• Because T cells consist of a variety of subpopulations, numerous studies have attempted to associate an impaired balance between each T cell subset and periodontal tissue destruction in periodontitis patients. (springer.com)
  • Because it is well known that T cells are a heterogeneous population, and a balance between functionally different T cell subsets is crucial in immune regulation, a series of studies have attempted to associate an impaired balance between each T cell subset and periodontal disease progression. (springer.com)
  • 1. a subset of T lymphocytes that bind to other cells through MHCs and are involved in their destruction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this review, we will discuss the presence and the role of various T cell subsets, including CD8 + cytotoxic T cells, CD4 + T helper cells (Th1, Th2, and Th17), regulatory T cells, and natural killer T (NKT) cells in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. (springer.com)
  • In addition to conventional CD8 + T cells, there are also several subsets of CD8 + T cells that acquire functions as a result of their maturation process rather than through antigen activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The immune system is composed of a variety of different cell types and proteins. (primaryimmune.org)
  • The immune system is a wonderful collaboration between cells and proteins that work together to provide defense against infection. (primaryimmune.org)
  • Primary immunodeficiencies can affect only a single component of the immune system or multiple cells and proteins. (primaryimmune.org)
  • Interferons are proteins released by a virus-invaded cell that prompt surrounding cells to produce enzymes that interfere with viral replication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2004) Calcineurin imposes T cell unresponsiveness through targeted proteolysis of signaling proteins. (els.net)
  • Lyakh L, Ghosh P and Rice NR (1997) Expression of NFAT-family proteins in normal human T cells. (els.net)
  • Understanding the mechanisms controlling reactivation of the Cd8a gene is important to elucidate molecular mechanisms of lineage commitment toward CD8 + cytotoxic T cells. (pnas.org)
  • The thymus is only active through puberty, then it slowly shrinks and is replaced by fat and connective tissue. (healio.com)
  • The thymus will have produced all the T cells an individual needs by puberty. (healio.com)
  • At the onset of puberty , the thymus begins a slow process of shrinking. (britannica.com)
  • Rodent models have shown that an optimal balance between functionally different T cells is essential in the protection against periodontal tissue destruction. (springer.com)
  • Proliferation of lymphocytes in the thymus is distributed evenly throughout the cortex, instead of in germinal centres, as occurs in other lymphoid tissue . (britannica.com)
  • 1 2 The ocular resident cells may undergo oedema, damage, necrosis, or proliferation. (bmj.com)
  • The mechanisms by which this is accomplished are not well understood but are currently thought to include a reduction of allergen-specific Th2 T-cell responses mediated by increased Th1 or regulatory T-cell responses to the same allergen. (ahrq.gov)
  • Kanno Y, Vahedi G, Hirahara K, Singleton K and O'Shea JJ (2012) Transcriptional and epigenetic control of T helper cell specification: molecular mechanisms underlying commitment and plasticity. (els.net)
  • Lewis RS (2003) Calcium oscillations in T‐cells: mechanisms and consequences for gene expression. (els.net)
  • In addition, it contains large numbers of phagocytic cells which ingest bacteria in the blood as it passes through the liver. (primaryimmune.org)
  • We report that NFAT2 is phosphorylated and inactive in the cytoplasm of naive CD8 + T cells, and upon TCR stimulation, it is dephosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both cells can "eat" bacteria, as well as communicate with other immune cells if an issue arises. (healio.com)
  • Despite the evident biological difference between bacteria and mammalian immune cells, heterogeneity can be investigated in similar ways, and cross-disciplinary methods (experimental and theoretical) can provide essential insights. (springer.com)
  • NFAT2 is required for complete CD8 + T cell responses at suboptimal TCR stimulation and regulates IFN-γ production by cytotoxic CD8 + T cells in vitro . (frontiersin.org)
  • Other key reactions move molecules and molecular complexes within the cell, sometimes changing the cell's shape. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • CD4 produced in Sf9 Insect cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 377 amino acids (26-396a.a.) and having a molecular mass of 42.1kDa (Molecular size on SDS-PAGE will appear at approximately 40-57kDa). (prospecbio.com)
  • By analyzing the expression of hCD2 reporter from manipulated Cd8a alleles with distinct polyadenylation signal positions or intron structures defective in RNA splicing, we found that intron structures are essential for hCD2 expression in CD8 + T cells. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, Cd8a gene was transcribed in CD8 + T cells from a mutant Cd8a locus lacking intron structures, albeit at a lower level. (pnas.org)
  • Our observations highlight the possible involvement of intron structures in the regulation of Cd8a gene during T cell development. (pnas.org)
  • Unlike most other lymphoid structures, the thymus grows rapidly and attains its greatest size relative to the rest of the body during fetal life and the first years after birth. (britannica.com)
  • The transcription factor GATA3 is essential for the genesis and maturation of the T cell lineage, and GATA3 dysregulation has pathological consequences. (jci.org)