance in diabetes and also expansion of ER was detected in β -cells from type 2 diabetic patients [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The enhancement of insulin secretion resulted from down-regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) in white adipose tissue and a consequent reduced level of oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition KLF15 overexpression in combination with insulin, glucocorticoid, and cAMP stimulated adipogenesis in H295R cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • phases
  • We observed that FOXM1 is localized mainly in the cytoplasm in cells at late-G1 and S phases. (jove.com)
  • induction
  • The overview about the impact of ROS for the viral life cycle is focused on the relevance of autophagy for the HCV life cycle and the crosstalk between HCV, elevated ROS levels, and the induction of autophagy. (hindawi.com)
  • membrane
  • This is induced predominantly by a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in a high percentage of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basis for this resistance may be a weakening of the red cell membrane (the erythrocyte is the host cell for the parasite) such that it cannot sustain the parasitic life cycle long enough for productive growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Connexons will form the gap junction by docking a hemi-channel to another hemi-channel in an adjacent cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Connexons will be internalized by the cell itself as a double membrane channel structure (due to the docking of hemi-channels). (wikipedia.org)
  • This part of the membrane then buds into the cell forming a vesicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now present in the cell membrane, connexons will be degraded by lysosomal pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gates can also show voltage sensitivity depending on the difference in voltage from the interior and exterior of the cell (i.e. membrane potential). (wikipedia.org)
  • neural cells
  • Glutamate receptors are responsible for the glutamate-mediated postsynaptic excitation of neural cells, and are important for neural communication, memory formation, learning, and regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • A role for immune cells such as monocytes and lymphocytes has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its various complications including atherosclerosis. (hindawi.com)
  • In many species, the immune system can be classified into subsystems, such as the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system, or humoral immunity versus cell-mediated immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • In the 1980s, photoinhibition became a popular topic in photosynthesis research, and the concept of a damaging reaction counteracted by a repair process was re-invented. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling
  • In 1989-90, FK506 and rapamycin were determined to inhibit T-cell receptor (TCR) and IL-2 receptor signaling pathways, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • However, in some cells, the hemichannel itself is active as a conduit between the cytoplasm and the extracellular space, allowing the transference of ions and small molecules lower than 1-2 KDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Before cell culture systems based on the JFH-1 genome [ 9 - 11 ] and Huh7.5 cells were established, the subgenomic replicons were an extremely helpful system to study many aspects of the viral life cycle involved in genome replication [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)