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  • cytoplasm to the nucleus
  • The substantial increase in nuclear surface area resulting from these grooves and invaginations, their apparent preference for association with nucleoli, and the presence in them of actin bundles that support vesicle motility suggest that the structures might function both in mRNA export from the nucleus and in protein import from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. (plantcell.org)
  • Nuclear grooves and invaginations substantially increase the surface area of the nucleus and have been suggested to function in signaling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus (Lui et al. (plantcell.org)
  • genome
  • Upon virus entry into the host cell, the viral DNA genome is directed into the nucleus by an as-yet-undefined mechanism and is subsequently transcribed and replicated by a combination of host cell machinery and virus gene products ( 1 , 17 , 22 ). (asm.org)
  • At later stages in the replication cycle, assembly of the herpesvirus particle is initiated within the nucleus as the newly replicated virus DNA genome is packaged into assembling capsids ( 39 , 41 ). (asm.org)
  • Prokaryotic cells (including bacteria and archaea) have no nucleus, though has DNA as it's genome (an organism's genetic material). (coursehero.com)
  • Since the majority of chloroplast proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome and targeted into chloroplasts after translation in the cytoplasm ( Bock and Timmis, 2008 ), communication in the nucleus-to-organelle direction is easily understandable (anterograde signaling). (frontiersin.org)
  • embryo
  • The Max Planck Research Group Systems Biology of Development studies how signaling molecules transform a ball of cells into a patterned animal embryo. (mpg.de)
  • In an early Drosophila embryo, the cell nuclei twirl and divide with the impeccable synchrony of dancers in a Hollywood musical. (sciencemag.org)
  • tissues
  • What is the relationship between cells, tissues and organs? (reference.com)
  • According to others, it is a mechanism providing for in-creased nuclear surface and to enhance the physiological effi-ciency, a view supported by its frequency in the cells of nutritive tissues such as endosperm and tapetum. (yourarticlelibrary.com)
  • The results may help inform new regenerative medicine approaches for the generation of tissues from stem cells. (mpg.de)
  • cellular function
  • Other molecules essential for cellular function require the cell to expend energy to transport them. (reference.com)
  • Although cellular function often requires maximization of surface area relative to volume, notably in organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus, traditional representations of the nucleus depict a rounded structure with little internal organization. (plantcell.org)
  • protein
  • We have previously shown that the herpes simplex virus tegument protein VP22 localizes predominantly to the cytoplasm of expressing cells. (asm.org)
  • By utilizing time-lapse confocal microscopy of live cells expressing a green fluorescent protein-tagged protein, we now report in detail the intracellular trafficking properties of VP22 in expressing cells, as opposed to the intercellular trafficking of VP22 between expressing and nonexpressing cells. (asm.org)
  • Hence, in VP22-expressing cells the subcellular localization of the protein is regulated by the cell cycle such that initially cytoplasmic protein becomes nuclear during cell division, resulting in a gradual increase over time in the number of nuclear VP22-expressing cells. (asm.org)
  • Thus, VP22 utilizes an unusual pathway for nuclear targeting in cells expressing the protein which differs from the nuclear targeting pathway used during intercellular trafficking. (asm.org)
  • Through dye-labeling experiments in untransformed onion epidermal and tobacco culture cells and through the expression of green fluorescent protein targeted to either the nucleus or the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope in these cells, we have visualized deep grooves and invaginations into the large nuclei of these cells. (plantcell.org)
  • The plastid signal was originally defined as a pathway that informs the nucleus of the chloroplast status and results in the modulation of expression of nuclear-encoded plastid protein genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The aurora B protein is responsible for phosphorylating histone H3 - a protein involved in the structure of chromatin (the strands of DNA that make up chromosomes) in cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • The clinical trial has proved the concept that inhibition of the aurora protein disrupts an important stage of cell division, once the dose levels reaches 190m/m2," said Dr de Jonge. (innovations-report.com)
  • First, a temporary scaffold made of protein fibres, the so-called phragmoplast, forms in the middle of the cell. (phys.org)
  • The fusion machinery has to correctly coordinate the protein fibres for everything to function properly, otherwise the freight cars will transport the cell wall material to the wrong spot or at the wrong time and cell plate formation will cease," explains Heilmann. (phys.org)
  • pathway
  • The role of VP22, which is encoded by gene UL49 ( 11 ), is unclear, but it does not contain a recognizable NLS, thereby suggesting that VP22 would not be targeted to the nucleus by the classical pathway during virus infection. (asm.org)
  • stem cell
  • Because stem cells divide asymmetrically, failure to not kill the mutated stem cell will mean the cancer survives. (coursehero.com)
  • At the center of this scientific ferment are new stem cell discoveries by researchers at UCSF. (healthcanal.com)
  • The human brain has an enormously expanded surface area in the cerebral cortex," says Arnold Kriegstein, MD, PhD, director of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCSF. (healthcanal.com)
  • Last year, Kriegstein's laboratory team reported the identification of a long-elusive stem cell that we may have to thank for our success as a species. (healthcanal.com)
  • Each stem cell sends a branch upward through the layers of cortex, and this extension acts like a guide wire for newborn neurons traveling through the cortical layers. (healthcanal.com)
  • The recently discovered OSVZ stem cell and its progeny appear to drive growth outward from the edges of this horizontal plane, Kriegstein says. (healthcanal.com)
  • Although the OSVZ region is absent in the mouse, Kriegstein's lab team nonetheless went looking in the mouse brain for a stem cell similar to the OSVZ stem cell. (healthcanal.com)
  • This time-lapse movie shows cell division in a newly discovered type of brain stem cell in the mouse. (healthcanal.com)
  • The stem cell is similar to a human stem cell identified by the same UCSF laboratory research group last year. (healthcanal.com)
  • This time-lapse movie shows a different type of unusual movement observed in another type of dividing stem cell in the mouse brain. (healthcanal.com)
  • Combining latest stem cell and genomic techniques, the research group has pioneered in vitro recombination to circumvent breeding and directly cause gene exchanges in cells. (mpg.de)
  • centre
  • The interior at first is entirely filled with protoplasm, in the centre of which is a denser, oval body - the nucleus - consisting of a granular groundwork of protoplasm, denser at its margin, and having a fibrillar network of granules embedded in it. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Amitosis
  • Amitosis of trophoblast cells starts at the periimplantation stage as in other species that do not have obligate diapause. (deepdyve.com)
  • different
  • The cell wall at first consists of cellulose, a substance closely allied to starch and sugar, all three being made up of the chemical elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in different combinations, and all becoming black when burned. (chestofbooks.com)