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  • squamous cell carc
  • ID2 is upregulated in neuroblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • In esophageal cancer the expression level and methylation status of the gene are involved in the prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The tumor suppressor gene p16 (also called MTS1, CDKN2 and INK4A) is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor and a negative cell cycle regulator ( 1 ). (jcancer.org)
  • Our previous study demonstrated that introduction of exogenous p16 via adenoviral gene transfer downregulated VEGF expression and inhibited angiogenesis in human BCa cells ( 17 ). (jcancer.org)
  • This gene plays a role in cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • GADD45G is expressed in enamel knots, where it regulates gene expression and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factor 7-like 1 (T-cell specific, HMG-box), also known as TCF7L1, is a human gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor family of transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, canonical PRC1 complexes and PRC2 can act together to repress gene transcription and maintain this repression through cell division (i.e. the repressed state is also present in daughter cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a mutation in a caretaker gene coding for a DNA repair pathway that leads to the inability to properly repair DNA damage could allow uncontrolled cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • This pathway consists primarily of a phosphorylation cascade involving serine kinases and is mediated by regulatory proteins, which regulate cell growth by binding to growth-controlling genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maintenance of embryonic stem cells (ES) Lineage-specific genes are genes that will define the final identity of the differentiated cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genes are primed for expression (also known as existing in a bivalent state in embryonic stem cells but are kept in a repressed state by chromatin modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokinins help to maintain the plant cell and expression of cytokinin biosynthesis genes late in development prevents leaf senescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rounds of cell replication allow fixation of mutated genes into the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inactivation of caretaker genes is environmentally equivalent to exposing the cell to mutagens incessantly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations must occur in the remaining normal caretaker allele in addition to both alleles of gatekeeper genes within that cell for the said cell to turn to neoplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many cases, gatekeeper genes encode a system of checks and balances that monitor cell division and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each cell type has only one, or at least only very few, gatekeeper genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • placenta
  • The better understanding of cells and their functions in the placenta could lead to the development of a therapeutic response to over-proliferating cells in future and also provides a better general understanding of carcinogenic processes and how to prevent them. (medicalnewser.com)
  • MKP-4 is another MKP that belongs to Type I and, is distinct from other MKPs in this subgoup because it is only found in placenta, kidney and embryonic liver cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The cell cycle regulatory mol- ecules, apoptosis-related molecules, and cell stress-related proteins were examined by Western blotting. (deepdyve.com)
  • Senescence RG7422 can also become elicited by suboptimal manifestation of proteins implicated in spindle formation or mitotic checkpoint control, including human being TACC3 and murine BubR1, Bub3 and Rae1, all of which employ g53 and g21 of the DDR separately, frequently in mixture with g16Ink4a (refs 15, 32, 33). (biosemiotics2013.org)
  • ID proteins could be potential targets for systemic cancer therapies without inhibiting the functioning of most normal cells because they are highly expressed in embryonic stem cells, but not in differentiated adult cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • ID proteins are key regulators of development where they function to prevent premature differentiation of stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • By inhibiting the formation of E-protein dimers that promote differentiation, ID proteins can regulate the timing of differentiation of stem cells during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • GADD45G interacts with several other proteins that are involved in DNA repair, cell cycle control, apoptosis, and senescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • The ARCosome promotes cell death by bridging the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), allowing FIS1 to transmit a proapoptotic signal from the mitochondria to the ER and activate procaspase-8. (wikipedia.org)
  • PLK4 contains these 2 domains in addition to a third PBD, which facilitates oligomerization, targeting, and promotes trans-autophosphorylation, limiting centriole duplication to once per cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • In this study, we investigated the potential application of this first-in-class inhibitor MLN4924 in the treatment of human renal cell carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo. (deepdyve.com)
  • We demonstrated that adenoviral-mediated p16 expression exhibited multiple anti-tumor functions by simultaneously suppressing in vitro growth and in vivo angiogenesis of breast cancer cells, blocking cell division, as well as inducing senescence and apoptosis. (jcancer.org)
  • Finally, 14-3-3σ knockdown supports migratory capacity of melanoma cells in vitro , while 14-3-3σ overexpression has opposing effects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • distinct
  • Specific detection of senescence marker in distinct pH in cultured cells and tissue sections. (promocell.com)
  • Tumor cells arise from two distinct classes of genomic instability: mutational instability arising from changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA and chromosomal instability arising from improper rearrangement of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melanoma
  • In line with this, treatment of different metastatic melanoma cell lines with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR), a potent inhibitor of cytosine methylation, significantly induces 14-3-3σ protein expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • undergo
  • Unlike animals, plants continually form new organs and older organs undergo a highly regulated senescence program to maximize nutrient export. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hippo-YAP
  • this is how the Hippo-YAP pathway inhibits cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cadherin-mediated activation of the inhibitory pathway involves the transmembrane E-cadherin forming a homophilic bond in order to activate α- and β-catenin, which then stimulate downstream components of the Hippo-YAP pathway to ultimately downregulate cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypothesis
  • The cell cycle hypothesis of AD proposes that the disease is caused by aberrant re-entry of different neuronal populations into the cell division cycle, following a 2-hit hypothesis (Nagy et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998). The cell cycle hypothesis of AD also attempts to explain for the characteristic senile plaques and the neurofibrillary tangles of AD pathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2005). Thus, the cell-cycle hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease considers AD as a disease of deregulation of the cell cycle in neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-cycle hypothesis of AD proposes a 2-hit hypothesis that results in neuron "immortality," and continual production of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles to cause AD. (wikipedia.org)
  • suppression
  • Exposure to 100 μM BPA had no effects on cell viability, but increased cytoplasmic expression of ERβ and release of GDF-15, as well as decreased release of IL-6, ET-1, and IP-10 through suppression of NFκB phosphorylation. (carleton.ca)
  • cancerous
  • In numerous kinds of cancerous cells, GADD45G is down regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar research that Boger utilized for comparison to his results involving elimination of cancerous tumors and antigens was centered around the use of similar immunoconjugates that were introduced to cancerous colon cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the sporadic form, both alleles would need to sustain a mutation before the cell can become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancerous cells typically lose this property and thus divide and grow over each other in an uncontrolled manner even when in contact with neighbouring cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • h-PDLSCs were isolated successfully and were positive for human mesenchymal stem cell surface markers. (medsci.org)
  • Cell cycle markers cyclin D, Cdk4, and Ki67 are found in elevated levels in AD neurons, signifying the transition to G1 (McShea et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • Leaf senescence has the important function of recycling nutrients, mostly nitrogen, to growing and storage organs of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • When collision is unavoidable, a different phenomenon occurs whereby growth of the cells of the culture itself eventually stops in a cell-density dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • it occurs between a select few cells in a likely heterogeneous culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • senescent cells
  • How these principles link to the function of senescent cells in aging and age-related illnesses and how the quickly accruing brand-new details could end up being used to apparent harmful senescent cell populations selectively to improve healthful life expectancy are also talked about. (biosemiotics2013.org)
  • Creation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines is normally rising as a common feature of senescent cells irrespective of the senescence-inducing stressor or system (Fig. 1). (biosemiotics2013.org)
  • Hereditary trials using knockout traces for each of these tumor suppressors that examined how senescent cells accumulate in these tissue and lead to their degeneration, set up that s16Ink4a is normally an effector of aging15 and senescence. (biosemiotics2013.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, as one allele is already mutated in all other somatic cells, the future incidence of cancers in these individuals is observed with linear kinetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, normal cells are resistant to the polyploidy inducing effects of R1530. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cell
  • The irreversible alkylation of DNA disrupts the nucleic acid architecture, which eventually leads to tumor cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growing evidence suggests that DNA damaging agents, such as duocarmycins, are more efficacious in tumor cell killing than tubulin binders, particularly in case of solid tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • The emerging data including ours indicated that p16 contributes its anti-cancer ability by inducing tumor cells to senescence. (jcancer.org)
  • In this study, we used adenoviral-mediated p16 expression (AdRSVp16) and breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 as the model to simultaneously analyze all these p16's anti-tumor functions. (jcancer.org)
  • A recent publication in Cancer Research (August 2010) has shown that ID1 can be used to mark Endothelial Progenitor Cells which are critical to tumour growth and angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer Cell International. (wikipedia.org)
  • Should an oncogenic protein, such as those produced by cells infected by high-risk types of human papillomaviruses, bind and inactivate pRb, this can lead to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PLK4 inhibitor R1530 down regulates the expression of mitotic checkpoint kinase BubR1 that in turn leads to polyploidy rendering cancer cells unstable and more sensitive to cancer chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • fate
  • Each leads to a single stable state denoting the cell fate adopted upon this specific damage. (duhnnae.com)
  • KeywordsSignalling network Logical modelling Senescence DNA-damage Cell fate Cell cycle checkpoint Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1471-2164-15-S7-S7 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. (duhnnae.com)
  • Senescence is not the inevitable fate of all organisms and can be delayed. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • Neurons subject to loss of synaptic connections, chronic exposure to oxidative stress or stress hormones like glucocorticoids will exit G0 and reenter into a cell cycle that is abortive and leads to cell death through apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)