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  • proteins
  • Since the majority of chloroplast proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome and targeted into chloroplasts after translation in the cytoplasm ( Bock and Timmis, 2008 ), communication in the nucleus-to-organelle direction is easily understandable (anterograde signaling). (frontiersin.org)
  • Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-delineated bodies, its contents are not uniform, and a number of subnuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and DNA conglomerates. (bionity.com)
  • This is a cyclin dependant protein kinase called cyclin B-cdc2 (cdk1) kinase (cyclins are regulatory proteins that mediate the enzymatic activity of protein kinases) that plays a major role in the regulation of cell cycle. (scribd.com)
  • They established that the genes' expression cycled over 24 hours using a feedback system: in the flies, genes called timeless and period produced proteins that paired up, traveled to cell nuclei, and turned off the very genes that encoded them. (hhmi.org)
  • The interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound subcompartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of subnuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the mitochondria. (enacademic.com)
  • This project combines a powerful cell-free system based on Xenopus egg extracts with proteomic analysis using mass spectrometry to identify proteins associated with chromatin at different cell cycle states. (nesc.ac.uk)
  • While many chromatin-associated proteins will show no changes throughout the cell cycle, differences in abundance or modification are likely to reflect proteins with cell cycle-specific function. (nesc.ac.uk)
  • Ras proteins function as molecular switches and are controlled by a regulated GDP/GTP cycle. (hindawi.com)
  • The complexation with additional informational macromolecules , specific basic proteins, named histones, is crucial not only for its compaction into the same chromosomal structures, in general independently of the genetic information or DNA sequence, but especially for its subtle controlled decondensation for the genetic information to perform its decoding action and expression into needed proteins. (slideshare.net)
  • After translation, the viral structural proteins assemble the virus particle at the plasma membrane and form a complex with the viral RNA as the virus buds and is released from the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of the proteins, besides the 5% of large T, return to the nucleus because assembly of the viral particle happens there. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Casein kinase 1 epsilon protein is part of the mammalian oscillator, a group of proteins that keep cells on a roughly 24-hour schedule. (wikipedia.org)
  • This oscillator, or "circadian clock," is made up of a transcription-translation negative feedback loop (TTNFL) in which several proteins work in tandem, each regulating the others' expression to generate a roughly 24-hour cycle of both mRNA and protein levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The level of PER and CRY proteins is regulated by casein kinase 1 through phosphorylation, which marks these proteins for degradation by the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if CRY proteins bind to PER before this phosphorylation can occur, all three proteins stabilize into a complex that can enter the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Casein kinase 1 results in a cyclic expression of mammalian oscillator proteins, resulting in a timekeeper (mammalian oscillator) for the cell: In hamsters, the CK1ε-tau mutation was first discovered by Michael Menaker and colleagues while studying a laboratory shipment of Syrian hamsters. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, CDK6 plays a role in the accumulation of the apoptosis proteins p53 and p130, this accumulation keeps cells from entering cell division if there is DNA damage, activating pro- apoptotic pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, DNA is tightly packaged in the nucleus with the help of packaging proteins, chiefly histone proteins to form repeating units of nucleosomes which further bundle together to form condensed chromatin structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • The function of the nucleus as carrier of genetic information became clear only later, after mitosis was discovered and the Mendelian rules were rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century: the chromosome theory of heredity was developed. (bionity.com)
  • Plants exhibit life cycles that involve alternating generations of diploid forms, which contain paired chromosome sets in their cell nuclei, and haploid forms, which only possess a single set. (fsu.edu)
  • Prokaryotic cells have a different organization of their DNA (the prokaryotic chromosome equivalent is called genophore and is localized within the nucleoid region). (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • In plant cells, three independent organelles - chloroplasts, mitochondria, and the nucleus - each contain their own genome. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus diploid cells containing 2 parental copies of all genes will express only one parental copy in the case of the so - called imprinted genes .In contrast, the rest of genome, containing NG (nonimprinted genes), will express both parental alleles. (slideshare.net)
  • Once in the cell, the virus is uncoated and the RNA genome is reverse-transcribed into DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA (provirus) is then transported into the nucleus where it integrates into the host cell genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] SV40 is capable of multiplicity reactivation (MR). MR is the process by which two or more virus genomes containing otherwise lethal damage interact within an infected cell to form a viable virus genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been frequently reported that an intact, albeit distorted, virion particle is released from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cell cytoplasm, where the genome is released from the capsid, possibly due to the low calcium concentration in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Nuclear envelope (NE) is a cell cycle dependent structure that disperses at the onset of mitosis (late prophase) and reassembles around the reforming nucleus in the late telophase. (scribd.com)
  • On the left, a cell is going through mitosis and its DNA has condensed ready for division. (enacademic.com)
  • Although preferentially cytosolic, SIRT2 transiently shuttles to the nucleus during the G2/M transition of the cell cycle, where it has a strong preference for histone H4 lysine 16 (H4K16Ac), thereby regulating chromosomal condensation during mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • localization
  • Phosphorylation also hinders PER's ability to enter the nucleus by inducing a conformational change in its nuclear localization sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The attached virus enters the cell by one of two ways, receptor mediated endocytosis or viral envelope-cell membrane fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition
  • Several studies in cell and invertebrate models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) suggested potential neuroprotective effects of SIRT2 inhibition, in striking contrast with other sirtuin family members. (wikipedia.org)
  • resveratrol
  • The natural polyphenol resveratrol is known to exert opposite actions on neural cells according to their normal or cancerous status. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Cyclin F differs from other cyclins by its ability to monitor and regulate cell cycle without the need for cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (wikipedia.org)
  • It interacts with components of the cytoskeleton such as the formin Dia1 (mDia1), with cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and with several signaling molecules to regulate cell morphology and motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • together, MRP8 and MRP14 regulate myeloid cell function by binding to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • The SCN generates rhythmic electrical pulses in response to changes in the wake-sleep cycle, which signal peripheral clocks in tissues such as the liver, heart, and muscles [ 1 ]. (csuohio.edu)
  • Telomerase-dependent telomere repair occurs naturally in some cells, such as embryonic and adult stem cells and some cells of the immune system-cell types that divide regularly to support development, maintain tissues, and combat infections, respectively. (the-scientist.com)
  • This protein is widely expressed in various types of tissues with a high expression level in thyroid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of IQGAP1 expression in human tissues has indicated that the scaffold is more or less ubiquitously expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • Methods: Rat NP cells were cultured in either 10% FBS culture medium (control group) or 10% FBS with a high glucose concentration (0.2 M, experiment group) for 3 days. (bioscirep.org)
  • Cyclin F interacts with RRM2 to control the production of dNTPs in the cell to avoid genomic instability and frequency of mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin F help to control NUSAP abundance and is therefore essential to proper cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of PCNA is under the control of E2F transcription factor-containing complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A series of biochemical switches control transitions between and within the various phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle is a series of complex, ordered, sequential events that control how a single cell divides into two cells, and involves several different phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such it has many binding partners, many of which have essential roles in control of the cell cycle and actin cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in the metabolic control of cells have revealed yet another role of CDK6. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • The purpose of the present work was to analyze the protein expression of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in a panel of superficial spreading (SSM) and nodular (NM) primary and metastatic melanomas, and to correlate the expression level with clinicopathological parameters. (aacrjournals.org)
  • signals
  • As described below, the mechanisms of nuclear Ca 2+ signalling are extensive, and it is likely that there is considerable flexibility in how Ca 2+ signals are triggered in the nucleus and in the downstream targets that are affected. (biologists.org)
  • It has been well established that Ca 2+ signals occurring inside cells affect activities within the nucleus. (biologists.org)
  • However
  • However, the microenvironment of a degenerative IVD is characterized by nutrient deficiency, hypertonicity, low pH, hypoxia, and high mechanical loading [ 12 ], which is not only disadvantageous for resident disc cells, but also a great challenge for the survival and functionality of transplanted MSCs. (hindawi.com)
  • Plants do, however, usually require significant amounts of water, which is needed for the photosynthetic process, to maintain cell structure and facilitate growth, and as a means of bringing nutrients to plant cells. (fsu.edu)
  • Telomere lengthening in cancer cells, however, confers an abnormal proliferative ability. (the-scientist.com)
  • However, an important limitation of antibodies is that cells need to be fixed leading to potential artifacts. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when the cell enters this arrested state, levels of p53 may increase. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are, however, many cells that do not follow this organisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, expression of S100A8 protein, the dimerization partner of S100A9, is also absent in these mice in differentiated myeloid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in general virus-cell interactions are mediated by commonly occurring molecules on the cell surface, and therefore are likely not a major contributor to individual viruses' observed cell-type tropism. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastatic
  • Expression of activated ERK1/2 was examined by immunohistochemistry in 172 primary melanomas (108 SSM and 64 NMs), 67 metastatic lesions, and in 41 benign nevi. (aacrjournals.org)