• Lee's group is continuing structure and function studies of other key players in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis as well. (medicalnewsobserver.com)
  • Transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in the regulation of secondary cell wall (SCW) biosynthesis in herbaceous and woody plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Zhong R, Lee C, Zhou J, McCarthy RL, Ye Z-H: A Battery of Transcription Factors Involved in the Regulation of Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fungi possess cell walls of chitin , and algae typically possess walls constructed of glycoproteins and polysaccharides, however certain algal species may have a cell wall composed of silicic acid . (wikidoc.org)
  • The inclusion of additional polysaccharides in algal cells walls is used as a feature for algal taxonomy. (wikidoc.org)
  • Fungal and plant cell walls are also made up of polysaccharides. (varsitytutors.com)
  • For diverse green plants (chlorophytes and streptophytes) the rapidly increasing availability of transcriptome and genome data sets, the development of methods for cell wall analyses which require less material for analysis, and expansion of molecular probe sets, are providing new insights into the diversity and occurrence of cell wall polysaccharides and associated biosynthetic genes. (nuigalway.ie)
  • Stover cell wall polysaccharides, pentose sugar concentration, and theoretical ethanol yield decreased as N fertilization increased. (elsevier.com)
  • Differences between bacteria and archaea in their sensitivity to antibiotics which inhibit cell wall synthesis in bacteria are discussed. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The importance of PG for the maintenance of bacterial cell shape is underscored by the fact that, for various bacteria, several mutations affecting PG synthesis are associated with cell shape defects. (asm.org)
  • The cell wall is the principal stress-bearing and shape-maintaining element in bacteria, and its integrity is of critical importance to cell viability. (asm.org)
  • First, the application of fluorescence microscopy to bacteria has made it possible to study the localization of enzymes involved in PG synthesis in growing cells, as well as to look at localization of newly incorporated PG in live cells. (asm.org)
  • Rod-shaped bacteria always divide through the same medial plane and are thought to have two modes of cell wall synthesis: one responsible for the elongation of the cell and one responsible for the formation of the division septum (Fig. 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Coccoid bacteria like S. aureus divide using three different perpendicular planes in three consecutive cycles of cell division and seem to have only one mode of cell wall synthesis at the septum. (asm.org)
  • These differences in the mode of division and sites for cell wall synthesis reflect some of the diversity existing in bacteria, a fundamental aspect of bacterial cell biology. (asm.org)
  • Incorporation of new cell wall in differently shaped bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Bacteria use peptidolgycan in their cell walls, and fungi use chitin. (varsitytutors.com)
  • He notices that the structure is abundantly found in cell walls of bacteria. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Gram positive bacteria have __________ cell wall(s) and Gram negative bacteria have __________ cell wall(s). (varsitytutors.com)
  • Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria are distinguished based on their cell walls. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Gram positive bacteria have a single thick cell wall (outside its cell membrane). (varsitytutors.com)
  • Upon Gram staining, these bacteria will hold the Gram stain because of their thick cell wall. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Cell walls are robust structures found in most bacteria, fungi, and plants. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Some bacteria don't stain well with Gram stain (such as Mycobacterium that causes tuberculosis) because of unique cell walls (not lack thereof). (varsitytutors.com)
  • Researchers at Duke University solved the structure of an enzyme that is crucial for helping bacteria build their cell walls. (medicalnewsobserver.com)
  • Most cel wall proteins are cross-linked to the cel wall and may have structural functions. (wikidoc.org)
  • In this review, we discuss the recent data on localization of PG-synthesizing enzymes in the light of what is known about PG synthesis from previous studies, and we discuss the role of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins in organizing the cell wall synthesis process. (asm.org)
  • The aim of the current study was to genetically and functionally characterise 2 cell wall-associated proteins of S. pseudintermedius, SpsD and SpsL, which mediate binding to multiple host extracellular matrix proteins including fibrinogen and fibronectin. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Gram-positive pathogens have a thick cell wall to which proteins and carbohydrate are covalently attached. (umn.edu)
  • The results suggest that many proteins involved in cell wall-related processes during normal development are also recruited during defence-related cell wall remodelling events. (omictools.com)
  • Nucleotide-activated oligosaccharides are intermediates of the cell wall polysaccharide of Methanosarcina barkeri. (semanticscholar.org)
  • lupin seed cell walls are characteristically thickened with galactan used as a storage polysaccharide. (nuigalway.ie)
  • The study of cell wall structural diversity is also an important aspect of the industrial utilization of global polysaccharide bio-resources. (nuigalway.ie)
  • The three primary polymers that make up plant cell walls consist of about 35 to 50% cellulose, 20 to 35 % hemicellulose and 10 to 25% lignin . (wikidoc.org)
  • Lignin fills the spaces in the cel wall between cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin components. (wikidoc.org)
  • Secondary cel wall may contain lignin and suberin , making the walls rigid.It may also contain cutin. (wikidoc.org)
  • Cob cell wall composition was less sensitive to N fertilization, as only pentose and Klason lignin decreased with N fertilization at two and one site(s), respectively, and hexose increased with N fertilization at one of eight sites. (elsevier.com)
  • Inflorescence stem fibre SCW thickness was measured from light and scanning electron micrographs, and the cell wall monosaccharide and Klason lignin composition of stems was determined relative to the wild type. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The distribution of the various cell wall and cell envelope (S-layer) polymers among the main lineages of the domain Archaea (Archaebacteria) and the chemical composition and primary structure of polymers forming rigid cell wall sacculi is described. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cell walls can vary in composition based on what organism is being discussed. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Nitrogen (N) fertilization is an important management decision that influences cellulosic biomass and grain production, but its effect on cell wall composition and subsequent cellulosic ethanol production is not known. (elsevier.com)
  • The objectives of this study were to quantify the responses of maize stover (leaves, stalks, husks, and tassel) and cob cell wall composition and theoretical ethanol yield potential to N fertilization across a range of sites. (elsevier.com)
  • This study also demonstrated that cell wall composition and subsequent theoretical ethanol yield of maize cobs are generally more stable than those with stover because of overall less sensitivity to N management. (elsevier.com)
  • Second, the discovery of an actin-like cytoskeleton involved in bacterial cell shape determination has raised the question of how structural information from inside the cell is translated to the cell wall. (asm.org)
  • Zhong R, Richardson EA, Ye Z-H: Two NAC domain transcription factors, SND1 and NST1, function redundantly in regulation of secondary wall synthesis in fibers of Arabidopsis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many studies have addressed the relationship between PG synthesis and bacterial growth and cell shape by looking at changes in cell shape in mutants that lack one or several enzymes involved in the synthesis of PG or other cell wall components or by looking at the incorporation of labeled PG precursors into the cell wall (see 41 , 57 , 80 , 159 ). (asm.org)
  • Direct measurement of cell wall stress stiffening and turgor pressure in live bacterial cells. (princeton.edu)
  • We study intact and bulging Escherichia coli cells using atomic force microscopy to separate the contributions of the cell wall and turgor pressure to the overall cell stiffness. (princeton.edu)
  • These measurements also indicate that the turgor pressure in living cells E. coli is 29±3 kPa. (princeton.edu)
  • Differential gene-expression profiling, using maize oligonucleotide arrays, was used to identify genes differentially expressed between an elongating internode, containing cells exhibiting primary cell wall synthesis, and an internode that had just ceased elongation and in which many cells were depositing secondary cell wall material. (omictools.com)
  • Below are the list of possible Probable cell wall protein products. (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Probable cell wall protein PGA15 (Predicted GPI-anchored protein 15). (mybiosource.com)
  • Probable GPI-anchored cell wall protein that may be involved in cell wall organization, hyphal growth, as well as in virulence. (mybiosource.com)
  • Functional analysis with gene deletion mutants of S. pseudintermedius strain ED99, constructed in the current study, demonstrated that SpsL is a major cell wall-associated fibrinogen-binding protein with enhanced affinity for canine fibrinogen. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Duke University researchers have provided the first close-up glimpse of a protein, called MurJ, which is crucial for building the bacterial cell wall and protecting it from outside attack. (medicalnewsobserver.com)
  • Until now, MurJ's mechanisms have been somewhat of a 'black box' in the bacterial cell wall synthesis because of technical difficulties studying the protein," said senior author Seok-Yong Lee, Ph.D., associate professor of biochemistry at Duke University School of Medicine. (medicalnewsobserver.com)
  • In plants, the cell wall is constructed primarily from a carbohydrate polymer called cellulose , and the cell wall can therefore also function as a carbohydrate store for the cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • The cell wall polymer of the extremely halophilic archaeon Natronococcus occultus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Which polymer is the primary component of plant cell walls? (varsitytutors.com)
  • Our results implicate SND2 in the regulation of cellulosic and non-cellulosic components of fibre cell walls, and we provide a model for the position of SND2 in the transcriptional network regulating fibre SCW formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cytoskeleton gives shape and support to cells and is typically involved in cell movement. (varsitytutors.com)
  • it provides flexibility to the cell, and it maintains the cytoplasm and osmotic balance inside the cell. (difference.wiki)
  • Manosyl form microfibrils in the cell walls of a number of marine green algae including those from the genera, Codium , Dasycladus , and Acetabularia as well as in the walls of some red algae , like Porphyra and Bangia . (wikidoc.org)
  • Recent developments have prompted a renewed effort to understand cell wall growth and shape determination. (asm.org)
  • The stress-strain behavior of the wall fragments both in the major and minor growth directions were characterized in vacuo. (scienceexchange.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS The fracture strength and fracture strain were significantly different along the major and minor growth directions, the wall fragment level modulus of elasticity anisotropy for a dehydrated cell wall was 1.23, suggesting a limited anisotropy of the cell wall itself compared with tissue-scale results. (scienceexchange.com)
  • The data presented provide a platform for future studies in which candidate genes can be tested for involvement in cell wall processes through forward and reverse genetic-based approaches, contributing towards a better understanding of cell wall biogenesis and its regulation in grasses. (omictools.com)
  • Cells interact though plasmodesma (ta), which are inter-connecting channels of cytoplasm that connect to the protoplasts of adjacent cells across the cell wall. (wikidoc.org)
  • Characterizing microscale biological samples under tensile loading: stress-strain behavior of cell wall fragment of onion outer epidermis. (scienceexchange.com)
  • The thickness of cell wall varies from 4-20uM. (difference.wiki)
  • With the passage of time, cell wall increases in thickness and strength. (difference.wiki)
  • Plant cells have both cell membranes and cell walls. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Recall that phosphate head groups are found on phospholipids, which make up cell membranes (not cell walls). (varsitytutors.com)
  • however, it is a lot thinner and is sandwiched between two cell membranes. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Here we provide a detailed transcriptome analysis that allowed the identification of genes involved in grass cell wall biogenesis. (omictools.com)
  • Animal cells do not have cell walls, but many plant and bacterial cells do. (twigscotland.com)
  • The actual structure of the cell wall is not clearly defined and several models exist - the covalently linked cross model, the tether model, the diffuse layer model and the stratified layer model. (wikidoc.org)
  • Plant cell walls cannot be digested by humans due to the beta glycosidic bond in its structure. (varsitytutors.com)
  • The cell wall is the only non-living structure found in plant cells. (difference.wiki)
  • The structure of a cell surface enzyme from a Gram-positive pathogen has been determined to 2-Å resolution. (umn.edu)
  • Earhart, Cathleen A. / Structure of the streptococcal cell wall C5a peptidase . (umn.edu)