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  • abdominal
  • Testosterone circulation causes fat cells to deposit around the abdominal and gluteofemoral region, whereas in women oestrogen circulation leads to fat deposits around areas such as thighs, breasts and buttocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell
  • It is a reversible process thought to be caused by stem cell reprogramming. (wikipedia.org)
  • CLV3/ESR-related ('CLE') peptide family - CLV3 encodes a small secreted peptide that functions as a short range ligand to the membrane-bound CLV1 receptor like kinase that together with CLV2 (a receptor-like protein) function to maintain stem cell homeostasis in Arabidopsis shoot apical meristems. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Tetraselmis species vary greatly in cell size and shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • See figure 1 for general features of the flagella and cell body of Tetraselmis species. (wikipedia.org)
  • the location of the stigma however, varies from species largely due to cell size and shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCR/SP11 - are small polymorphic peptides produced by the tapetal cells of anthers and is involved in self-incompatibility of Brassica species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidemiology and Multistage Models", 1977 Peto went on to suggest that evolutionary considerations were likely responsible for varying per-cell carcinogenesis rates across species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within members of the same species, cancer risk and body size appear to be positively correlated, even once other risk factors are controlled for. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2015 study, using data from necropsies performed by the San Diego Zoo, surveyed results from 36 different mammalian species, ranging in size from the 51-gram striped grass mouse to the 4,800-kilogram elephant, nearly 100,000 times larger. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2014 paper in Evolutionary Applications by Maciak and Michalak emphasized what they termed "a largely underappreciated relation of cell size to both metabolism and cell-division rates across species" as key factors underlying the paradox, and concluded that "larger organisms have bigger and slowly dividing cells with lower energy turnover, all significantly reducing the risk of cancer initiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The size of gene clusters can vary significantly, from a few genes to several hundred genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reason that intermediate-sized organisms have relatively few of these genes may be because the advantage of preventing cancer these genes conferred was, for moderately-sized organisms, outweighed by their disadvantages-particularly reduced fertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • A paper in Cell Reports in January 2015 claimed to have found genes in the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) that may be associated with longevity. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • Anemia of chronic disease, hereditary spherocytosis, acute blood loss, aplastic anemia (anemia resulting from an inability of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells), and certain hereditary hemoglobinopathies (including some cases of thalassemia minor) may all present with a normal RDW. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • Cells are more or less rectangular in girdle view. (wikipedia.org)
  • The size ranges between less than 4.6 millimetres (0.18 in) to greater than 6 millimetres (0.24 in). (wikipedia.org)
  • Writing an overview of the multistage model of cancer, Peto noted that, on a cell-for-cell basis, humans were much less susceptible to cancer than mice: A man has 1000 times as many cells as a mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • larger
  • While the E. coli genome is roughly 4.6Mb in length, in comparison the Human genome is much larger with a size of approximately 3.2Gb. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • In the case of both iron and B12 deficiencies, there will normally be a mix of both large cells and small cells, causing the RDW to be elevated. (wikipedia.org)
  • shape
  • In medical electrodiagnostic testing for a patient with weakness, careful analysis of the "motor unit action potential" (MUAP) size, shape, and recruitment pattern can help in distinguishing a myopathy from a neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • The most common example of metaplasia is Barrett's esophagus, when the non-keratinizing squamous epithelium of the esophagus undergoes metaplasia to become mucinous columnar cells, ultimately protecting the esophagus from acid reflux originating in the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of increasing genome size over time is seen in filamentous plant pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • standard
  • The standard channel size used in most production flow cytometers is 250 by 250 micrometers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Red blood cell distribution width (RDW or RDW-CV or RCDW and RDW-SD) is a measure of the range of variation of red blood cell (RBC) volume that is reported as part of a standard complete blood count. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • The study found no relationship between body size and cancer incidence, offering empirical support for Peto's initial observation. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • Certain disorders, however, cause a significant variation in cell size. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a varied size distribution of red blood cells is a hallmark of iron deficiency anemia, and as such shows an increased RDW in virtually all cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, "width" refers to the width of the volume curve (distribution width, here presented as the Coefficient of Variation, or CV), not the width of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Stem cells are found in epithelia and embryonic mesenchyme of connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can be found in many global waters, and their main enforcer of habitat range is light availability which restricts cells to the photic zone of the water column. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single
  • Single cell fabric has an R-Value between 0.28 and 0.44 (1.6 and 2.5 imperial), and double cell fabric has a metric R-value between 0.49 and 0.70 (2.8 and 4.0 imperial). (wikipedia.org)
  • although
  • The technology is zero-generation (0G), since although it had cells, moving between them was not seamless. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • Deficiencies of Vitamin B12 or folate produce a macrocytic anemia (large cell anemia) in which the RDW is elevated in roughly two-thirds of all cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • There is some evidence that suggests that a smaller cell enables faster development time from egg to a fully developed, adult bee. (wikipedia.org)
  • smaller
  • Henneman proposed that the mechanism underlying the Size Principle was that the smaller motor neurons had a smaller surface area and therefore a higher membrane resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • expansion
  • In the study of non-legume plants, the over-expression of ENOD40 in transgenic Arabidopsis lines was observed a reduction of cell expansion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developmentally it is involved in vascularization, longitudinal cell expansion and increased radial expansion. (wikipedia.org)
  • distribution
  • The distribution of motor unit size is such that there is an inverse relationship between the number of motor units and the force each generates (i.e., the number of muscle fibers per motor unit). (wikipedia.org)
  • http://rdwbloodtest.com Red Blood Cell Distribution Width ‹ The template below (Myeloid blood tests) is being considered for merging. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • The professional phagocytes include many types of white blood cells (such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, mast cells, and dendritic cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • Generally, individual cells travel in a linear fashion for a long period of time, and then rapidly change direction without stopping, in which their flagella generate force for motion through an aqueous environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic genomes evolve over time through many mechanisms including sexual reproduction which introduces much greater genetic diversity to the offspring than the prokaryotic process of replication in which the offspring are theoretically genetic clones of the parental cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • travel
  • Some phagocytes then travel to the body's lymph nodes and display the material to white blood cells called lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • higher
  • People with android obesity have higher hematocrit and red blood cell count and higher blood viscosity than people with gynoid obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the probability of carcinogenesis were constant across cells, one would expect whales to have a higher incidence of cancer than humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher RDW values indicate greater variation in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • light
  • Stigmas are a concentration of pigment granules which the cell uses to detect light allowing them to orientate themselves within the water column. (wikipedia.org)
  • entire
  • If enough cells in an organ atrophy the entire organ will decrease in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The muscle fibers belonging to one motor unit can be spread throughout part, or most of the entire muscle, depending on the number of fibers and size of the muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • In 1882, he studied motile (freely moving) cells in the larvae of starfishes, believing they were important to the animals' immune defenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • He went on to extend his observations to the white blood cells of mammals and discovered that the bacterium Bacillus anthracis could be engulfed and killed by phagocytes, a process that he called phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retrieved on 5 April 2009 Encyclopedia of Surgery: A Guide for Patients and Caregivers Red blood cell indices Retrieved on 5 April 2009 7. (wikipedia.org)
  • instead
  • As with the other members of the genus, its biochemistry is remarkable in possession of ubiquinone 10 as its major respiratory quinone, and of glycosphingolipids instead of lipopolysaccharides in its cell envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggest
  • The results suggest an evolutionary relationship between animal size and tumor suppression, as Peto had theorized. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative
  • Air pollutants like particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and lead (Pb) can affect the lung in numerous ways like inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell cycle death. (indianexpress.com)
  • sides
  • Note, array cell assignment has an expression on both sides of the assignment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Connected to the Rotunda is the one-story rectangular Cell Block B, which has arched windows along the sides and is five small cupolas used as air vents along the top. (wikipedia.org)
  • hours
  • After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters a restriction point in which it is decided whether the cell will move forward with the G1 phase or move into the dormant G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • separate
  • Two separate cells both produced a tornado that were recorded as two of the most powerful in Australian history. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the 1889 buildings, the prison complex includes a wing of 1923 cell blocks (blocks C, D, E, and F), a separate additive service building, a 1938 school, and a 1955 cell block extension. (wikipedia.org)
  • series
  • There were a series of thunderstorm cells that formed early in the morning - despite it being more common for thunderstorms to form in the late afternoon in the south-east Queensland region. (wikipedia.org)
  • measure
  • Photoelectric cells in a spectrophotometer device worn on the forehead measure the amount of each wavelength of light reflected by cerebral blood flow in the activated cortical tissue and send the data to a computer, which then calculates the ratio of red to infrared light and translates it into a visual signal of corresponding to oxygenation level on a graphical interface the patient can see. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • The original 1889 complex included the Administration Building, Rotunda, Cell Block A, and Cell Block B. Cell Block A was demolished in 1971, but the other buildings still remain. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • May play also an essential role in telomere length maintenance and telomere capping in mammalian cells. (abcam.cn)
  • brood
  • There are several methods to increase the size of the brood chamber, if this is required: Use of a larger '14 x 12' box (where the height of the frame is 12" (305mm), instead of the standard 8½", and the box is thus either 12⅜" or 12½" tall. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second standard brood box, thereby doubling the size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brood comb is the beeswax structure of cells where the queen bee lays eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The hexagonal cells for the brood comb vary in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Checkpoint
  • Chauhan N, Visram M, Cristobal-Sarramian A, Sarkleti F, Kohlwein SD (2015) Morphogenesis checkpoint kinase Swe1 is the executor of lipolysis-dependent cell-cycle progression. (springer.com)
  • homeostasis
  • CLV3/ESR-related ('CLE') peptide family - CLV3 encodes a small secreted peptide that functions as a short range ligand to the membrane-bound CLV1 receptor like kinase that together with CLV2 (a receptor-like protein) function to maintain stem cell homeostasis in Arabidopsis shoot apical meristems. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • This was surprising because the assumption was that postnatally, the pancreas grows by increasing the number of cells just like most organs that we think about," says Dor. (eurekalert.org)
  • proteins
  • In a sperm cell, a specialized set of tiny support proteins (protamines) pack the DNA down to about one-sixth the volume of a mitotic chromosome. (utah.edu)
  • Cell membranes are, at their most basic, composed of a phospholipid bilayer with some surface proteins embedded around the surface. (reference.com)
  • These proteins are secreted from cells in the floral abscission zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • divide
  • When and at what size to divide are critical decisions, requiring cells to integrate internal and external cues. (pnas.org)
  • While it is known that the 24-h circadian clock and the environment modulate division timings across organisms, how these signals combine to set the size at which cells divide is not understood. (pnas.org)
  • Multiple size control principles have been proposed, including the sizer model, where cells divide at a critical size irrespective of birth size, or the timer model, where cells grow for a set time before dividing ( 9 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • bacterial
  • Jun said the development of high-throughput cell sampling techniques and genetic methods such as "CRISPR interference" made it possible for his team to extract large amounts of physiological data from 10 million bacterial cells in their growth inhibition experiments. (eurekalert.org)
  • Membrane
  • The only place a cell can do this is along the thin, skin-like membrane surrounding it. (reference.com)
  • While the outer membrane of a cell protects the cell well on a microscopic level, large cells would require exceptionally thick membranes. (reference.com)
  • What Is the Basic Structure of a Cell Membrane? (reference.com)
  • Anastasia SD, Nguyen DL, Thai V, Meloy M, MacDonough T, Kellogg DR (2012) A link between mitotic entry and membrane growth suggests a novel model for cell size control. (springer.com)
  • worker
  • Ever since its commercial manufacture was perfected in the decades that followed, most beekeepers have bought foundation on the quality, price and service offered by the manufacturer, without giving the size of the resulting worker cells a second thought. (dave-cushman.net)
  • My original motivation in starting to look was to be able to use the size of the worker cell as a method of discriminating against Italian strains of bee in my own breeding program. (dave-cushman.net)
  • Smaller
  • Smaller cells are easily visible under a light microscope. (utah.edu)
  • When a rapidly-growing cell divides into two smaller cells, what triggers the split? (phys.org)
  • There is some evidence that suggests that a smaller cell enables faster development time from egg to a fully developed, adult bee. (wikipedia.org)
  • turnover
  • Little is known about the turnover of adipose cells in the fat depots of normal animals and human subjects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, microarray analysis of adipose cell gene expression in high risk insulin-resistant human subjects suggests that a reduced rate of adipose cell turnover is associated with enhanced adipose cell size and systemic insulin resistance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • mammals
  • He went on to extend his observations to the white blood cells of mammals and discovered that the bacterium Bacillus anthracis could be engulfed and killed by phagocytes, a process that he called phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • We have examined this issue by comparing neurotrophin effects on the regulation of electrical excitability and morphological differentiation in two strains of PC12 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We found that while neurotrophins induced neurite extension and increased calcium currents in both PC12 cell types, sodium current levels were regulated in only one of these strains. (biomedsearch.com)
  • correlation
  • Upon analyzing the data, the scientists found a strong negative correlation between the size of individual acinar cells and lifespan. (eurekalert.org)
  • Moreover, we found little correlation between calcium current levels and the extent of morphological differentiation when compared in individual cells of a single strain. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However
  • However, when I add content to the cells, they go over the width or the lenght that I want them to stay. (sitepoint.com)
  • however, because the volume grows more quickly than the surface area, there is a limit to the amount of diffusion that can take place into or out of a cell. (reference.com)
  • In the wild, however, cells rarely experience constant environments. (pnas.org)
  • Certain disorders, however, cause a significant variation in cell size. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a varied size distribution of red blood cells is a hallmark of iron deficiency anemia, and as such shows an increased RDW in virtually all cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, "width" refers to the width of the volume curve (distribution width, here presented as the Coefficient of Variation, or CV), not the width of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Organisms control the size of their cells ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although the rules of cell division under constant conditions are being elucidated, cell division in many organisms is controlled by intracellular cues and time-varying environmental signals. (pnas.org)
  • tissues
  • Phagocytes are crucial in fighting infections, as well as in maintaining healthy tissues by removing dead and dying cells that have reached the end of their lifespan. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • Here we report the role of a transcription factor Suppressor Phenotype of Ty elements insertion 10 (SPT10) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in regulating cell cycle, cell size and lipid metabolism in concert, in addition to its defined role of histone gene expression. (springer.com)
  • walls
  • 4.9 mm... several possible sources (I am currently looking for a sample with raised cell walls to match the other sizes) (this is now resolved due to the production by Dadant of 'proper' 4.9 mm foundation. (dave-cushman.net)
  • The cocoon sticks to the hexagonal walls of the cell and is not removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbial
  • Recent time-lapse analysis of microbial growth at the single-cell level suggested that many microorganisms follow an "adder" or "incremental" model ( 16 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 21 ), where newborn cells add a constant cell size before dividing again. (pnas.org)
  • The Russian zoologist Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (1845-1916) first recognized that specialized cells were involved in defense against microbial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • arise
  • These arise from continuous coupling of the clock to the cell cycle, which, in light−dark cycles, steers cell divisions away from dawn and dusk. (pnas.org)
  • rather, they can vary with differences in cell context that arise not only between different cell lineages, but also between individual cells of clonal relation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Obesity
  • People with android obesity have higher hematocrit and red blood cell count and higher blood viscosity than people with gynoid obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • naturally
  • Under naturally graded light−dark cycles, this coupling narrows the time window of cell divisions and shifts divisions away from when light levels are low and cell growth is reduced. (pnas.org)
  • probability
  • We demonstrate that the clock continuously modulates the probability of cell division throughout day and night, rather than solely applying an on−off gate to division, as previously proposed. (pnas.org)
  • If the probability of carcinogenesis were constant across cells, one would expect whales to have a higher incidence of cancer than humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • Iterating between modeling and experiments, we show that, in both constant and light−dark conditions, the cyanobacterial clock produces distinctly sized and timed subpopulations. (pnas.org)
  • Iterating between modeling and experiments, we go on to identify an effective coupling of the division rate to time of day through the combined effects of the environment and the clock on cell division. (pnas.org)
  • humans
  • Writing an overview of the multistage model of cancer, Peto noted that, on a cell-for-cell basis, humans were much less susceptible to cancer than mice: A man has 1000 times as many cells as a mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • Here, we examine how the 24-h circadian clock and environmental cycles modulate cell size control and division timings in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus using single-cell time-lapse microscopy. (pnas.org)
  • Single cell fabric has an R-Value between 0.28 and 0.44 (1.6 and 2.5 imperial), and double cell fabric has a metric R-value between 0.49 and 0.70 (2.8 and 4.0 imperial). (wikipedia.org)
  • Division
  • What Happens During Cell Division? (reference.com)
  • Closer inspection reveals that the clock generates two subpopulations, with cells born in the subjective day following different division rules from cells born in subjective night. (pnas.org)
  • carbon
  • The size of the carbon atom is based on its van der Waals radius. (utah.edu)
  • Spt10p helps in maintaining the cell size by regulating the amount of carbon flux into the phospholipid constituents of the cell membranes. (springer.com)
  • genetic
  • Eukaryotic genomes evolve over time through many mechanisms including sexual reproduction which introduces much greater genetic diversity to the offspring than the prokaryotic process of replication in which the offspring are theoretically genetic clones of the parental cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • explains
  • A stochastic model explains how this behavior emerges from the interaction of cell size control with the clock. (pnas.org)