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  • medial
  • Anatomically, the axons of SBCs cross the midline in the dorsal component of the trapezoid body and typically innervate the medial superior olive (MSO) on both sides, the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO), and the contralateral ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL). (kuleuven.be)
  • In contrast, GBC axons travel in the ventral component of the trapezoid body, never innervate the MSO, rarely innervate the ipsilateral LSO, and always innervate the contralateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body. (kuleuven.be)
  • receive
  • Bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) receive their principal excitatory input from the auditory nerve and are the primary source of excitatory input to more centrally located brainstem auditory nuclei. (kuleuven.be)
  • protein
  • Using silver nanoparticles cloaked in a protein from the HIV virus that has an uncanny ability to penetrate human cells, the scientists have demonstrated that they can enter the inner workings of the nucleus and detect subtle light signals from the "spy. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • The researchers coupled miniscule particles of silver, a metal that is not rejected by cells and is an efficient reflector of light, with a small portion of the HIV protein responsible for its highly efficient ability to enter a cell and its nucleus. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • These include protein synthesis, cell growth, and cell division or reproduction. (enotes.com)
  • Protein that must be imported to the nucleus from the cytoplasm carry nuclear localization signals (NLS) that are bound by importins. (wikipedia.org)
  • MDC1 protein is a regulator of the Intra-S phase and the G2/M cell cycle checkpoints and recruits repair proteins to the site of DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is involved in determining cell survival fate in association with tumor suppressor protein p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MDC1 gene encodes the MDC1 nuclear protein which is part of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway, the mechanism through which eukaryotic cells respond to damaged DNA, specifically DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) that are caused by ionizing radiation or chemical clastogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is required to activate the intra-S phase and G2/M phase cell cycle checkpoints in response to DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies on lung cancer cell lines (A549 cells) showed an increase in apoptosis in response to genotoxic agents when MDC1 protein levels were reduced with siRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition or loss of MDC1 protein through studies with siRNA on human cells or knockout studies in mice have shown several defects at both the cellular and organismal level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the protein is not found in mature virions, there is some evidence that it can be secreted from infected cells, even before viral exit, and taken up by neighboring uninfected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large number of protein-protein interactions have been reported between agnoprotein and other proteins of both viral and host cell origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells grown in the presence of interferons (α, β, and γ) revealed an increase both in size and number of the Sp100 protein-containing nuclear dots and increase the protein concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Researchers have published a cellular delivery method of nanoparticles called quantum dots which could be used as molecular probes for simultaneous imaging and manipulation of single biomolecules in the nucleus and for observation of subnuclear structures and events in the Oct. 4 edition of Small . (healthimaging.com)
  • Cells have devised many structures for transporting molecular cargo across their protective borders, but the nuclear pore complex, with its flower-like, eight-fold symmetry, stands out. (phys.org)
  • pores
  • Nuclear transport is of paramount importance to cell function, as movement through the pores is required for both gene expression and chromosomal maintenance. (bionity.com)
  • chromatin
  • When a cell is exposed to ionizing radiation, its chromatin can be damaged with DSB, triggering the DDR which starts with the MRN complex recruiting ATM kinase to the exposed H2AX histones on the damaged DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • In research published June 4 in Cell , Rockefeller University scientists have uncovered crucial steps in the dynamic dance that dilates and constricts the nuclear pore complex-the latest advance in their ongoing efforts to tease apart the mechanism by which its central channel admits specific molecules. (phys.org)
  • For example, up to 200,000 different small molecules might be made in plants, although not all these will be present in the same species, or in a single cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The entry and exit of large molecules from the cell nucleus is tightly controlled by the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • cytosol
  • Although water forms the large majority of the cytosol, its structure and properties within cells is not well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "cytosol" was first introduced in 1965 by H. A. Lardy, and initially referred to the liquid that was produced by breaking cells apart and pelleting all the insoluble components by ultracentrifugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term cytosol is now used to refer to the liquid phase of the cytoplasm in an intact cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the possibility of confusion between the use of the word "cytosol" to refer to both extracts of cells and the soluble part of the cytoplasm in intact cells, the phrase "aqueous cytoplasm" has been used to describe the liquid contents of the cytoplasm of living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proportion of cell volume that is cytosol varies: for example while this compartment forms the bulk of cell structure in bacteria, in plant cells the main compartment is the large central vacuole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the cytosol is water, which makes up about 70% of the total volume of a typical cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression-the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The team found that a new family of genes, called BET bromodomains, cause heart failure because they drive hyperactive stress responses in the nucleus. (sciencecodex.com)
  • In models of cancer, JQ1 functions to turn off key cancer-causing genes occasionally prompting cancer cells to "forget" they are cancer. (sciencecodex.com)
  • The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression . (bionity.com)
  • macromolecules
  • The classic view of water in cells is that about 5% of this water is strongly bound in by solutes or macromolecules as water of solvation, while the majority has the same structure as pure water. (wikipedia.org)
  • penetrate
  • Yu worked with fellow mechanical science and engineering professor Ning Wang, PhD, and postdoctoral researcher Kyungsuk Yum, PhD, to develop a controlled delivery and release method that uses a cargo-carrying nanoneedle (serving also as a nanoscale electrode) to penetrate into the nucleus of a living cell. (healthimaging.com)
  • differentiation
  • this has been associated with decreasing amounts of satellite cells, but also to alterations in their activation, proliferation, and/or differentiation. (hindawi.com)
  • Cancerous cells lose that differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current scientific understanding of primary cilia views them as "sensory cellular antennae that coordinate a large number of cellular signaling pathways, sometimes coupling the signaling to ciliary motility or alternatively to cell division and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cargo
  • To rapidly release the attached cargo inside the nucleus, the researchers applied a small external electrical potential through the nanoneedle. (healthimaging.com)
  • Once inside the nucleus, interaction with Ran-GTP causes a conformational change in the importin that causes it to dissociate from its cargo. (wikipedia.org)
  • in the nucleus, the exportin binds the cargo and Ran-GTP and diffuses through the pore to the cytoplasm, where the complex dissociates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exportin-t binds directly to its tRNA cargo in the nucleus, a process promoted by the presence of RanGTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Mutations that affect tRNA's structure inhibit its ability to bind to exportin-t, and consequentially, to be exported, providing the cell with another quality control step. (wikipedia.org)
  • RIF1 has been shown to bind to RNA in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • interacts
  • Now in the nucleus, the Ran-GDP interacts with a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) which replaces the GDP with GTP, resulting again in Ran-GTP, and beginning the cycle anew. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer
  • Brown was studying orchids under microscope when he observed an opaque area, which he called the "areola" or "nucleus", in the cells of the flower's outer layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brown was studying orchids microscopically when he observed an opaque area, which he called the areola or nucleus, in the cells of the flower's outer layer. (bionity.com)
  • In addition, examples of specialized primary cilia can be found in human sensory organs such as the eye and the nose: The outer segment of the rod photoreceptor cell in the human eye is connected to its cell body with a specialized non-motile cilium. (wikipedia.org)
  • nanoscale
  • Our ultimate goal is to develop a nanoscale delivery system that can drop off its payload - in this case nanoparticles with other agents attached - into a cell to enhance the effectiveness of a drug treatment," Vo-Dinh said. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • processes
  • Both the processes of mitosis and meiosis divide the cell nucleus and its contents. (reference.com)
  • these differences in ion levels are important in processes such as osmoregulation, cell signaling, and the generation of action potentials in excitable cells such as endocrine, nerve and muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptive immune system One of two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates that inhibits or eliminates pathogens through the actions of highly specialized systemic cells and processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • He is currently a Professor at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) and head of the Gene Regulation and Cell Proliferation program of the CSHL Cancer Center. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • First, it reproduces both by cell division (splitting one cell into two) and by conjugation, in which two organisms temporarily join in order to swap DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • photoreceptor
  • This also turned out to be a misnomer: arrestin-1 expresses at comparable very high levels in both rod and cone photoreceptor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imaging
  • One of the most promising applications of quantum dots is molecular imaging in living cells, according to Min-Feng Yu, PhD, associate professor of mechanical science and engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and colleagues. (healthimaging.com)
  • Basic Methods in Microscopy, Live Cell Imaging: A Laboratory Manual), and a treatise of The Nucleus, that are used in laboratories throughout the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Ran-GTP binds GAP and hydrolyzes GTP, and the resulting Ran-GDP complex is restored to the nucleus where it exchanges its bound ligand for GTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Breast cancer cells may or may not have many different types of receptors, the three most important in the present classification being: estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2/neu. (wikipedia.org)
  • describe
  • Pathologists describe cells as well differentiated (low-grade), moderately differentiated (intermediate-grade), and poorly differentiated (high-grade) as the cells progressively lose the features seen in normal breast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • David L. Spector (born (1952-12-06)December 6, 1952, in New York City) is a cell and molecular biologist best recognized for his research on gene expression and nuclear dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • division
  • Franz Meyen was a strong opponent of this view, having already described cells multiplying by division and believing that many cells would have no nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus is designed to govern and control everything that happens within the entire cell, which includes the process of cell division. (reference.com)
  • Both mitosis and meiosis are types of cell division that share many similarities, and both share the same basic stages of prophase, metaphase, anaphase and. (reference.com)
  • Cell division becomes uncontrolled. (wikipedia.org)
  • The smaller "micronucleus" is used only for reproducing the organism by cell division and by conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is spread by cell division of Halofolliculina corallasia, which produces a pair of worm-like larvae that settle on undamaged coral just ahead of the black band. (wikipedia.org)
  • progressively
  • these saw that a 20% reduction in the amount of water in a cell inhibits metabolism, with metabolism decreasing progressively as the cell dries out and all metabolic activity halting when the water level reaches 70% below normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • enters
  • Between 1877 and 1878, Oscar Hertwig published several studies on the fertilization of sea urchin eggs, showing that the nucleus of the sperm enters the oocyte and fuses with its nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • What Type of Cell Enters the G0 Phase? (reference.com)
  • Human
  • while human cytosolic pH ranges between 7.0 - 7.4, and is usually higher if a cell is growing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knock out MDC1 mice cells and silenced human cells were radiosensitive, failed to initiate Intra-S phase and G2/M checkpoints, failed to produce ionizing radiation-induced foci had poor phosphorylation by the DRR kinases (ATM, CHK1, CHK2), defects in homologous recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human cells with silenced MDC1 also displayed random plasmid integration, reduced apoptosis, and slowed mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Monstrously large by cellular standards, as well as versatile, this elaborate portal controls access to and exit from the headquarters of the cell, the nucleus. (phys.org)
  • single
  • This was the first time it was suggested that an individual develops from a (single) nucleated cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meiosis takes a single cell and divides it into four different cells with half of the ne. (reference.com)
  • Estimates of the number of metabolites in single cells such as E. coli and baker's yeast predict that under 1,000 are made. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • Cell nucleus is the central unit of the cell, where it control activity of the cell. (omicsonline.org)
  • Leveraging a new approach, the research team turned their attention from the cell's periphery to the nucleus - the very place that unleashes sweeping damage-control responses which, if left unchecked, ultimately destroy the heart. (sciencecodex.com)
  • The larger, called the "macronucleus", carries out the normal work of the cell by transcribing DNA into RNA, which is used to control the cell's functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • We demonstrated that in satellite cells the RNA pathways undergo alterations during aging, possibly hampering their responsiveness to muscle damage. (hindawi.com)
  • cell's
  • He pilots the shuttle up to the creature and penetrates the outer skin, then makes his way toward the cell's nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bomb is fired into the cell's nucleus and the Enterprise backs out using what little power remains. (wikipedia.org)
  • SRCCs are named due to their resemblance to signet rings, which result from the formation of large vacuoles full of mucin that displace the nucleus to the cell's periphery. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Carbon-ion RT has shown excellent local control for X-ray resistant diseases such as recurrent rectal carcinoma, skull-base tumors, uveal melanoma, non-squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, and sarcomas. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pineal region tumors are normally composed of a variety of cells including astrocytes, ganglion cells, blood vessels, and pinealocytes, which are the cells of this organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, papillary tumors of this region are made up of ependymal cells which form papilla. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary SRCC tumors are most often found in the glandular cells of the stomach (SRCC originates in the stomach in 90 percent of patients), and less frequently in the breast, gallbladder, urinary bladder, and pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • A Berkeley Lab team led by Dr. Gary Karpen, Adjunct Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology, "uncovered evidence that heterochromatin organizes large parts of the genome into specific regions of the nucleus using liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism well-known in physics but whose importance for biology has only recently been revealed. (berkeley.edu)
  • regulate
  • Bacterial origins regulate orisome assembly, a nuclei-protein complex assembled on the origin responsible for unwinding the origin and loading all the replication machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons
  • This is caused by progressive degeneration of neurons in several parts of the brain including the substantia nigra, striatum, inferior olivary nucleus, and cerebellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • These molecules are absorbed locally by the soma (cell body) of various neurons and transported to the axon terminals, or they are absorbed by axons and transported to the soma of the neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • The tumor appears to be derived from the specialized ependymal cells of the subcommissural organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tumor cells may differ in their structure and function, but they all have normal function, which is directed by the deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a tumor, there is a collection of mutations that are typos in the genetic material, which disrupts the function of the normal cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells of the tumor will often grow into nearby normal brain tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, it has been found that a colon carcinoma cell known as HCC2998 causes an increase in differentiated tumor production. (wikipedia.org)
  • One study suggests that when signet-ring cells are found in a breast tumor, the presence of gastric cancer should also be considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • In addition, given the risks of using animal serum for tissue engineering, autologous blood may gain favor as a source of growth factors and serum supplements needed for stimulating cells to engineer intervertebral disc tissues. (blogspot.com)
  • gene
  • Found in the nucleus of every cell, building blocks from which every organism is built, gene information, & can act as receptors for drug molecules. (cram.com)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cases are inherited, and these cases are often caused by mutations in the CDH1 gene, which encodes the important cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein E-cadherin. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • The heterodimer also stimulated cAMP production and thymidine incorporation by cultured thyroid cells and increased serum thyroxine levels in TSH-suppressed rats in vivo. (jci.org)
  • Junctions
  • The primary mechanical role of catenins is connecting cadherins to actin filaments, specifically in these adhesion junctions of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • telomere length
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • In this study, we determined that poIRF1 was upregulated upon infection with viruses and distributed in nucleus in porcine PK-15 cells. (mdpi.com)
  • However, the infected cell can prepare neighboring cells against a potential infection by the virus by releasing interferons. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2007). In general CPsV-EG-infection affects the upper epidermis of the leaf which is composed of non-tabular parenchyma cells covered by a thin layer of cuticle. (wikipedia.org)
  • placental
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • Morphometric counting of neuron numbers (NN) and dendritic branch points and intersections (DDBPI) was performed in the CA1, CA3, and dentate regions of hippocampus, in basolateral nucleus of amygdala, and in several areas of motor cortex. (hindawi.com)
  • Subsequently, we tested the antiviral activities of poIRF1 against several swine viruses in cells. (mdpi.com)
  • replication
  • What patient types is the DNA open (cell replication is rapidly occuring)? (cram.com)
  • Prokaryotic DNA replication is the process by which a prokaryote duplicates its DNA into another copy that is passed on to daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • All cells must finish DNA replication before they can proceed for cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons are named for their ability to "interfere" with viral replication by protecting cells from virus infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • Mice engineered to specifically have vascular endothelium cells deficient in β-catenin showed disrupted adhesion between vascular endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Neuroanatomically, hemobalism is most commonly associated with lesions of the contralateral subthalamic nucleus of Luys or efferent pathways, although there are separate reports of its outward appearance with diseases of the caudal nucleus, globus pallidus, thalamus, and even with ipsilateral lesions. (healthgala.info)
  • antiviral
  • Zhao, J. Antiviral Activity of Porcine Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 against Swine Viruses in Cell Culture. (mdpi.com)
  • termination
  • In neuroscience, anterograde tracing is a research method which is used to trace axonal projections from their source (the cell body or soma) to their point of termination (the synapse). (wikipedia.org)
  • The complementary technique is retrograde tracing, which is used to trace neural connections from their termination to their source (i.e. synapse to cell body). (wikipedia.org)
  • primary
  • Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon and rectum (PSRCCR) is rare, with a reported incidence of less than 1 percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Media conditions that support fast growth in bacteria also couples with shorter inter-initiation time in them, i.e. the doubling time in fast growing cells is less as compared to the slow growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • see also Viral neuronal tracing) In order to trace projections from a specific region or cell, a genetic construct, virus or protein can be locally injected, after which it is allowed to be transported anterogradely. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • These are cells that make dopamine and send it to different brain regions," said Helen Fisher, a researcher and professor at Rutgers University. (neatorama.com)
  • The ependymal cells line the inside of the ventricles of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • In other words, it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Constitutive action of the ErbB2/ErbB3 complex also enhances cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • WGA enters the cell by binding to Oligosaccharides, and is then taken up via endocytosis via a caveolae-dependent pathway. (wikipedia.org)