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  • Diffuse Large B-
  • This is because the Reed-Sternberg cell (RSC) variants (popcorn cells) that characterize this form of the disease invariably express B lymphocyte markers such as CD20 (thus making NLPHL an unusual form of B cell lymphoma), and that (unlike classic HL) NLPHL may progress to diffuse large B cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Immunofluorescent staining revealed expression of stem cell factors OCT4, Nanog, and SOX-2 in spheroid, whereas expression of embryonic stem cell marker SSEA1 was increased in HRAS -transformed cells compared with their immortalized isogenic counterparts. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This intronless gene encodes a member of the SRY-related HMG-box (SOX) family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of cell fate. (cancerindex.org)
  • vitro
  • In addition, human cells with abnormal phenotypes such as either enzymatic deficits or malignant properties frequently maintain these phenotype in vitro. (springer.com)
  • A multistep in vitro/in vivo transformation system was used to test the transforming effect(s) of the human bladder procarcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP) and two putative proximate carcinogenic metabolites, N -hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl (N-OH-ABP) and N -hydroxy-4-acetylaminobiphenyl (N-OH-AABP), on a clonally derived nontumorigenic SV40-immortalized human uroepithelial cell line, SV-HUC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Neoplastic progression of a low grade regressive squamous cell carcinoma, MC-T11, was also achieved in this system after in vitro exposure to ABP, N-OH-ABP, or N-OH-AABP. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To assess drug induced apoptosis of acute leukemia cells in vitro and subsequent relationship to clinical response based upon Css of flavopiridol attained in vivo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The detailed RBE vs. LET relationship that was found for total exchanges is similar to that of earlier studies of mutation and in vitro neoplastic transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic instability has been observed both in vitro and in vivo in the progeny of cells that are irradiated with heavy ions in several model systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • The J domain is a DnaJ molecular chaperone that is required for viral genome replication in vivo (but is dispensable in cell-free laboratory experiments). (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • The LP cells have scant cytoplasm and one folded or multilobated nuclei with prominent, mostly basophilic nucleoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • This unstructured linker region also contains a nuclear localization sequence, which triggers the host cell to transport the protein from the cytoplasm where is it translated to the nucleus where it performs its replication-related functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome
  • Indications are that: for high-LET radiation, where complex DSBs occur with high frequency, little repair occurs, leading to cell death or the mis-rejoining of unrepairable ends with other radiation-induced DSB leads to large DNA deletions and chromosome aberrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • During cell division, heterochromatin formation is required for proper chromosome segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Processes
  • CD44 is a widely distributed cell surface adhesion molecule that is implicated in a variety of physiologic and pathologic processes, including lymphocyte activation, cell-matrix interactions, and regulation of tumor growth and metastasis (see ref. 1 for a review). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) are mononucleated or multinucleated cells with multiple genome copies that can be observed in cancer but that can also play an important role in many normal physiologic and nonmalignant pathologic processes [ 10 - 12 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • SV40
  • Strikingly, primary embryo fibroblasts from ATF4 -deficient mice were resistant to transformation by coexpression of H-ras V12 and SV40 large T antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These are believed to bind zinc in the SV40 STag and confer improved protein stability, but in Merkel cell polyomavirus STag, they have been reported to bind iron-sulfur clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • host cell's
  • Because polyomavirus genome replication relies on the DNA replication machinery of the host cell, the cell must be in S phase (the part of the cell cycle in which the host cell's genome is normally replicated) in order to provide the necessary molecular machinery for viral DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major functions of LTag in the viral life cycle involve dysregulation of the host cell's cell cycle and replication of the virus's circular DNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • alterations
  • Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill. (nih.gov)
  • genome
  • Vice versa, cell surface molecules are suggested to mediate extracellular signals to the genome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • LTag has two primary functions, both related to replication of the viral genome: it unwinds the virus's DNA to prepare it for replication, and it interacts with proteins in the host cell to dysregulate the cell cycle so that the host's DNA replication machinery can be used to replicate the virus's genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • These truncated LTags retain their ability to interact with some cell cycle regulatory proteins and are involved in cell transformation but not in viral genome replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • This analysis validated the approach of whole cancer genome sequencing in identifying somatic mutations and the importance of parallel sequencing of normal and tumor cell genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Using a reversible Ret-dependent oncogenic conversion model and a restricted proteomic approach, we identified a positive correlation between the neoplastic transformation of Rat-1 cells and the expression of standard CD44. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Dysfunction of cell adhesion (metastasis) is characteristic for tumor cells and is regarded as a result of alternation in E-cadherin expression (encoded by CDH1). (termedia.pl)
  • In wild-type cells these oncogenes induced expression of the murine Atf4 gene along with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Cdkn2a , which encodes the cell senescence-associated proteins p16INK4 and p19ARF. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is possibly involved in lymphoma pathogenesis since translocations associated with B-cell malignancies also deregulates its expression. (cancerindex.org)
  • The product of this gene is required for stem-cell maintenance in the central nervous system, and also regulates gene expression in the stomach. (cancerindex.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AHCC on protein expression of SOX2 in the gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell line KLM1-R. (cancerindex.org)
  • AHCC was applied to KLM1-R cells and expression of SOX2 was analyzed by western blotting. (cancerindex.org)
  • RSH cells typically express CD15 and CD30, whereas LP cells lack expression of these markers, but express B cell markers like CD20, CD22, and CD79a and also express the common leukocyte antigen CD45, which is uncommon on RSH cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibroblastic
  • Here, we took advantage of this reversible transformation system of immortalized rodent fibroblastic cells and found in a restricted proteomic analysis that standard CD44 is one of the main up-regulated protein associated with detergent-resistant membranes (DRM) during the transformation process. (aacrjournals.org)
  • regulate cell
  • The shedding of CD44 after metalloprotease-dependent cleavage of the extracellular domain has been proposed as a mechanism to regulate cell detachment from HA ( 4 , 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • membranes
  • Once in the blood stream, M. haemofelis individuals adhere to the cell membranes of red blood cells and eventually become partially embedded. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Alteration in gene activation, for instance silencing of tumor suppressors or activation of oncogenes, may occur in the case of cancer cells . (termedia.pl)
  • Therefore, canonical PRC1 complexes and PRC2 can act together to repress gene transcription and maintain this repression through cell division (i.e. the repressed state is also present in daughter cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • EZH2, as well as other Polycomb group proteins, are involved in establishing and maintaining gene repression through cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • pluripotent
  • This result suggests that the target of AHCC in expressing therapeutic efficacy was not the pluripotent cells such as cancer stem cells (CSCs) but SOX2-specific. (cancerindex.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Thus, lectins have been used as appropriate tools for studying the modulation of functionally important membrane-associated molecules during the differentiation of cells, in particular of B- and T-lymphocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This fluid is rich in proteins and cells, such as: cancer cells, lymphocytes and mesothelial cells. (termedia.pl)
  • In fact, only a small fraction of the initial damage is transduction of late chromosomal damage has also been measured in the progeny of human lymphocytes that were exposed with much higher frequency in the progeny of cells that were exposed to heavy ions compared to gamma rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • The protein mediates gamma radiation signaling leading to cell cycle arrest and activity of this protein plays a role in cell cycle checkpoint regulation in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • EZH2 is capable of mono-, di-, and tri-methylation of H3K27 and has been associated with a variety of biological functions, including transcriptional regulation in hematopoiesis, development, and cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • This reduction of genetic information has committed M. haemofelis to a parasitic lifestyle in which it is entirely dependent upon host cells for the amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins it has lost the ability to synthesize. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • Such studies have been facilitated by the recent development of improved methods for culturing normal human epithelial tissues and cells 1 . (springer.com)
  • Chemically defined media have been developed for culturing many of these tissues and cells from normal organs, including those with a high rate of cancer in humans. (springer.com)
  • Sometimes the transplanted cells from a donor can also make an immune response against the body's normal cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A significant increase in the density of mast cells has been seen in cherry hemangiomas compared with normal skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Ascites can be considered as microenvironmental affection for cancer cells . (termedia.pl)
  • Neoplastic cells are presented as single cells or cell aggregates, and are able to spread the cancer to other parts of the human body. (termedia.pl)
  • E. A. Friedman, Differential response of premalignant epithelial cell classes to phorbol ester tumor promoters and to deoxycholic acid, Cancer Res. (springer.com)
  • Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cytarabine, work in different ways to stop cancer cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 3-AP may help cytarabine kill more cancer cells by making them more sensitive to the drug. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as flavopiridol, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Giving low doses of chemotherapy, such as fludarabine phosphate, and total-body irradiation (TBI) before a donor peripheral blood stem cell transplant helps stop the growth of cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The donated stem cells may replace the patient's immune system and help destroy any remaining cancer cells (graft-versus-tumor effect). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Active hexose-correlated compound down-regulates sex-determining region Y-box 2 of pancreatic cancer cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • Our previous research showed that AHCC down-regulated heat-shock protein (HSP)-27 and exhibited cytotoxic effects against gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • Microscopic energy deposition in cells and tissues is distinct for GCR compared to X-rays on Earth leading to both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects, while there is no human epidemiology data for GCR for cancer and other fatal risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • This is the first report describing a porcine model of mammary epithelial cell tumorigenesis that can be applied to the study of human breast cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • F. L. Graham, J. Smiley, W. C. Russell and R. Nairn, Characteristics of a human cell line trasformed by DNA from human adenovirus type 5, J. Gen. Virol. (springer.com)
  • These results demonstrate for the first time the transforming effects of the potent human carcinogen ABP and two of its proximate N -hydroxy metabolites on a prime human target cell type, HUC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These alloys were found to cause neoplastic transformations of human osteoblast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • motility
  • The second method described in this paper is the transwell cell migration and invasion assay that measures the capacity of cell motility and invasiveness toward a chemo-attractant gradient. (jove.com)
  • Fyn is functionally distinct from its family members in that it interacts with FAK and paxillin (PXN) in the regulation of cell morphology and motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • neoplasms
  • PAX8/PPARy rearrangement account for 30-40% of conventional type follicular carcinomas and less than 5% of oncocytic carcinomas (aka Hurthle-Cell Neoplasms). (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • The aim of this study was to investigate DCA-stimulated COX-2 signaling pathways and their possible contribution to deregulated cell survival and apoptosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Thymidine monophosphate is produced by the cell in two different reactions - either by phosphorylation of thymidine as described above or by methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate, a product of other metabolic pathways unrelated to thymidine, by the enzyme thymidylate synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some whole-genome sequencing studies have shown that PAX8 also targets BRCA1 (carcinogenesis), MAPK pathways (thyroid malignancies), and Ccnb1 and Ccnb2 (cell-cycle processes). (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • At experiment termination, several distinct endpoints can be measured, such as size and molecular characterization of the primary tumor, the presence and quantification of circulating tumor cells in the blood and bone marrow, and formation of metastasis to the lung. (jove.com)
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • CLL results in the build up of B cell lymphocytes in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polycythemia vera is an uncommon neoplasm in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cell
  • Here we use tumor cell migration and invasion as an example and describe two related assays to illustrate the commonly used, easily accessible methods to measure these processes. (jove.com)
  • mechanisms
  • Thus, we can conclude that insufficiency of immunological defense mechanisms leading to disruption of maligned cell elimination process is the primary pathogenic factor for metastatic tumor development. (ssmj.ru)
  • Bacteria
  • It has shed many biosynthetic systems found in related gram-positive bacteria as well as the ability to secrete a cell wall (rendering it technically gram-negative). (wikipedia.org)
  • mast cells
  • most likely due to increased histamine from mast cells, but may be related to an increased susceptibility to infection with the ulcer-causing bacterium H. pylori. (wikipedia.org)
  • A significant increase in the density of mast cells has been seen in cherry hemangiomas compared with normal skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations
  • Tools from evolutionary theory have the potential to parse those mutations that are selected within cells on the path to cancer from those mutations that arise incidentally during the somatic evolution of cancer. (yale.edu)
  • proliferate
  • Histologically, sarcoids are composed of fibroblasts (collagen producing cells) that invade and proliferate within the dermis and sometimes the subcutaneous tissue but do not readily metastasize to other organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • marker
  • We argue here that serum ferritin arises from damaged cells, and is thus a marker of cellular damage. (rsc.org)
  • The enzyme suggested as a tumor marker in malignant disease is the cytosolic cell cycle dependent TK1 that is present during cell division in quantities much larger than TK2 and is therefore set free to the circulation in quantities that completely dominate the activity of thymidine kinase in blood and other body fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin
  • In addition, treatment with PIO for up to 72 hours did not result in changes in the expressions of p53, cyclin D1, Bcl-2, and Bax in NUTE cells and J82 cells. (medsci.org)
  • Interestingly, PIO significantly downregulated the protein levels of p53 and cyclin D1 in J82 cells, but not NUTE cells after more than 192 hours of treatment. (medsci.org)
  • It encodes a cell cycle inhibitor that binds to G1 cyclin-CDK complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also found that targeting MEK1 and cyclin E1 with small interfering RNA decreased the number of endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • invade
  • In addition to a variety of endpoints, this model provides a picture of a cells ability to invade and escape the primary organ, enter and survive in the circulatory system, and implant and grow in a secondary site. (jove.com)
  • commonly
  • Certain fusion transcripts are commonly produced by cancer cells, and detection of fusion transcripts is part of routine diagnostics of certain cancer types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Less commonly, CLL may present with enlarged lymph nodes without a high white blood cell count or no evidence of the disease in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Squamous-cell carcinoma and melanoma usually occur in horses greater than 9-years-old, while sarcoids commonly affect horses 3 to 6 years old. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • The first method is the cell culture wound closure assay in which a scratch is generated on a confluent cell monolayer. (jove.com)
  • Methods
  • Methods to examine cell migration are very useful and important for a wide range of biomedical research such as cancer biology, immunology, vascular biology, cell biology and developmental biology. (jove.com)
  • It is our goal to describe these methods in a highly accessible manner so that the procedures can be successfully performed in research laboratories even just with basic cell biology setup. (jove.com)
  • genomic
  • Despite the diversity of platforms, ultimately they all use genomic DNA from disrupted cells to recreate a high resolution karyotype in silico. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreatic
  • Fyn overexpression has been studied in relation to the following cancers: prostate cancer, glioblastoma multiform, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, pancreatic cancer, chronic melogenic leukemia, and melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • biomarkers
  • Overall, this systems approach serves to explain a number of apparent paradoxes of serum ferritin, including (i) why it correlates with biomarkers of cell damage, (ii) why it correlates with biomarkers of hydroxyl radical formation (and oxidative stress) and (iii) therefore why it correlates with the presence and/or severity of numerous diseases. (rsc.org)
  • Typically
  • A karyotype is typically presented as an image of the chromosomes from a single cell arranged from largest (chromosome 1) to smallest (chromosome 22), with the sex chromosomes (X and Y) shown last. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis is typically based on blood tests finding high numbers of mature lymphocytes and smudge cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • Resveratrol competitively inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the activity of the carcinogen activating enzymes cytochrome P-450 (CYP)1A1/CYP1A2 in microsomes and intact HepG2 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This reduction of genetic information has committed M. haemofelis to a parasitic lifestyle in which it is entirely dependent upon host cells for the amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins it has lost the ability to synthesize. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soon it was shown that TK1 is present in the cytoplasm only in anticipation of cell division (cell cycle-dependent) whereas TK2 which is located in mitochondria is cell cycle-independent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thymidine kinase 1 is such a salvage enzyme, whereas thymidine kinase 2 is not cell cycle-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • However, high viral loads within cells are strongly correlated with more severe clinical signs and aggressive lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • E1 is similar to COOH-terminal domain of the Simian virus 40, plays a role in viral DNA replication maintaining plasmids within a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • This leads to suggestions for how one might exploit the corollaries of the recognition that serum ferritin levels mainly represent a consequence of cell stress and damage. (rsc.org)
  • often
  • Most often the lymphocyte count is greater than 5000 cells per microliter (µl) of blood, but can be much higher. (wikipedia.org)