• Recent breakthroughs have uncovered how different cellular proteins are turned 'on' or 'off' at the molecular level, but much remains to be understood about how protein signaling influences cell behavior. (photonics.com)
  • A new technique developed by Dr. Klaus Hahn and his colleagues uses light to manipulate the activity of a protein at precise times and places within a living cell, providing a new tool for scientists who study the fundamentals of protein function. (photonics.com)
  • A photoactivatable protein enables control of cell movement in living cells. (photonics.com)
  • Hahn, who is the Thurman professor of Pharmacology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a member of UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, described the technique (published in Nature ), which uses light to control protein behavior in cells and animals simply by shining light on the cells where they want the protein to be active. (photonics.com)
  • The technology has exciting applications in basic research - in many cases the same protein can be either cancer-producing or beneficial, depending on where in a cell it is activated. (photonics.com)
  • Because we first tested this new technology on a protein that initiates cell movement, we can now use light to control where and how cells move. (photonics.com)
  • These results demonstrate that the virus-specific member of the HSP70 family of molecular chaperones functions in intercellular translocation and represents an additional type of a plant viral-movement protein. (pnas.org)
  • Different members of this family function in a variety of processes, such as cell recovery from stress, folding of nascent proteins, disassembly of oligomeric protein complexes, protein import into endoplasmic reticulum or mitochondria, transport of receptors, etc. ( 2 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Since the original discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus movement protein (MP) ( 25 ), proteins potentiating this process have been identified in diverse groups of plant viruses (for recent reviews see refs. (pnas.org)
  • Writing in the August issue of the scientific journal Nature Cell Biology, the researchers report the discovery that a single protein facilitates the movements of cells within the developing embryo of the zebrafish, a small fish that has become an important animal model for studying the development of vertebrates, animals with backbones. (innovations-report.com)
  • The same protein has previously been identified in the development of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, where it affects the orientation of cells that form the fly s wings and compound eyes. (innovations-report.com)
  • A Burnham Institute study has identified a fragment of a protein that senses chemicals that induce a cell to move into the right direction. (innovations-report.com)
  • Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. (innovations-report.com)
  • As a kinase, the protein has been linked to the control of actomyosin contractility, whereas the channel has been found to regulate cell adhesion as well as cellular Mg 2+ homoeostasis. (biochemj.org)
  • Researchers at the University of North Carolina and the National Institutes for Health have defined the role of the protein vinculin in enabling cell movement. (healthcanal.com)
  • In a paper published in the Journal of Cell Biology, Sharon Campbell, PhD , professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics and member of UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, and Clare Waterman of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute at the National Institutes of Health, showed that cell mobility occurs through the interactions between the protein vinculin and the cytoskeletal lattice formed by the protein actin. (healthcanal.com)
  • So how important is this one protein, vinculin, in regulating cell movement? (healthcanal.com)
  • Studies with knockout models that deactivated vinculin show that the cell still can move without the protein, but the movement becomes more chaotic. (healthcanal.com)
  • The clarification of the role of vinculin helps refine understanding of cell movement, an enormously complex process involving multiple protein interactions. (healthcanal.com)
  • H. Gruler, Cell Movement Analysis in a Necrotactic Assay, Blood Cells 10: 107 (1984). (springer.com)
  • The assay, so far tested on the cells of 14 glioblastoma patients, has the potential, they say, to predict how quickly and aggressively a given cancer might lethally spread. (eurekalert.org)
  • Quinones-Hinojosa says results of several experiments with the assay suggest that tumors with the fastest cells paralleled the quicker recurrence and other clinical outcomes of 14 glioblastoma patients at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. (eurekalert.org)
  • Spudich and Sheetz had, for the first time, created an in vitro assay for myosin movement. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • Studies of the molecular mechanisms of chemotactic movement of Dictyostelium amoebae up cAMP gradients highlight the importance of PIP3 signaling in the control of cAMP-dependent actin polymerization, which drives the protrusion of lamellipodia and filopodia at the leading edge of the cell, but also emphasize the need for myosin thick filament assembly and motor activation for the contraction of the back of the cell. (nih.gov)
  • They found that it decodes the vast array of signals outside the cell and functions as a molecular switch to dictate whether the strong or weak binding integrins are recycled. (nanowerk.com)
  • Biologists at Vanderbilt and the University of Missouri have uncovered what could be a major clue into the mysterious molecular processes that direct cells to the correct locations within a developing embryo. (innovations-report.com)
  • This thesis deals with different aspects of cell movement, focusing on two topics: Actin-dependent single cell movement and the collective moving behavior of myxobacteria. (univie.ac.at)
  • The chasing behavior depends on the production of small chemical molecules by the placode cells that attracts neural crest cells toward them. (phys.org)
  • These data illuminate the interface between developmental signaling systems and the fundamental machinery of cell behavior and should provide insights into the etiology of human birth defects, such as spina bifida and congenital kidney cysts. (sciencemag.org)
  • Asymptotic behavior of a singular transport equation modelling cell division. (aimsciences.org)
  • It is shown that chemotaxis, galvanotaxis, galvanotropism, contact guidance, etc., are functions of cells having a goal-seeking system which is an automatic controller having a closed-loop feedback system. (springer.com)
  • R. T. Tranquillo, D. A. Lauffenburger, and S. H. Zigmond, A Stochastic model for Leukocyte Random Mobility and Chemotaxis Based on Receptorbinding Fluctuations, J. Cell Biol. (springer.com)
  • E. L. Becker, H. J. Showell, P. H. Naccache, and R. Sha'afi, Enzymes in Granulocyte Movement: Preliminary Evidence for the Involvement of Na + , K + AT-Pase, in Leukocyte Chemotaxis, J. I. Gallin and P. G. Quie, eds. (springer.com)
  • B) Spatial distribution of PI(4,5)P 2 , PI(3,4,5)P 3 , and actin polymerization in cells before stimulation and during chemotaxis, as revealed by GFP-tagged PH domains and phalloidin. (nih.gov)
  • R. Nuccitelli, Transcellular ion currents: Signals and effectors of cell polarity, Modern Cell Biology, 2: 451 (1983). (springer.com)
  • The research, published in the journal Developmental Cell , was co-led by graduate students Yuting Zhao and Jianglan Liu, both members of senior author Wei Guo 's lab in the Department of Biology . (upenn.edu)
  • concluded study first author Dr Elias H Barriga (UCL Cell & Developmental Biology and the UCL London Centre for Nanotechnology). (london-nano.com)
  • Dr Roberto Mayor, UCL Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and lead author of the research, said, "We use the analogy of the donkey and the carrot to explain this behaviour: the donkey follows the carrot, but the carrot moves away when approached by the donkey. (phys.org)
  • The study, led by associate professor and Burnham Cancer Center Acting Director Kristiina Vuori, M.D., Ph.D., appears in the August issue of Nature Cell Biology. (innovations-report.com)
  • Nanowerk News ) Scientists at The University of Manchester have identified the method by which cells control the recycling of molecules, a process that is essential for them to move. (nanowerk.com)
  • To see if their speed test had the potential to predict which brain tumors were the most aggressive, the scientists grew cells from 14 patient glioblastomas in PDGF, then placed them on the racetracks. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a new study from the University of Pennsylvania and National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, scientists used an innovative technique to study how cells move in a three-dimensional matrix, similar to the structure of certain tissues, such as the skin. (eurekalert.org)
  • A mechanism that cells use to group together and move around the body - called 'chase and run' - has been described for the first time by scientists at UCL. (phys.org)
  • Scientists know that cancer cells recruit healthy cells and use them to travel long distances , but how this process takes place and how it could be controlled to design new therapies against cancer remains unknown. (phys.org)
  • Scientists studying these migrations didn t know how cells determined where to go. (innovations-report.com)
  • Since 1774, when microscopist Bonaventura Corti discovered "torrents" of fluid inside plant cells, scientists have known that even tiny units of life bustle with motile activity. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • Scientists had thought that as cells move through a material, they degrade it at the same time. (labroots.com)
  • Surprisingly, the scientists observed that the cells paused before moving. (labroots.com)
  • The scientists suggest that the enzyme is then stuck to an inhibitor that halts any degrading actions of the enzyme as the cell moves to a Point B. At that Point B, the enzyme or enzymes then digest the material surrounding the cell. (labroots.com)
  • The findings suggest an alternative way in which cancer treatments might work in the future if therapies can be targeted at the process of interaction between malignant and healthy cells to stop cancer cells from spreading and causing secondary tumours. (phys.org)
  • An integrated cellular and sub-cellular model of cancer chemotherapy and therapies that target cell survival. (aimsciences.org)
  • Interestingly, visualization of dInR -depleted BC clusters, using time-lapse imaging, revealed a delay in detachment of BC clusters from the surrounding anterior follicle cells and altered protrusion dynamics. (biologists.org)
  • We see a protrusion form first, in which the cell changes shape and extends towards the direction it is about to go, followed by movement of the rest of the cell," Vuori said. (innovations-report.com)
  • When they placed these tumor cells on the slides for 24 hours, they took videos of the cells and measured their speed. (eurekalert.org)
  • Conversely, the slowest 25 percent of the cells in the tumors moved at the same slower pace as the control tumor cells, meaning that PDGF strongly affected the faster cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Healthy cells of the body try to escape from tumor cells, but are followed by malignant cells because the healthy cells produce an attractant for the cancer cells. (phys.org)
  • A multiscale model for vascular tumour growth is presented which includes systems of ordinary differential equations for the cell cycle and regulation of apoptosis in individual cells, coupled to partial differential equations for the spatio-temporal dynamics of nutrient and key signalling chemicals. (aimsciences.org)
  • Their findings have been published in the journal Developmental Cell ( 'Syndecan-4 Phosphorylation Is a Control Point for Integrin Recycling' ). (nanowerk.com)
  • We think it's a very important normal physiological mechanism of cell movement that has not been characterized previously," Petrie said. (eurekalert.org)
  • The identification of endothelial cells (ECs) related miRNA and its target gene may gain new insight into the mechanism of angiogenesis. (labome.org)
  • H. Gruler and K. Franke, Automatic Control and Directed Cell Movement, Z. Naturforsch. (springer.com)
  • H. Gruler, Cell Movement and Symmetry of the Cellular Environment, Z. Naturforsch. (springer.com)
  • T. Matthes and H. Gruler, Analysis of cell locomotion. (springer.com)
  • Frogs were chosen as a model organism as their neural crest (NC) cells behave in a similar way to those of humans and their movement is often used to study the spread of cancer. (phys.org)
  • The authors propose that caspase 11 may serve early in the inflammatory response by aiding the delivery of cytokine-producing cells to the site of infection and then by terminating cytokine production through stimulation of apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • The investigators hope that identifying how they shut off the enzymatic degradation will allow them to shut off the inhibitor during secretion, speeding up cell movement by consequence. (labroots.com)
  • However, there are several types of integrin on the cell surface and they all have different properties which affect how quickly the cell can move. (nanowerk.com)
  • In order for a cell to move efficiently, it needs to precisely control which integrins are able to bind to the fibres. (nanowerk.com)
  • By manipulating the molecules in this way we found that we could either force the cells to move in a fast forward motion or stop altogether. (nanowerk.com)
  • The ridges were designed to simulate the ridged surface of the brain, where migrating cancer cells move along the grooves of the white matter and blood vessels, following them like roadways, Quinones-Hinojosa says. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cells that form facial features need surrounding embryonic tissues to stiffen so they can move and develop, according to new UCL-led research. (phys.org)
  • Our work elucidated a highly intriguing question: how cells move when they are in the complex and physiologically relevant environment of a 3-D extracellular matrix," said Hyun (Michel) Koo, a professor in the Department of Orthodontics at Penn's School of Dental Medicine. (eurekalert.org)
  • The matrix is crosslinked, meaning its fibers are resistant to bending and flexing as the cells move through. (eurekalert.org)
  • A great deal is known about the movement of the projections that neurons send out to connect with other neurons, but very little is known about how neurons move from one place to another," says Lilianna Solnica-Krezel, the associate professor of biological sciences at Vanderbilt who led the study with Anand Chandrasekhar, assistant professor of biological sciences at the University of Missouri, Columbia. (innovations-report.com)
  • Previous studies by us and others have identified how a migrating cell gets its wheels and, mechanistically, is able to move. (innovations-report.com)
  • PIP3 is a lipid that accumulates on the leading edge of a cell about to move, usually in response to a number of outside cellular attractants like chemokines, growth factors and other molecules. (innovations-report.com)
  • A focus of differentiating B cell blasts soon appears and the cells move over the next day or two out of the lymphoid T zones. (rupress.org)
  • In the spleen, the cells move through marginal zone "bridging channels" and many of the cells lodge in foci near vessels or collagenous fibers in the red pulp ( 1 )( 2 )( 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • I was definitely shocked seeing a cell move so fast," Wang said. (sciseek.com)
  • Even before the streak is visible, epiblast cells have started to move. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells overlaying Koller's Sickle in the posterior end of the chick embryo move towards the midline, meet and change direction towards the center of the epiblast. (wikipedia.org)
  • These impaired vinculin molecules were used by the Waterman group to show that interaction between actin and vinculin is required for proper development of cellular components and coupling of adhesions to actin, which are critical for the process of controlled cell movement. (healthcanal.com)
  • S. E. Malawista and A. de Boisfleury-Chevance, The cytokineplast: purified, stable and functional motile machinery from human blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, J. Cell Biol. (springer.com)
  • Cell Biol. (sciencemag.org)
  • In particular, we find that cell movement alone increases the rate of tumour growth and expansion, but that increasing the tumour cell carrying capacity leads to the formation of less invasive dense hypoxic tumours containing fewer tumour cells. (aimsciences.org)
  • However, when an increased carrying capacity is combined with significant tumour cell movement, the tumour grows and spreads more rapidly, accompanied by large spatio-temporal fluctuations in hypoxia, and hence in the number of quiescent cells. (aimsciences.org)
  • Progenitor, immature, and mature B cells express the chemokine receptor CXCR4, and its ligand, CXCL12 (previously called stromal cell-derived factor [SDF]-1), is highly expressed by bone marrow stromal cells ( 18 )( 19 ). (rupress.org)
  • They tested PDGF to see if it would prime the glioblastoma cells for movement rather than growth by growing the glioblastoma cells from two different tumors on the racetracks with 20 nanograms per milliliter of PDGF. (eurekalert.org)
  • Some cells from one of the tumors -- belonging to the fastest 25 percent of cells from that tumor -- responded to the PDGF treatment by moving about two times faster than controls made up of untreated glioblastoma cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Meanwhile at the hind end of the cell, enzymes degrade the PIP3 lipid, creating a gradient from one end of the cell to the other. (innovations-report.com)
  • They found that another molecule on the surface of the cell, called syndecan-4, is able to detect and interpret subtle changes in the cell's surroundings to decide how it should respond. (nanowerk.com)
  • Throughout most of the 20th century, the study of biological movement focused on muscle contraction, an activity that is fueled by the energy-rich molecule ATP. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • The marginal zone of a chick embryo contains cells that will contribute to the streak. (wikipedia.org)
  • All cells in the epiblast can respond to signals from the marginal zone, but once a given region is induced by these signals and undergoes streak formation, the remaining cells in the epiblast are no longer responsive to these inductive signals and prevent the formation of another streak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells from the lateral posterior marginal zone replace those cells that left Koller's Sickle by meeting at the center of this region, changing direction and extending anteriorly. (wikipedia.org)
  • They found that the nucleus is actually pulled forward by the actin filaments that connect the nucleus to the front of the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • These molecules are able to grab hold of the fibres surrounding the cell, like hands, allowing the cell to drag its self along. (nanowerk.com)
  • It is the first time that the mechanical properties of the environment surrounding embryonic cells has been shown to be crucial in cell movement and development, rather than genes or molecules. (phys.org)
  • Along with it, DOCK180 brings a host of additional molecules to the leading edge, triggering a series of internal events that begin moving the cell forward. (innovations-report.com)