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  • tissue
  • This is most often the case when a pathologist examines a small amount of malignant cells or tissue in a cytology or biopsy specimen. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, most breast cancers are a type of carcinoma called adenocarcinoma , which starts in cells that make up glands (glandular tissue). (cancer.org)
  • Microglia have been long understood to be the sentinels of the central nervous system, patrolling the brain and spinal cord and springing into action to stamp out infections or gobble up dead cell tissue. (rochester.edu)
  • Adipose tissue (fat cells), which requires extraction by liposuction. (wikipedia.org)
  • These stem cells can become any tissue in the body, excluding a placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are found in organ tissue and have the capacity to produce specialized cell types for that particular organ. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • Researchers at the Eaton-Peabody Laboratory have successfully isolated adult stem cells from the tissue of the mouse utricle. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • If it were not for endothelial cells extending and remodeling the network of blood vessels, tissue growth and repair would be impossible. (nih.gov)
  • The largest blood vessels are arteries and veins, which have a thick, tough wall of connective tissue and and many layers of smooth muscle cells ( Figure 22-22 ). (nih.gov)
  • These are cells of the connective-tissue family, related to vascular smooth muscle cells, that wrap themselves round the small vessels ( Figure 22-24 ). (nih.gov)
  • A study of the embryo reveals, moreover, that arteries and veins develop from small vessels constructed solely of endothelial cells and a basal lamina: pericytes, connective tissue and smooth muscle are added later where required, under the influence of signals from the endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Once a vessel has matured, signals from the endothelial cells to the surrounding connective tissue and smooth muscle continue to play a crucial part in regulating the vessel's function and structure. (nih.gov)
  • An emerging line of research in our lab is to study the motility of cells of well-defined tissue origins in mechanical and geometrical environments that mimic physiological conditions. (jhmi.edu)
  • We isolate primary cells from genetically modified animals and then apply high-resolution biophysical techniques to observe and parameterize their motility in vitro in engineered environments that provide tissue-mimetic tests of environmental inputs. (jhmi.edu)
  • endothelial cells
  • Endothelial cells have a remarkable capacity to adjust their number and arrangement to suit local requirements. (nih.gov)
  • It is hoped that by blocking the formation of new blood vessels through drugs that act on endothelial cells, it may be possible to block the growth of tumors (discussed in Chapter 23). (nih.gov)
  • The wall is lined by an exceedingly thin single sheet of endothelial cells, the endothelium, separated from the surrounding outer layers by a basal lamina. (nih.gov)
  • In the finest branches of the vascular tree-the capillaries and sinusoids-the walls consist of nothing but endothelial cells and a basal lamina ( Figure 22-23 ), together with a few scattered-but functionally important- pericytes . (nih.gov)
  • The endothelial cells, although inconspicuous, are the fundamental component. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, endothelial cells line the entire vascular system, from the heart to the smallest capillary, and control the passage of materials-and the transit of white blood cells-into and out of the bloodstream. (nih.gov)
  • The recruitment of pericytes in particular depends on PDGF-B secreted by the endothelial cells, and in mutants lacking this signal protein or its receptor , pericytes in many regions are missing. (nih.gov)
  • million in stem cell res
  • For example, in 2015, the National Institutes of Health invested around US$ 1,429 million in stem cell research, as stem cells research offers great potential for better understanding of human development it is expected that this factor will fuel growth of the personalized cell therapy market in the near future. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • Since its establishment in 2005, NYSCF has invested over $200 million in stemcell research and continues to conduct the most advanced stem cell research internationally, both in its own laboratory in New York City, and also in collaboration with major medical research and leading academic institutions around the world. (nyscf.org)
  • 2017
  • In 2017, two CAR T-cell therapies were approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), one for the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and the other for adults with advanced lymphomas. (cancer.gov)
  • The global personalized cell therapy market was valued at US$ 3,536.2 million in 2016 and is expected to witness a robust CAGR of 25.3% during the forecast period (2017 - 2024). (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • cancer cells
  • In LCIS, cells that look like cancer cells are growing in the lobules of the milk-producing glands of the breast, but they don't grow through the wall of the lobules. (cancer.org)
  • Over the last two decades, targeted therapies like imatinib (Gleevec®) and trastuzumab (Herceptin®) -drugs that target cancer cells by homing in on specific molecular changes seen primarily in those cells-have also cemented themselves as standard treatments for many cancers. (cancer.gov)
  • Cancer therapies act as a form of artificial selection, killing sensitive cancer cells, but leaving behind resistant cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Washington have updated a traditional Chinese medicine to create a compound that is more than 1,200 times more specific in killing certain kinds of cancer cells than currently available drugs, heralding the possibility of a more effective chemotherapy drug with minimal side effects. (washington.edu)
  • The scientists attached a chemical homing device to artemisinin that targets the drug selectively to cancer cells, sparing healthy cells. (washington.edu)
  • It was highly selective at killing the cancer cells. (washington.edu)
  • The researchers also have preliminary results showing that the compound is similarly selective and effective for human breast and prostate cancer cells, and that it effectively and safely kills breast cancer in rats, Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer drug designers are faced with the unique challenge that cancer cells develop from our own normal cells, meaning that most ways to poison cancer cells also kill healthy cells. (washington.edu)
  • Most available chemotherapies are very toxic, destroying one normal cell for every five to 10 cancer cells killed, Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • The compound Sasaki and his colleagues developed kills 12,000 cancer cells for every healthy cell, meaning it could be turned into a drug with minimal side effects. (washington.edu)
  • Artemisinin alone is fairly effective at killing cancer cells. (washington.edu)
  • It kills approximately 100 cancer cells for every healthy cell, about ten times better than current chemotherapies. (washington.edu)
  • The compound is so selective for cancer cells partly due to their rapid multiplication, which requires high amounts of iron, and partly because cancer cells are not as good as healthy cells at cleaning up free-floating iron. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer cells get sloppy at maintaining free iron, so they are more sensitive to artemisinin," Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer cells are already under significant stress from their high iron contents and other imbalances, Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • This compound works on a general property of cancer cells, their high iron content. (washington.edu)
  • Each type of non-small cell lung cancer has different kinds of cancer cells. (cancer.gov)
  • The cancer cells of each type grow and spread in different ways. (cancer.gov)
  • Why haven't cancer cells undergone genetic meltdowns? (phys.org)
  • But if cancer cells were accumulating harmful mutations faster than they could be purged, wouldn't the population eventually die out? (phys.org)
  • How do cancer cells avoid complete genetic meltdown? (phys.org)
  • To get at the heart of the matter, a team of scientists from Beijing and Taipei wanted to get a new hint at cancer vulnerability from a mutational perspective by probing the most famous cultured cancer cells, HeLa cells. (phys.org)
  • Therefore, despite single-cell origin, the progeny quickly generated aneuploidy within only 20-30 cell divisions, again illustrating frequent cytogenetic change in cancer cells. (phys.org)
  • Despite the level of mutations occurring, reduction in growth rates, and chromosome numbers no longer representing that of normal humans, cancer cells still find a way to survive. (phys.org)
  • In future work , the scientists want to exploit their cancer cell fitness and growth rate findings to understand how cancer cells can become even more vulnerable to recent breakthroughs with checkpoint inhibitor drugs. (phys.org)
  • notably the p53 system that is so often mutated in cancer cells. (jhmi.edu)
  • antigen-specific
  • Once the collected T cells have been engineered to express the antigen-specific CAR, they are "expanded" in the laboratory into the hundreds of millions. (cancer.gov)
  • 2018
  • Recently named the 2018 Science Magazine "Breakthrough of the Year," single cell sequencing allows scientists to retrace the steps that cells took during development, one cell at a time. (isscr.org)
  • types
  • All types can occur in unusual histologic variants and as mixed cell-type combinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several types of ACT (see "ACT: TILs, TCRs, and CARs"), but, thus far, the one that has advanced the furthest in clinical development is called CAR T-cell therapy. (cancer.gov)
  • These findings show that a precisely choreographed interaction between multiple cells types is necessary to carry out the formation and destruction of connections that allow proper signaling in the brain. (rochester.edu)
  • There are several types of non-small cell lung cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Cancer that may begin in several types of large cells. (cancer.gov)
  • There are two types of B-cell leukemia: prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) and hairy cell leukemia (HCL). (va.gov)
  • Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells are unique types of cells that have the ability to renew themselves over long periods of time. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • Stem cells are the Gary Oldman of cell types. (nautil.us)
  • chemotherapy
  • The final step is the infusion of the CAR T cells into the patient (which is preceded by a "lymphodepleting" chemotherapy regimen). (cancer.gov)
  • It also explains why, even if chemotherapy treatment successfully killed 90 percent of a cancer cell population, it may still not be enough. (phys.org)
  • organ
  • Researchers globally are realizing the potential of 3D cell culture for various applications, including testing and discovering new drugs to treat cancer, organ-on-chip models to study the human physiology in an organ specific context, and 3D cell printing to produce organ models. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • Network with industry experts, gain insight into how the pharmaceutical industry is utilizing 3D Cell Culture technologies to enhance research and development, discuss the potential for novel in-vitro cell culture models to replace animal models, and discover novel 3D cell culture systems, organ-on-chip, 3D imaging of organoids and other technologies in development. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • autoimmune diseases
  • Multiple studies have identified the identification and enumeration of CD4 T helper cells to be important in characterizing and monitoring immunodeficiency such as HIV, immunosuppression, and autoimmune diseases. (emdmillipore.com)
  • scientists
  • The study is another example of a dramatic shift in scientists' understanding of the role that the immune system, specifically cells called microglia, plays in maintaining brain function. (rochester.edu)
  • However, scientists are now beginning to appreciate that, in addition to serving as the brain's first line of defense, these cells also have a nurturing side, particularly as it relates to the connections between neurons. (rochester.edu)
  • While this constant reorganization of neural networks - called neuroplasticity - has been well understood for some time, the basic mechanisms by which connections between brain cells are made and broken has eluded scientists. (rochester.edu)
  • See more of our Cell Scientists To Watch on our interviews page. (biologists.org)
  • generate
  • Thus, a cell that acquires a mutation that increases its fitness will generate more daughter cells than competitor cells that lack that mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our observations suggest that human cells that have been cultured for a sufficiently long period still generate deleterious mutations in the form of CNVs at a high rate and with a high intensity. (phys.org)
  • We are intrigued about how cells generate patterns through self-organization in response to environmental signals, accomplish division or motility through coordinated structural rearrangements and force production, and, when challenged with hostile environments or genetic perturbations, evolve innovative solutions to maintain vitality and functionality. (jhmi.edu)
  • researchers
  • Nevertheless, researchers caution that, in many respects, it's still early days for CAR T cells and other forms of ACT, including questions about whether they will ever be effective against solid tumors like breast and colorectal cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • In just the last few years, progress with CAR T cells and other ACT approaches has greatly accelerated, with researchers developing a better understanding of how these therapies work in patients and translating that knowledge into improvements in how they are developed and tested. (cancer.gov)
  • In the study, the UW researchers tested their artemisinin-based compound on human leukemia cells. (washington.edu)
  • Performing experiments in mice, the researchers employed a well-established model of measuring neuroplasticity by observing how cells reorganize their connections when visual information received by the brain is reduced from two eyes to one. (rochester.edu)
  • pathways
  • The formation and removal of the physical connections between neurons is a critical part of maintaining a healthy brain and the process of creating new pathways and networks among brain cells enables us to absorb, learn, and memorize new information. (rochester.edu)
  • pluripotency
  • During further mitotic expansion of such cysts, all cells retain expression of pluripotency markers. (rupress.org)
  • This self-renewal demands control of cell cycle as well as upkeep of multipotency or pluripotency, which all depends on the stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • biopsies
  • Reactive DTH site biopsies manifested infiltrates of effector cells consisting of CD45RO+ T-cells, and degranulating eosinophils consistent with activation of both Th1 and Th2 T-cell responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • endoderm
  • This middle layer of cells, sandwiched between ectoderm and endoderm, grows and diversifies to provide a wide range of supportive functions. (nih.gov)
  • carcinomas
  • LCLC's have typically comprised around 10% of all NSCLC in the past, although newer diagnostic techniques seem to be reducing the incidence of diagnosis of "classic" LCLC in favor of more poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • It is possible that when the microglia's synapse pruning function is interrupted or when the cells mistakenly remove the wrong connections - perhaps due to genetic factors or because the cells are too occupied elsewhere fighting an infection or injury - the result is impaired signaling between brain cells. (rochester.edu)
  • For example, when they isolated 39 cells from B8 (a fast-growing clone) and 40 cells from E3 (slow growing clone), and monitored their growth from a single cell for seven days, approximately 23 percent of B8 and 50 percent of E3 cells died out within seven days, due to either damage caused during cell isolation or genetic defects. (phys.org)
  • Hair cell loss is caused by exposure to excessive noise, aging, genetic mutations, autoimmune disease, and ototoxic medications such as aminoglycoside antibiotics. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • In mammals, attempts to regenerate damaged inner ear hair cells by genetic means have previously resulted in limited success. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • cancers
  • Until recently, the use of CAR T-cell therapy has been restricted to small clinical trials, largely in patients with advanced blood cancers. (cancer.gov)
  • immune
  • A rapidly emerging immunotherapy approach is called adoptive cell transfer (ACT): collecting and using patients' own immune cells to treat their cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • As its name implies, the backbone of CAR T-cell therapy is T cells , which are often called the workhorses of the immune system because of their critical role in orchestrating the immune response and killing cells infected by pathogens. (cancer.gov)
  • T lymphocytes (T cells) play critical roles in the regulation of immune responses, and are responsible for mediating many of the effector mechanisms of the immune system. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Vaccination activated new T-cell and B-cell immune responses against PCA antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data suggest that both T-cell and B-cell immune responses to human PCA can be generated by treatment with irradiated, GM-CSF gene-transduced PCA vaccines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • LNCaP
  • E1A was expressed at high levels in CN706-infected human PSA-producing LNCaP cells but not in CN706-infected DU145 cells, which are human prostate cells that do not express PSA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The titer of CN706 was significantly higher in LNCaP cells compared to several human cell lines that do not produce PSA (HBL100, PANC-1, MCF-7, DU145, and OVCAR3). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, in LNCaP cells, the yield of CN706 was dependent on exogenous androgen (R1881). (aacrjournals.org)
  • CN706 destroyed large LNCaP tumors (1 × 10 9 cells) and abolished PSA production in nu/nu mouse xenograft models with a single intratumoral injection. (aacrjournals.org)
  • sperm
  • These cells are produced from the fusion of an egg and sperm cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • At one point, we were all just one single cell: a fertilized zygote formed when a sperm and egg fused together. (isscr.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • The CD8 antibody allows the identification of CD8, a 68 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by class I major histocompatibility complex restricted, mature suppressor/cytotoxic T cells, the great majority of cortical thymocytes and approximately 30% of medullary thymocytes. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The kit can thus distinguish both the CD4 T helper cells as well as the CD8 cytotoxic T Cells. (emdmillipore.com)
  • CD3 T cell can be further broadly classified as T helper lymphocytes that are CD3+CD4+ and cytotoxic T lymphocytes that are CD3+CD8+. (emdmillipore.com)
  • nerve cells
  • Microglia (green) with purple representing the P2Y12 receptor which the study shows is a critical regulator in the process of pruning connections between nerve cells. (rochester.edu)
  • A new study out today in the journal Nature Communications shows that cells normally associated with protecting the brain from infection and injury also play an important role in rewiring the connections between nerve cells. (rochester.edu)
  • It now seems that targeting nerve cells might be an effective way to fight tumours - and even prevent them developing in the first place. (newscientist.com)
  • regenerative
  • When you join the ISSCR, you become part of the world's largest and most renowned stem cell and regenerative medicine community. (isscr.org)
  • The ISSCR provides a platform for professional and public education and the promotion of rigorous scientific and ethical standards in stem cell research and regenerative medicine. (isscr.org)
  • tumorigenesis
  • VHL loss activates the HIF-2 transcription factor, and constitutive HIF-2 activity restores tumorigenesis in VHL-reconstituted ccRCC cells. (nih.gov)
  • PT2399 dissociated HIF-2 (an obligatory heterodimer of HIF-2α-HIF-1β) in human ccRCC cells and suppressed tumorigenesis in 56% (10 out of 18) of such lines. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, HeLa cells are not used to reveal the process of tumorigenesis but mainly a model for addressing the underlying evolutionary forces, which need to be powerful enough to measure in laboratory settings. (phys.org)
  • prostate cells
  • Sera from three of eight vaccinated men contained new antibodies recognizing polypeptides of 26, 31, and 150 kDa in protein extracts from prostate cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • immunity
  • T cell lymphocytes (CD3+) constitute more than % of circulating lymphocytes and play a central role in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. (emdmillipore.com)
  • asymmetric
  • A functional consequence of cell polarity in the unicellular organism, the budding yeast, is asymmetric segregation of aging determinants such that cell division generates a young cell with renewed replicative potential from an aged mother cell. (jhmi.edu)
  • protein
  • Since too much free-floating iron is toxic, when cells need iron they construct a special protein signal on their surfaces. (washington.edu)
  • The cancer cell, unaware of the toxic compound lurking on its surface, waits for the protein machinery to deliver iron molecules and engulfs everything - iron, proteins and toxic compound. (washington.edu)
  • human
  • This FlowCellect Human CD4/CD8 T Cell Assay provides a rapid & simple method to asses the percentage of CD4 & CD8 T cells in flow cytometry applications. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The CD4 antibody allows the identification of human helper/inducer CD4+ T cell (HLA Class II reactive) and recognizes a 60,000 Da surface antigen. (emdmillipore.com)