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  • 2017
  • In 2017, two CAR T-cell therapies were approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), one for the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and the other for adults with advanced lymphomas. (cancer.gov)
  • helper cells
  • The kit can thus distinguish both the CD4 T helper cells as well as the CD8 cytotoxic T Cells. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Multiple studies have identified the identification and enumeration of CD4 T helper cells to be important in characterizing and monitoring immunodeficiency such as HIV, immunosuppression, and autoimmune diseases. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Following the discovery of interleukin-17 (IL-17) producing T helper (Th17) cells as a distinct lineage of T helper cells it became clear that these cells play an important role in the host defense and participate in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Somatic evolution is the accumulation of mutations and epimutations in somatic cells (the cells of a body, as opposed to germplasm and stem cells ) during a lifetime, and the effects of those mutations and epimutations on the fitness of those cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer first develops as a single cell going rogue, with mutations that trigger aggressive growth at all costs to the health of the organism. (phys.org)
  • But if cancer cells were accumulating harmful mutations faster than they could be purged, wouldn't the population eventually die out? (phys.org)
  • Overall, they found that the main mutations affect the copy number of genes, with an average of 0.29 deleterious events for every cell division. (phys.org)
  • Our observations suggest that human cells that have been cultured for a sufficiently long period still generate deleterious mutations in the form of CNVs at a high rate and with a high intensity. (phys.org)
  • Despite the level of mutations occurring, reduction in growth rates, and chromosome numbers no longer representing that of normal humans, cancer cells still find a way to survive. (phys.org)
  • Their simulation results indicated that although most of the cells accumulated deleterious mutations and were worse than the ancestral cells, there were still 13.1 percent of cells which were mutation-free. (phys.org)
  • When working in diploid cells, it is difficult to screen for mutations phenotypically, especially when considering recessive mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Next, using a disarmed virus, the T cells are genetically engineered to produce receptors on their surface called chimeric antigen receptors, or CARs. (cancer.gov)
  • Once the collected T cells have been engineered to express the antigen-specific CAR, they are "expanded" in the laboratory into the hundreds of millions. (cancer.gov)
  • If all goes as planned, the engineered cells further multiply in the patient's body and, with guidance from their engineered receptor, recognize and kill cancer cells that harbor the antigen on their surfaces. (cancer.gov)
  • The CD4 antibody allows the identification of human helper/inducer CD4+ T cell (HLA Class II reactive) and recognizes a 60,000 Da surface antigen. (emdmillipore.com)
  • COS cells are obtained by immortalizing CV-1 cells with a version of the SV40 virus that can produce large T antigen but has a defect in genomic replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • When an expression construct with an SV40 promoter is introduced into COS cells, the vector can be replicated substantially by the large T antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • These COS cells are genetically modified to produce the T antigen from their own genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sca-1 is a murine hematopoietic stem cell antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukemia
  • Dr. June has led a series of CAR T cell clinical trials, largely in patients with leukemia. (cancer.gov)
  • In the study, the UW researchers tested their artemisinin-based compound on human leukemia cells. (washington.edu)
  • Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. (va.gov)
  • There are two types of B-cell leukemia: prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) and hairy cell leukemia (HCL). (va.gov)
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is the most common form of leukemia and is characterized by production of an excessive number of white blood cells. (va.gov)
  • HMD concluded in its report " Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2008 " released July 24, 2009, that there is sufficient evidence of an association between exposure to Agent Orange and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, including hairy cell leukemia and other chronic B-cell leukemias. (va.gov)
  • As a result, VA expanded chronic lymphocytic leukemia to include all chronic B-cell leukemias as related to exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during military service. (va.gov)
  • The cells are sensitive to sarcoma virus and leukemia virus focus formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jurkat cells are an immortalized line of human T lymphocyte cells that are used to study acute T cell leukemia, T cell signaling, and the expression of various chemokine receptors susceptible to viral entry, particularly HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Jurkat cell line (originally called JM) was established in the late 1970s from the peripheral blood of a 14-year-old boy with T cell leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jurkat J6 cells have been found to produce a xenotropic murine leukemia virus (X-MLV) (referred to as XMRV) that could potentially affect experimental outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The cell then swallows this bundle of iron and proteins. (washington.edu)
  • The cancer cell, unaware of the toxic compound lurking on its surface, waits for the protein machinery to deliver iron molecules and engulfs everything - iron, proteins and toxic compound. (washington.edu)
  • Cells from these lines are also often transfected to produce recombinant proteins for molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • This irregular shape that each individual cell takes on can be influenced by the cytoskeleton and specific proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Next, they picked about 20 cells from each of the single cell originated clones from B8 and counted their chromosome numbers. (phys.org)
  • The modal chromosome number is 68, which occurs in 30% of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are near haploid, having one copy of almost every chromosome and are smaller than the average human cell, growing to about 11 micrometers in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers used CRISPR/Cas9 system to delete the portion of Chromosome 15 that is present in HAP1 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome nondisjunction yields tetraploid rather than aneuploid cells in human cell lines" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • divide
  • Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the leaf grows, the pavement cells will also grow, divide, and synthesize new vacuoles, plasma membrane parts, and cell wall components. (wikipedia.org)
  • HAP1 cells are derived from a line of cancerous cells, which means they are able to divide indefinitely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cleavage furrow regression: Cells divide and almost complete division but then the cleavage furrow begins to regress and the cells merge. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Microglia (green) with purple representing the P2Y12 receptor which the study shows is a critical regulator in the process of pruning connections between nerve cells. (rochester.edu)
  • More specifically, they are used in studies of the cell cycle and cancer-associated cell signalling pathways since they express abnormally high levels of the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). (wikipedia.org)
  • They do not express surface CD3 or produce the T cell receptor alpha/beta heterodimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since they are deficient in the TCR complex, these cells are a useful tool for transfection studies using T cell receptor alpha and beta chain genes and are widely used in labs in which T cell receptor gene transfer technologies are studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • The D1.1 cell line does not express CD4 molecule, an important co-receptor in the activation pathway of helper T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The J.gamma1 subline contains no detectable phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-γ1) protein and therefore has profound defects in T cell receptor (TCR) calcium mobilization, and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) activation (an important transcription factor in T cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonetheless, OK cells have been used extensively to study functional interactions between the parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) and the sodium-hydrogen exchange regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Kit (CD117) is the receptor of Stem Cell Factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intracellular aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is activated by certain aromatic compounds, is specifically expressed in Treg17 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of Treg17 cell action is expression of chemokine receptor CCR6, which facilitates trafficking into areas of Th17 inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • divides
  • When a cancer cell divides, both daughter cells inherit the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of the parent cell, and may also acquire new genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in the process of cellular reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • a stem cell divides into one mother cell that is identical to the original stem cell, and another daughter cell that is differentiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a stem cell self-renews it divides and does not disrupt the undifferentiated state. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1962
  • The PtK2 cell line was established by Kristen Walen and Spencer Brown in 1962. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3T3 cells come from a cell line established in 1962 by two scientists then at the Department of Pathology in the New York University School of Medicine, George Todaro and Howard Green. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer cells
  • And in some very rare types of breast cancer, the cancer cells may not form a lump or tumor at all. (cancer.org)
  • In LCIS, cells that look like cancer cells are growing in the lobules of the milk-producing glands of the breast, but they don't grow through the wall of the lobules. (cancer.org)
  • Over the last two decades, targeted therapies like imatinib (Gleevec®) and trastuzumab (Herceptin®) -drugs that target cancer cells by homing in on specific molecular changes seen primarily in those cells-have also cemented themselves as standard treatments for many cancers. (cancer.gov)
  • Cancer therapies act as a form of artificial selection, killing sensitive cancer cells, but leaving behind resistant cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Often the tumor will regrow from those resistant cells, the patient will relapse, and the therapy that had been previously used will no longer kill the cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Washington have updated a traditional Chinese medicine to create a compound that is more than 1,200 times more specific in killing certain kinds of cancer cells than currently available drugs, heralding the possibility of a more effective chemotherapy drug with minimal side effects. (washington.edu)
  • The scientists attached a chemical homing device to artemisinin that targets the drug selectively to cancer cells, sparing healthy cells. (washington.edu)
  • It was highly selective at killing the cancer cells. (washington.edu)
  • The researchers also have preliminary results showing that the compound is similarly selective and effective for human breast and prostate cancer cells, and that it effectively and safely kills breast cancer in rats, Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer drug designers are faced with the unique challenge that cancer cells develop from our own normal cells, meaning that most ways to poison cancer cells also kill healthy cells. (washington.edu)
  • Most available chemotherapies are very toxic, destroying one normal cell for every five to 10 cancer cells killed, Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • The compound Sasaki and his colleagues developed kills 12,000 cancer cells for every healthy cell, meaning it could be turned into a drug with minimal side effects. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer cells need a lot of iron to maintain the rapid division necessary for tumor growth. (washington.edu)
  • Artemisinin alone is fairly effective at killing cancer cells. (washington.edu)
  • It kills approximately 100 cancer cells for every healthy cell, about ten times better than current chemotherapies. (washington.edu)
  • The compound is so selective for cancer cells partly due to their rapid multiplication, which requires high amounts of iron, and partly because cancer cells are not as good as healthy cells at cleaning up free-floating iron. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer cells get sloppy at maintaining free iron, so they are more sensitive to artemisinin," Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer cells are already under significant stress from their high iron contents and other imbalances, Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • This compound works on a general property of cancer cells, their high iron content. (washington.edu)
  • Non-small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. (cancer.gov)
  • Each type of non-small cell lung cancer has different kinds of cancer cells. (cancer.gov)
  • The cancer cells of each type grow and spread in different ways. (cancer.gov)
  • Why haven't cancer cells undergone genetic meltdowns? (phys.org)
  • How do cancer cells avoid complete genetic meltdown? (phys.org)
  • To get at the heart of the matter, a team of scientists from Beijing and Taipei wanted to get a new hint at cancer vulnerability from a mutational perspective by probing the most famous cultured cancer cells, HeLa cells. (phys.org)
  • Therefore, despite single-cell origin, the progeny quickly generated aneuploidy within only 20-30 cell divisions, again illustrating frequent cytogenetic change in cancer cells. (phys.org)
  • In future work , the scientists want to exploit their cancer cell fitness and growth rate findings to understand how cancer cells can become even more vulnerable to recent breakthroughs with checkpoint inhibitor drugs. (phys.org)
  • Chromosomal abnormalities are common in cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of cell is most commonly found in cancer cells and may arise from a variety of causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binucleation occurs at a much higher rate in cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other identifying features of cancer cells include multipolar spindles, micronuclei, and chromatin bridge. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • At low (picomolar) concentrations EGF promotes cell growth of A431 cells whereas at higher (nanomolar) concentrations it inhibits growth by causing the cells to terminally differentiate. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only cells from an earlier stage of the embryo, known as the morula , are totipotent, able to become all tissues in the body and the extraembryonic placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • As its name implies, the backbone of CAR T-cell therapy is T cells , which are often called the workhorses of the immune system because of their critical role in orchestrating the immune response and killing cells infected by pathogens. (cancer.gov)
  • The study is another example of a dramatic shift in scientists' understanding of the role that the immune system, specifically cells called microglia, plays in maintaining brain function. (rochester.edu)
  • Announcing our next special issue on Cell Biology of the Immune System , guest edited by Ana-Maria Lennon-Duménil. (biologists.org)
  • SV40
  • The acronym "COS" is derived from the cells being CV-1 (simian) in Origin, and carrying the SV40 genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • The COS cell lines are often used by biologists when studying the monkey virus SV40. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3T3 cells can be transformed with SV40 and some other polyomaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidney
  • The CV-1 cell line in turn was derived from the kidney of the African green monkey. (wikipedia.org)
  • PtK2 Cells are a cell line derived from male rat-kangaroo (Potorous tridactylis) epithelial kidney cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult female North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • PT2399 dissociated HIF-2 (an obligatory heterodimer of HIF-2α-HIF-1β) in human ccRCC cells and suppressed tumorigenesis in 56% (10 out of 18) of such lines. (nih.gov)
  • This FlowCellect Human CD4/CD8 T Cell Assay provides a rapid & simple method to asses the percentage of CD4 & CD8 T cells in flow cytometry applications. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Before the development of haploid cells, much of this research was limited to microbes and other simple cells, but now the research can be applied to its target cell type: the human cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • With this technique, experimenters were able to cultivate the first fully haploid human cell line which they termed eHAP. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • Performing experiments in mice, the researchers employed a well-established model of measuring neuroplasticity by observing how cells reorganize their connections when visual information received by the brain is reduced from two eyes to one. (rochester.edu)
  • These studies may range from immunophenotyping experiments, studying T cells during development and disease or understanding impacts on T cells on treatment with specific compounds or mitogens or evaluating T cell specific responses. (emdmillipore.com)
  • After its discovery, subsequent experiments have resulted in the HAP1 cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to their haploidy, HAP1 cells are very useful in biomedical research and genetic experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinomas
  • LCLC's have typically comprised around 10% of all NSCLC in the past, although newer diagnostic techniques seem to be reducing the incidence of diagnosis of "classic" LCLC in favor of more poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • All types can occur in unusual histologic variants and as mixed cell-type combinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type of breast cancer is determined by the specific cells in the breast that are affected. (cancer.org)
  • This article is about the cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fate of binucleated cells depends largely on the type of cell they originated from. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD4+ T cells polarized with IL-23 and IL-6 are pathogenic upon adoptive transfer in type 1 diabetes while cells polarized with TGF-beta and IL-6 are not pathogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Neoplasms are mosaics of different mutant cells with both genetic and epigenetic changes that distinguish them from normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible that when the microglia's synapse pruning function is interrupted or when the cells mistakenly remove the wrong connections - perhaps due to genetic factors or because the cells are too occupied elsewhere fighting an infection or injury - the result is impaired signaling between brain cells. (rochester.edu)
  • For example, when they isolated 39 cells from B8 (a fast-growing clone) and 40 cells from E3 (slow growing clone), and monitored their growth from a single cell for seven days, approximately 23 percent of B8 and 50 percent of E3 cells died out within seven days, due to either damage caused during cell isolation or genetic defects. (phys.org)
  • HAP1 cells are a cell line used for biomedical and genetic research. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Two forms of COS cell lines commonly used are COS-1 and COS-7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sf9 cells, a clonal isolate of Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 cells (IPLB-SF21-AE), are commonly used in insect cell culture for recombinant protein production using baculovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • Journal of Cell Science publishes cutting-edge science, e ncompassing all aspects of cell biology. (biologists.org)
  • they are supported by an outstanding Editorial Advisory Board that reflects all relevant areas in cell biology, including recently emerging fields. (biologists.org)
  • Have you seen our special issue on Plant Cell Biology, guest edited by Jenny Russinova? (biologists.org)
  • cancers
  • Until recently, the use of CAR T-cell therapy has been restricted to small clinical trials, largely in patients with advanced blood cancers. (cancer.gov)
  • stem cells
  • Stem cells" redirects here. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the journal, see Stem Cells (journal) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood, which requires extraction through apheresis , wherein blood is drawn from the donor (similar to a blood donation), and passed through a machine that extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult stem cells are frequently used in various medical therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • KSL cells are an early form of hematopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotherapy
  • The final step is the infusion of the CAR T cells into the patient (which is preceded by a "lymphodepleting" chemotherapy regimen). (cancer.gov)
  • It also explains why, even if chemotherapy treatment successfully killed 90 percent of a cancer cell population, it may still not be enough. (phys.org)
  • pathogens
  • Treg17 cells regulate the function of Th17 cells that are important role in the host defense against fungal and bacterial pathogens and participate in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumorigenesis
  • VHL loss activates the HIF-2 transcription factor, and constitutive HIF-2 activity restores tumorigenesis in VHL-reconstituted ccRCC cells. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, HeLa cells are not used to reveal the process of tumorigenesis but mainly a model for addressing the underlying evolutionary forces, which need to be powerful enough to measure in laboratory settings. (phys.org)
  • pathways
  • The formation and removal of the physical connections between neurons is a critical part of maintaining a healthy brain and the process of creating new pathways and networks among brain cells enables us to absorb, learn, and memorize new information. (rochester.edu)
  • vitro
  • Famously isolated from cervical cancer victim Henrietta Lacks in 1951, they became the first immortalized cell line, helped in the development of the polio vaccine, and have become a biotechnology foundational resource for any in vitro drug development or cancer studies. (phys.org)
  • Since their recent discovery, HAP1 cells cultured in vitro have been established as a dependable screening tool for targeted genetics screens. (wikipedia.org)
  • These regulatory Th17 cells are generated by TGF-beta plus IL-6 in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • adoptive
  • A rapidly emerging immunotherapy approach is called adoptive cell transfer (ACT): collecting and using patients' own immune cells to treat their cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • In the next few years," he said, "I think we're going to see dramatic progress and push the boundaries of what many people thought was possible with these adoptive cell transfer-based treatments. (cancer.gov)
  • findings
  • These findings show that a precisely choreographed interaction between multiple cells types is necessary to carry out the formation and destruction of connections that allow proper signaling in the brain. (rochester.edu)
  • found
  • It was also found that unlike place cells, the speed cells are independent of visual cues. (wikipedia.org)
  • An Opalski cell is a large (up to 35 μm in diameter) altered glial cell, originated from degenerating astrocytes, with small, eccentric, pyknotic, densely staining nuclei (single or multiple) displaced to the periphery, and fine granular cytoplasm, found in the cortical and subcortical regions (basal ganglia and thalamus) of the brains of people with Wilson disease and acquired hepatolenticular degeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • A new study out today in the journal Nature Communications shows that cells normally associated with protecting the brain from infection and injury also play an important role in rewiring the connections between nerve cells. (rochester.edu)
  • develops
  • The company develops and produces crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, panels, and silicon ingots and wafers. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • During further mitotic expansion of such cysts, all cells retain expression of pluripotency markers. (rupress.org)
  • Monocytes also express CD4 but at lower density, and have no co-expression of CD3 and hence can be distinguished away from CD4 T Cells in this kit. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Stimulation of A431 cells with phorbol esters induces expression of interleukin 1-related protein IL1H. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995). "Heterologous expression of rat liver microsomal glutathione transferase in simian COS cells and Escherichia coli" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • In a steady state, TGF-beta and AhR ligands induce low expression of IL-22 along with high expression of AhR, c-MAF, IL-10, and IL-21 that might play a protective role in cell regeneration and host microbiome homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • We examined variation in growth rate among individual HeLa cells by monitoring clones from a common ancestral HeLa cell population," said corresponding author Xuemei Lu. (phys.org)
  • Most cell lines with growth rates (phys.org)
  • A thick external cell wall influences the direction of growth by impeding expansion towards the outside of the cell and instead promote expansion parallel to the epidermis layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth and Maintenance of Insect cell lines: User Guide (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The spontaneously immortalized cells with stable growth rate were established after 20 to 30 generations in culture, and then named '3T3' cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3T3 cells are often used in the cultivation of keratinocytes, with the 3T3 cells secreting growth factors favourable to these kinds of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • In just the last few years, progress with CAR T cells and other ACT approaches has greatly accelerated, with researchers developing a better understanding of how these therapies work in patients and translating that knowledge into improvements in how they are developed and tested. (cancer.gov)
  • A growing number of CAR T-cell therapies are being developed and tested in clinical studies. (cancer.gov)