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  • neurons
  • It is based on coculture models developed by neurobiologists, who found that exposure of cultured neurons to specific neuronal proteins expressed on HEK293 (or COS) cell layers identified proteins important for driving synapse formation. (jove.com)
  • They undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition and subsequently migrate to other regions of the embryo, where they differentiate into various cell types including cartilage 5-13 , melanocytes 11,14-20 , neurons and glia 21-32 . (jove.com)
  • Short-lived electrical events called action potentials occur in several types of animal cells which are called excitable cells, a category of cell include neurons, muscle cells, and endocrine cells, as well as in some plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multipotency or multidifferentiative potential, which is the ability to generate progeny of several distinct cell types, (for example glial cells and neurons) as opposed to unipotency, which is the term for cells that are restricted to producing a single-cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • Despite of their restricted and largely non-overlapping expression patterns, both CRN-6 and NUC-1 can mediate apoptotic DNA degradation in many cells, suggesting that they are likely secreted nucleases that are retaken up by other cells to exert DNA degradation functions. (jove.com)
  • Genetic
  • Genetic methods to enrich for mother cells in populations by inducing death of daughter cells have been developed, but population sizes are still limited by the frequency with which random mutations that compromise the selection systems occur. (jove.com)
  • Chimeric avian embryos, in which quail donor tissue is transplanted into a chick embryo in ovo , combine the power of indelible genetic labeling of cell populations with the ease of manipulation presented by the avian embryo. (jove.com)
  • Tissue
  • The chick embryo is a unique in vivo model that overcomes many limitations to studying metastasis, due to the accessibility of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), a well-vascularized extra-embryonic tissue located underneath the eggshell that is receptive to the xenografting of tumor cells (figure 1). (jove.com)
  • This phenomenon was discovered in 1912, and the terminology was introduced in 1945, but it is with the development of tissue engineering[when? (wikipedia.org)
  • Protective autoimmunity is a condition in which cells of the adaptive immune system contribute to maintenance of the functional integrity of a tissue, or facilitate its repair following an insult. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a seminal study of 1999, Schwartz and colleagues demonstrated that the same autoimmune T cells that can cause an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a common model for multiple sclerosis) can also be harnessed to protect injured CNS tissue from secondary degeneration following a traumatic insult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selectins are expressed shortly after cytokine activation of endothelial cells by tissue macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike for embryonic stem cells, the use of human adult stem cells in research and therapy is not considered to be controversial, as they are derived from adult tissue samples rather than human embryos designated for scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter are tissue cells' damage, overload of their specialized functions or regulatory influences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first one is accumulation of TAS effectors in tissue (comutons, chalones, and contactins), which possess a unique feature of tissue specificity in their action on homologous tissue cells without species specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main feature of the tissue stress is its formation with participation of the tissuespecific effectors of intratissue intercellular interactions - comutons, chalones and contactins, which are produced by the cells of a tissue under a stressor's influence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another distinctive feature of tissue stress is the principle of formation of its executive mechanism, the CURD, via tissuespecific self-damage of homologous tissue cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the fact that TAS, just as the cell stress, is realized via CURD, the TAS has a variety of features which distinguish it from the cell stress, the key one being the tissue-selectivity of CURD initiation under TAS effectors influence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the cell stress mechanism is just one of the two instruments with which TAS protects the cells of homologous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third difference between tissue and cell stresses lies in ability of the former not only to increase but also to decrease the unspecific resistance of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the present moment, two physiological functions of tissue stress, which are realized in the process of participation of its adaptive mechanism, can be considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is well known that only some part of tissue functional units participate in its cells specialized functions realization (Barcroft, 1937). (wikipedia.org)
  • cartilage
  • Among the phenomena he investigated were nerve compression, plasmolysis in cartilage cells, the electrical conductivity of plasma during coagulation, intestinal respiration in Misgurnus fossilis, respiration in certain gastropod genera (Limax, Helix, Planorbis, Lymnaea), functional particularities of the silk glands of the silkworm and the effect of light upon planarians. (wikipedia.org)
  • HEK293
  • We developed a system where beta cells are cultured on a layer of HEK293 cells expressing a protein of interest. (jove.com)
  • HEK293 cells transiently or stably expressing human TRPA1 channels, grown in 96-well plates, are loaded with a Ca 2+ -sensitive fluorescent dye, Fluo-4, and real-time fluorescence changes in these cells are measured before and during the application of a TRPA1 agonist using the FLEX mode of the FlexStation 3. (jove.com)
  • cellular
  • The resulting 3D cellular construct can often be more relevant to studying the molecular events and cell-cell interactions than similar experiments studied in 2D. (jove.com)
  • Due to the anisotropic cellular contraction, stress fibers and cells align along the direction of the microgrooves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these debates involved the nature of cellular regeneration, and the idea of cells as a fundamental unit of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • At very high temperatures cause severe cellular injury and cell death may occur within short time, thus leading to a catastrophic collapse of cellular organization (Schoffl et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • roles
  • Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a large family of nonselective cation channels that play important roles in many physiological and pathophysiological functions. (jove.com)
  • stably
  • (jove.com)
  • In the event an individual subunit is to be depleted, one transfects siRNAs targeting this subunit into an HEK 293 cell line stably expressing FLAG tagged Ino80 ATPase. (jove.com)
  • surfaces
  • Mutation frequencies are then determined for sorted mother cells, and the age of the mother cells is determined using flow cytometry by staining with a fluorescent reagent that detects bud scars formed on their cell surfaces during cell division. (jove.com)
  • Conversely, when substrates have topographical patterns, the orientation of cells cultured on these surfaces is influenced by these geometrical cues. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been observed that the phenomenon of contact guidance on microgrooved surfaces is influenced by the groove width. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, a computational model has been developed that is able to simulate the re-alignment of cells and stress fibers on top of grooved surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • scaffold
  • Secreted mucins, produced by goblet cells and the gastric mucosa, provide the scaffold for a micrometers-thick mucus layer that lines the epithelia of the gut and respiratory tract 3,4 . (jove.com)
  • To create effective 3D cultures with high cell viability throughout the scaffold the culture conditions such as oxygen and pH need to be carefully controlled as gradients in analyte concentration can exist throughout the 3D construct. (jove.com)
  • For those conditions, it has been demonstrated that the geometrical cues provided by collagen or scaffold fibers are able to influence the orientation of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • The pathologist must be careful to differentiate such lesions from salivary neoplasms with sebaceous cells, such as sebaceous lymphadenoma and sebaceous adenoma, and their malignant counterparts sebaceous lymphadenocarcinoma and sebaceous carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discoveries in recent years have suggested that adult stem cells might have the ability to differentiate into cell types from different germ layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells from the bone marrow, which is derived from mesoderm, can differentiate into liver, lung, GI tract and skin, which are derived from endoderm and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • migrate
  • This interaction can be tuned by the glycosylation pattern of PSGL-1, such that certain glycovariants of PSGL-1 will have unique affinities for different selectins, allowing in some cases for cells to migrate to specific sites within the body (e.g. the skin). (wikipedia.org)
  • experimentally
  • Comparison of predicted mutation frequencies based on the number of cell divisions to the frequencies experimentally observed for mother cells of a given replicative age can then identify whether there are age-related changes in the rate of accumulating mutations. (jove.com)
  • Similarly, autoimmune diseases can be induced experimentally by the adaptive transfer of autoimmune cells or antibodies from an animal that suffers from an autoimmune disease into a healthy animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphology
  • that researchers drew increasing attention on this topic, seeing the potential of contact guidance in influencing the morphology and organization of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • phagocytes
  • Furthermore, blocking cell corpse engulfment does not affect apoptotic DNA degradation mediated by nuc-1, suggesting that NUC-1 acts in apoptotic cells rather than in phagocytes to resolve 3 OH DNA breaks. (jove.com)
  • Thus
  • Thus far, the housekeeping Na(+)-H(+) exchanger (NHE) and the Na(+)-HCO3(-) co-transporter (NBC) have been confirmed in many mammalian cells as major acid extruders. (jove.com)
  • functions
  • Immunological research continues to become more specialized, pursuing non-classical models of immunity and functions of cells, organs and systems not previously associated with the immune system (Yemeserach 2010). (wikipedia.org)
  • One of them is expressed in an increase of cell specialized functions stability in the conditions of prolonged functional load. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • The detection of disseminated cells by species-specific Alu PCR makes it possible to quantitatively assess metastasis in organs that are colonized by as few as 25 cells. (jove.com)
  • Using the Human Epidermoid Carcinoma cell line (HEp3) we use this model to analyze spontaneous metastasis of cancer cells to distant organs, including the chick liver and lung. (jove.com)
  • refers
  • Intercellular ("between cells") selection occurs on a larger scale, and refers to the preferential growth of cells that have greater numbers of a certain mitochondrial genotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • synapses
  • Given the parallels between the secretory machinery of neuronal synapses and of beta cells, we reasoned that beta-cell functional maturation might be driven by similar transcellular interactions. (jove.com)
  • Synapses are composed of a presynaptic active zone in the signaling cell and a postsynaptic terminal in the target cell. (jove.com)
  • Mutant
  • Mutant mice which lack T cells (such as SCID and nude), and mice that lack T cells that can recognize CNS antigens, exhibit reduced levels of neuronal survival following CNS injury relative to normal (wild type) mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-level selection may then act to remove those cells with more mutant mtDNA, leading to a stabilisation or reduction in mutant load between generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequent
  • Here we describe the methods of preparing biocompatible pH responsive sol-gel nanosensors and their incorporation into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) electrospun scaffolds along with their subsequent preparation for the culture of mammalian cells. (jove.com)
  • different
  • For example, the carbohydrate ligand for P-selectin, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), is expressed by different types of leukocytes (white blood cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be induced by modifying the growth medium when stem cells are cultured in vitro or transplanting them to an organ of the body different from the one they were originally isolated from. (wikipedia.org)
  • conditions
  • T cells that recognize CNS antigens have also been shown to be important for maintaining the functional integrity of the adult CNS under normal non-pathological conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • His cell observations gave no indication of the nucleus and other organelles found in most living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Waldeyer also studied the basophilic stained filaments which had been found to be the main constituents of chromatin, the material inside the cell nucleus, by his colleague of Kiel, Walther Flemming (1843-1905). (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Heteroplasmy is the presence of more than one type of organellar genome (mitochondrial DNA or plastid DNA) within a cell or individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • originate
  • Scientific interest in adult stem cells is centered on their ability to divide or self-renew indefinitely, and generate all the cell types of the organ from which they originate, potentially regenerating the entire organ from a few cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • diffuse
  • Once formed, the focal adhesions produce a signal that starts to diffuse into the cell inducing stress fiber assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • The interrogation of beta cell gene expression and function in vitro has squarely shifted over the years from the study of rodent tumorigenic cell lines to the study of isolated rodent islets. (jove.com)
  • infection
  • CD8 + T cells are subsequently recruited and responsible for the eventual clearance of Listeria from the host, typically within 10 days of infection 6 . (jove.com)
  • The identification of new antiviral approaches has been limited due to the inability of human noroviruses to complete a productive infection in cell culture 3 . (jove.com)
  • various
  • Mutation rates, measured through fluctuation tests, and mutation frequencies are first established for young cells and used to predict the frequency of mutations in mother cells of various replicative ages. (jove.com)