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  • proteins
  • The name ubiquitin originates from the ubiquity of the protein as it is found in almost all organisms and directs proteins to degradation by the proteasome or to transport to different compartments and locations in the cell. (nanowerk.com)
  • Macroautophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process by which cells maintain homeostasis by degrading entire organelles and long-lived proteins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The 2008 documentary movie Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed presented 250 proteins as an estimated minimum required for cell function. (icr.org)
  • B cells, which produce proteins called antibodies, are one type of immune cell involved in GVHD. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is important for controlling cell numbers and destroying defective or unwanted cells, but is also involved in the development of some cancers such as leukaemia and breast cancer in which the cells have an oversupply of pro-survival proteins, resisting signals that tell them to die. (healthcanal.com)
  • Such a change had not previously been reported for the pro-survival proteins. (healthcanal.com)
  • Researchers at the institute have spent many years studying the proteins involved in programmed cell death. (healthcanal.com)
  • It could be a way of regulating what these proteins do within a cell, or it could be an inherent structural difference particular to the Bcl-w protein that makes it behave slightly differently to other pro-survival proteins," she said. (healthcanal.com)
  • Bcl-w is an interesting case because it does not seem to be associated with tumour growth and resilience to chemotherapy agents to the same extent as other pro-survival proteins. (healthcanal.com)
  • It may be that Bcl-w, unlike other Bcl-2 proteins and demonstrated in our structure, has evolved an inherent structural flexibility that restricts its pro-survival activity, which could explain why it is not often implicated in tumour development," he said. (healthcanal.com)
  • It will be particularly interesting to see whether the types of structural changes we see in Bcl-w also happen with the pro-death proteins, which would tell us a lot more about how these proteins work to kill a cell," he said. (healthcanal.com)
  • Thus, in this theme we aim to systematically characterize the role of phosphatases and their associated complex network of proteins in cellular processes and human cancers by using cell and animal models through cell biology and proteomics approach. (org.in)
  • Survival occurs when recruited cytoplasmic adaptor proteins facilitate signal transduction through tumor necrosis factor receptor members such as TRAF6, which results in the release of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcription activator. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • 6-10 Evidence suggests that EPCs contribute as much as 25% of endothelial cells (ECs) in newly formed blood vessels, 11 and transplantation of EPCs into patients has been demonstrated to induce blood flow recovery in ischemic limbs 12 and increase myocardial viability after infarction. (ahajournals.org)
  • inhibitor
  • And what is the inhibitor for EDTA after cells are detached? (protocol-online.org)
  • 66, 6800-6806 Sun, Y., Hegamyer, G. and Colburn, N. H. (1994) Molecular cloning of five messenger RNAs differentially expressed in preneoplastic or neoplastic JB6 mouse epidermal cells: one is homologous to human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • They are also nerve cell survival factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (nerve growth factor receptor (TNFR superfamily, member 16), also called the LNGFR or p75 neurotrophin receptor) is one of the two receptor types for the neurotrophins, a family of protein growth factors that stimulate neuronal cells to survive and differentiate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two distinct subpopulations of Olfactory ensheathing glia (being researched for nerve repair) have been identified with high or low cell surface expression of low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (p75). (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Whereas single lethal events lead to an exponent that is linearly related to dose, the survival fraction function for a two-stage mechanism carries an exponent proportional to the square of dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • TrkA
  • The NGF/TrkA complex is subsequently trafficked back to the cell body. (wikipedia.org)
  • TrkA is a receptor tyrosine kinase (meaning it mediates its actions by causing the addition of phosphate molecules on certain tyrosines in the cell, activating cellular signaling). (wikipedia.org)
  • Study results indicate that superior cervical ganglia neurons that express both p75NTR and TrkA die when treated with proNGF, while NGF treatment of these same neurons results in survival and axonal growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • In the process of inflammation, NGF is released in high concentrations by mast cells, and induces axonal outgrowth in nearby nociceptive neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of CD154 (CD40L) on TH cells to CD40 activates antigen presenting cells and induces a variety of downstream effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers
  • The findings by researchers at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center are published in the Jan. 15 issue of the journal Developmental Cell, with an accompanying commentary. (innovations-report.com)
  • double-membraned
  • Cell degradation takes place through the formation of double-membraned vesicles autophagasomes which engulf the cytosolic components. (nanowerk.com)
  • chronic
  • This review highlights the key elements in this adaptive response to protection against acute and chronic cell injury provoked by environmental stresses. (mendeley.com)
  • Chapel Hill, NC - Leukemia and lymphoma patients who receive life-saving stem cell or bone marrow transplants often experience chronic side effects that significantly decrease quality of life, can last a lifetime, and ultimately affect their long-term survival. (eurekalert.org)
  • In chronic Graft vs. Host Disease (GVHD), the differences between the donor bone marrow cells and the recipient's body often cause these immune cells to recognize the recipient's body tissues as foreign and the newly transplanted cells attack the transplant recipient's body. (eurekalert.org)
  • For patients who received bone marrow or stem cells, it is estimated that 40-70 percent may experience chronic GVHD. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a paper published in the journal, Blood , a team from the University of North Carolina's Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, shows in the laboratory that B cells from patients with chronic GVHD are much more active than cells from patients without the disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dose fractionation Dose-response relationship Chronic radiation syndrome "Cell Survival Curves" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Since it was first isolated by Nobel Laureates Rita Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen in 1956, numerous biological processes involving NGF have been identified, two of them being the survival of pancreatic beta cells and the regulation of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • survive
  • It prevents the cell communicating the stress that it is under, which is crucial if the cell is to survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Truncating mutations in this gene have been shown to promote breast cancer metastasis to the lungs by allowing cancer cells to survive mechanical stretch in the microcirculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Cells were cultured in endothelial cell basal medium-2 in the absence and presence of CRP (5 to 20 μg/mL), rosiglitazone (1 μmol/L), and/or vascular endothelial growth factor. (ahajournals.org)
  • This is useful for control of cellular signaling because the di-phosphorylated phosphoinositide PIP2 is only phosphorylated by the family of enzymes, PI 3-kinases (phosphoinositide 3-kinase or PI3-K), and only upon receipt of chemical messengers which tell the cell to begin the growth process. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • In the initial phase, the cell senses signals released in response to lack of nutrients, hypoxia, or other forms of stress. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • degradation
  • Unlike Porter and Ashford, de Duve conceived the term as a part of lysosomal function while describing the role of glucagon as a major inducer of cell degradation in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • This receptor has been found to be essential in mediating a broad variety of immune and inflammatory responses including T cell-dependent immunoglobulin class switching, memory B cell development, and germinal center formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • The technique involves injection of compatible donor red blood cells of a different blood group into a recipient, followed by blood testing periodically afterwards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differential agglutination of the red cells is then used to determine the number of remaining donor cells, allowing the survival rate to be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • Here, we report that T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells are characterized by increased oxidative phosphorylation and robust ATP production. (nature.com)
  • T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is one of the deadliest and most aggressive hematological malignancies. (nature.com)
  • stem cell
  • Additional team members from the UNC Stem Cell Transplant team and UNC Lineberger include Philip Roehrs, MD, Amber Essenmacher, Robert Irons, Allison Deal, Andrew Sharf, and Todd Hoffert. (eurekalert.org)
  • Spermidine has also been found to "upregulate expression of the epithelial stem cell-associated keratins K15 and K19, and dose-dependently modulated K15 promoter activity in situ and the colony forming efficiency, proliferation and K15 expression of isolated human K15-GFP+ cells in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptotic
  • At the end of lactation, the loss of the suckling triggers a STAT3-dependent apoptotic program to remove the differentiated alveolar cells. (nih.gov)
  • mitochondria
  • In January 1962 they reported an increased number of lysosomes in rat liver cells after the addition of glucagon, and that some displaced lysosomes towards the centre of the cell contained other cell organelles such as mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lysosomes could not be cell organelles, but part of cytoplasm such as mitochondria, and that hydrolytic enzymes were produced by microbodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • homeostasis
  • This raises the issue of the role that PLCβs versus PLCγ1 play in Ca 2+ homeostasis of T-ALL cells and how PLCβs are activated upon anti-CD3 stimulation of these cells. (nature.com)
  • bacteria
  • A team of biologists at the Stanford University School of Medicine employed a new method to estimate the minimum genetic information required for the survival of bacteria called Caulobacter crescentus , which are commonly used in labs. (icr.org)
  • expression
  • Melanoma cells transplanted into an immunodeficient mouse model were shown to require expression of CD271 in order to grow a melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • CD40 is also expressed on B cell precursors in the bone marrow, and there is some evidence that CD40-CD154 interactions may play a role in the control of B cell haematopoiesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • radiation
  • It depicts the relationship between the fraction of cells retaining their reproductive integrity and the absorbed dose of radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • Yes, I neutralize trypsin by serum containing medium and this procedure works well with wield type cells. (protocol-online.org)
  • In the macrophage, the primary signal for activation is IFN-γ from Th1 type CD4 T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trials and meta-analyses have confirmed that the drug is effective on patients with this cancer type, extending their survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of remaining nonagglutinated Type O cells as a function of time defines the survival rate of blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in Xenopus oocytes suggest that this protein alone and in combination with pannexin 2 may form cell type-specific gap junctions with distinct properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • By doing so at the site of cancerous tissues in the body, L-DOS47 is believed to modify the microenvironmental conditions of lung cancer cells in a manner that leads to their death. (drugs.com)
  • In addition, the local production of ammonia at the site of cancerous tissues is thought to readily diffuse into the cancer cells to exert a potent cytotoxic effect by interfering with their critical metabolic functions. (drugs.com)
  • One more rising problem is that Kendall Reyes Chargers Jersey , in addition to im pting the advancent and survival of aberrant cells, CR and mTOR inhibition may well also impt the stem mobile partnt and enrich maintenance or fix of tissues. (xobor.com)
  • This deterioration is due to the death of the muscle cells and muscle tissues and leads to ongoing muscle wasting and muscle weakness. (blogspot.com)
  • Pasireotide works by binding to a protein called somatostatin receptor, which is expressed in many tissues throughout the body including thyroid cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The expression of these Src family members are not the same throughout all tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of CD34 on non-hematopoietic cells in various tissues has been linked to progenitor and adult stem cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Genital warts, which are a form of benign tumor of epithelial cells, are also caused by various strains of HPV. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an epithelial malignancy characterized by the histologic appearance of signet ring cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once those cells lose E-cadherin, their motility increases due to an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a protein complex in adherens junctions that helps cells maintain epithelial layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • promiscuous
  • Malgorzata Adamczyk and Grazyna Jagura-Burdzy: "Spread and survival of promiscuous IncP-1 plasmids", Acta Biochimica Polonica, Vol 50, no. 2/2003, p. 425-453 LEWIS C. INGRAM, M. H. RICHMOND, AND R. B. SYKES: "Molecular Characterization of the R Factors Implicated in the Carbenicillin Resistance of a Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Burns", ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, Feb. 1973, p. 279-288 Thomas CM et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • long-term survival
  • However, one such patient treated with a radical cystectomy followed by combined S-1 and Cisplatin adjuvant chemotherapy did demonstrate promising long-term survival of 90 months. (wikipedia.org)
  • In advanced stage esthesioneuroblastoma in pediatric patients, where surgery is no longer possible, aggressive chemotherapy and radiotherapy has resulted in some tumor control and long term survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • This discovery changed the current thinking about cancer from a model wherein cancer is caused by a foreign substance (a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid
  • However, counting CD34+ mononuclear cells may overestimate myeloid blasts in bone marrow smears due to hematogones (B lymphocyte precursors) and CD34+ megakaryocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • fates
  • Using these models, we are deciphering the mechanisms by which complex I deficiency can confer opposite cell fates in neurodegeneration and cancer. (pvlsi.org)
  • cancerous
  • Among these theorized effects, L-DOS47 is believed to stimulate an increase in the pH of the microenvironment surrounding the cancerous cells, effectively reversing the acidic extra-cellular conditions that are known to be necessary for cancer cell survival. (drugs.com)
  • For a very long time, it has been proposed that mitochondrial dysfunction may predispose some cells-for example, dividing cells-to become cancerous. (pvlsi.org)
  • lung cancer
  • Background: Bevacizumab-based chemotherapy hasbeen shown to extend progression-free survival PFS of lung cancer, but itseffect on overall survival OS remains unclear. (duhnnae.com)
  • Methods: Therefore, we retrospectively analysed 22 patientswith non-small cell lung cancer NSCLC who were treated with docetaxel plusBBP at the Department of Thoracic Oncology, Kansai Medical University HirakataHospital, between November 2009 and March 2013. (duhnnae.com)
  • carcinoma
  • Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a rare form of highly malignant adenocarcinoma that produces mucin. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, it has been found that a colon carcinoma cell known as HCC2998 causes an increase in differentiated tumor production. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pattern of metastasis is different for gastric signet cell carcinoma than for intestinal-type gastric carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is extremely rare and patient survival is very poor and occurs mainly in men ages 38 to 83. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon and rectum (PSRCCR) is rare, with a reported incidence of less than 1 percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • some single cell organisms have much more DNA than humans (see Junk DNA and C-value enigma). (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • In a tumor, there is a collection of mutations that are typos in the genetic material, which disrupts the function of the normal cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • There are quite a number of new options for patients [with kidney cancer] that are improving survival and, in rare cases, even leading to remission," McDermott told Oncology Times . (lww.com)
  • It works by preventing cancer cells from multiplying and it also makes them more likely to die from the treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A clear difference can be seen in cancer, wherein mitochondrial dysfunction provides survival advantages to cells. (pvlsi.org)
  • In medical research, the most famous immortalised cell line, known as HeLa, was developed from cervical cancer cells of a woman named Henrietta Lacks. (wikipedia.org)
  • One study suggests that when signet-ring cells are found in a breast tumor, the presence of gastric cancer should also be considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • Injection of CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells has been clinically applied to treat various diseases including Spinal Cord Injury, Liver Cirrhosis and Peripheral Vascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • ASK1 will be transported to the nucleus when UV-irradiation is used to treat the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • The mitochondrial metabolism plays a critical role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from β-cells, which is essential for maintaining blood glucose homeostasis. (pvlsi.org)
  • known
  • Arising from the upper nasal tract, esthesioneuroblastoma is believed to originate from sensory neuroepithelial cells, also known as neuroectodermal olfactory cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • The failure of β-cells to appropriately secrete insulin in response to glucose results in type 2 diabetes, which presents us with one of the biggest health challenges of this century. (pvlsi.org)
  • respectively
  • Also, Karnofsky scores and the absence of prior radiotherapy (P less than .01 and P = .01, respectively, log-rank) were associated with improved survival. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Two such mutants, PFF1cop254D and PFF1cop271C, increase the copy number of PFF1 in E. coli from approximately 39-40 to about 501 and 113 plasmids per cell, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • primary
  • She discovered that overexpression of ODC and c-Raf activation is sufficient to convert a normal primary keratinocyte into a malignant, invasive tumor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • destroy
  • Dr. Chao will highlight previously announced laboratory and animal data that demonstrates the potential for L-DOS47 to bind to and debilitate and destroy human lung adenocarcinoma cells. (drugs.com)
  • clinical
  • Antibodies are used to quantify and purify hematopoietic progenitor stem cells for research and for clinical bone marrow transplantation. (wikipedia.org)