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  • somatic-cell nuc
  • Induced totipotent cells can be obtained by reprogramming somatic cells with somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists at Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, Massachusetts, United States extracted DNA from banteng cells kept in the San Diego Zoo's "Frozen Zoo" facility, and transferred it into eggs from domestic cattle, a process called somatic cell nuclear transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists from the University of Newcastle and the University of New South Wales, including Andrew French, Michael Mahony, Simon Clulow and Mike Archer reported in May 2013 the successful cloning of the extinct frog Rheobatrachus silus using the process of somatic cell nuclear transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The important advances were the capacity to successfully recover live frozen embryonic cells from animals that produce large yolky eggs (anamniotes such as fishes and amphibians) When this development is combined with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) it enables the genome to be recovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • viability
  • For the majority of isolated primary cells, they undergo the process of senescence and stop dividing after a certain number of population doublings while generally retaining their viability (described as the Hayflick limit). (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • The AKR murine leukemia viruses do not contain acute transforming oncogenes ( 4 ) and are thought to transform cells as a result of activating cellular proto-oncogenes in the vicinity of viral integration into chromosomal DNA ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, we present mathematical modelling suggesting that small changes in the type of interaction that cells have with their local cellular environment can lead to very different outcomes for the composition of mosaics. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Proliferation is a fundamental cellular process, forming the basis of renewal in all higher organisms. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Cellular proliferation is modulated by cell signalling. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • When a cancer cell divides, both daughter cells inherit the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of the parent cell, and may also acquire new genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in the process of cellular reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • outcomes
  • Some of these alterations could result in the formation of cancerous cells or various other dangerous changes in cell function, among many other outcomes when paired together. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • However, it was not detected on adult murine thymocytes, splenocytes, or bone marrow cells or on splenic LPS-activated B cells or Con A-activated T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Absent these causes, patients were diagnosed in the World Health Organization's classification as having either 1) Chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise specified, (CEL-NOS) if blood or bone marrow blast cells exceeded 2% or 5% of total nucleated cells, respectively, and other criteria were met or 2) idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) if there was evidence of eosinophil-induced tissue damage but no criteria indicating chronic eosinophilic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may also mediate the attachment of stem cells to bone marrow extracellular matrix or directly to stromal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are used to quantify and purify hematopoietic progenitor stem cells for research and for clinical bone marrow transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • By cultivation in vitro as 3D aggregates called embryoid bodies, ES cells can differentiate into derivatives of all 3 primary germ layers, including cardiomyocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to: 1) myeloid precursor cells that differentiate into red blood cells, mast cells, blood platelet-forming megakaryocytes, or myeloblasts, which latter cells subsequently differentiate into white blood cells viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • or 2) lymphoid precursor cells which differentiate into T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, or natural killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate to generate primitive ectoderm, which ultimately differentiates during gastrulation into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 2002 article in PNAS, "Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • stable
  • Multivalent engagement of MHC molecules leads to a stable binding of the tetramer to TCRs on the T cell surface, which allows direct visualization of the T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Moreover, with these adeno/retroviral hybrid vectors, the frequency of chromosomal integration is enhanced and about 1% of infected cells show stable chromosomal integration of the autoregulated cassette. (jove.com)
  • organism
  • An immortalized cell line should not be confused with stem cells, which can also divide indefinitely, but form a normal part of the development of a multicellular organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalized cell lines find use in biotechnology where they are a cost-effective way of growing cells similar to those found in a multicellular organism in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our laboratory studies the mechanisms that regulate growth at the level of individual cells as well as the entire organism. (berkeley.edu)
  • tissue
  • The alternative, performing an analysis on primary cells from multiple tissue donors, does not have this advantage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had been. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the cells of interest have been isolated from living tissue, they can subsequently be maintained under carefully controlled conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, the term "cell culture" now refers to the culturing of cells derived from multicellular eukaryotes, especially animal cells, in contrast with other types of culture that also grow cells, such as plant tissue culture, fungal culture, and microbiological culture (of microbes). (wikipedia.org)
  • The historical development and methods of cell culture are closely interrelated to those of tissue culture and organ culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laboratory technique of maintaining live cell lines (a population of cells descended from a single cell and containing the same genetic makeup) separated from their original tissue source became more robust in the middle 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, pieces of tissue can be placed in growth media, and the cells that grow out are available for culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant tissue culture relies on the fact that many plant cells have the ability to regenerate a whole plant (totipotency). (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells provide hope that it will be possible to overcome the problems of donor tissue shortage and also, by making the cells immunocompatible with the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutagenesis
  • Major examples include human HeLa cells that were obtained from a cervical cancer, mouse Raw 264.7 cells that were subjected to mutagenesis and then selected for cells which are able to undergo division. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen-specific
  • An April 2006 paper in Cancer Research showed, in vitro, that IMP321 would induce an antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell response in human PBMCs, with the T cells thus created being cytotoxic and capable of producing Tc1 cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymph nodes
  • We furthermore showed, by using IL-10-deficient mice, that host IL-10 is required for mediating the immunomodulatory effects of OVA-IL-10-DCs and demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of OVA-specific CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)IL-10(+) regulatory T cells in the mediastinal lymph nodes of OVA-IL-10-DC-injected mice. (ac.be)
  • CD34 is also an important adhesion molecule and is required for T cells to enter lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)