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  • cDNAs
  • NSH entails screening a plasmid library made from cDNAs prepared from cells grown under a selected physiological condition with labeled cDNA probes prepared from another physiological condition. (springer.com)
  • The basic scheme of an EST sequencing project relies on a cDNA library constructed from a tissue of interest under a particular condition from which randomly isolated clones are sequenced until further sequencing no longer yields an acceptable frequency of identifying novel cDNAs. (springer.com)
  • The syndecan numbers reflect the order in which the cDNAs for each family member were cloned. (wikipedia.org)
  • multipotent cells
  • In 2007, it was confirmed that the amniotic fluid contains a heterogeneous mixture of multipotent cells after it was demonstrated that they were able to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers but they could not form teratomas following implantation into immunodeficient mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Among these, causative genes for inherited diseases of the retina have been identified by positional cloning or candidate gene approaches. (jneurosci.org)
  • The gene encoding FIRE has been cloned and sequenced, and mAbs specific for FIRE have been produced. (ozgene.com)
  • In years to come, the unraveling of these gene pathways, where genes sequentially turn other genes on and off, will allow us to more fully understand how a single cell can grow into a complete adult animal. (elifesciences.org)
  • The NKG2 gene family is located within the NK complex, a region that contains several C-type lectin genes preferentially expressed on NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1993
  • Haematopoietic progenitor cells were first reported to be present in the amniotic fluid in 1993, specifically up to the 12th week of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian cells
  • METHODS: Bovine rom-1 cDNA, including a portion of the promoter region, was cloned, sequenced, and heterologously expressed in CHO-K1 and COS-1 cultured mammalian cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • The transmembrane domains contain an unusual alanine/glycine sequence motif, while the cytoplasmic domain is essentially composed of two regions of conserved amino acid sequence (C1 and C2), separated by a central variable sequence of amino acids that is distinct for each family member (V). In mammalian cells, syndecans are expressed by unique genes located on different chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • proximal
  • The Constant region is proximal to the cell membrane, followed by a transmembrane region and a short cytoplasmic tail, while the Variable region binds to the peptide/MHC complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • CA IV is a glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol-anchored membrane isozyme expressed on the luminal surfaces of pulmonary (and certain other) capillaries and of proximal renal tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane bound CA (CA IV) on the luminal side of the pulmonary membrane would have direct contact with plasma HCO3- and would enzimatically convert HCO3- to CO2 in the area immediately proximal to the exchange membrane, greatly increasing the concentration gradient for exchange. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Also disclosed are methods of simulating hybridoma cells to increase monoclonal antibody production by administering a CD40 ligand polypeptide that stimulates B cell proliferation. (google.com.au)
  • wherein the encoded polypeptides of (a)-(g) are capable of stimulating B cell proliferation. (google.com.au)
  • wherein the polypeptide of (a)-(f) and the fragment of (g) are capable of stimulating B cell proliferation. (google.com.au)
  • Smaller cytokine production reduces the T cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • They affect the proliferation of both T cells and B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • The binding of this CD94/NKG2C heterodimer to its cellular ligand HLA-E has been shown to drive the expansion of a subset of Natural Killer (NK) cells in response to viral infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Proteolytic digestion studies and immunolabeling studies of rom-1 in rod outer segment membranes indicate that the C-terminus of rom-1 is localized to the cytoplasmic side and that a large segment is localized to the lumen side of the disc membrane. (arvojournals.org)
  • viral
  • Because of the requirements of the endogenous Ag processing pathway, the cytotoxic T cell response to viral infections has played a major role in elucidating the features that govern CTL recognition. (jimmunol.org)
  • One possibility is that the viral sequence contains other signals for membrane transport. (jimmunol.org)
  • neural and endothelial cells
  • Although those cells which expressed the markers were able to differentiate into muscle, adipogenic, osteogenic, nephrogenic, neural and endothelial cells, this did not necessarily occur from a homogenous population of undifferentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid
  • FIRE is a useful marker of myeloid cells with a DC developmental potential. (ozgene.com)
  • In this way the MHC-TCR-CD3 interaction for T cells is functionally similar to the antigen(Ag)-immunoglobulin(Ig)-FcR interaction for myeloid leukocytes, and Ag-Ig-CD79 interaction for B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • subcellular
  • Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to specific regions of bovine rom-1 were generated and used with biochemical and immunocytochemical techniques to study the membrane topology, subcellular distribution, and interaction of rom-1 with peripherin/rds. (arvojournals.org)
  • stem cells
  • The stem cells are usually extracted from the amniotic sac by amniocentesis which occurs without harming the embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of amniotic fluid stem cells is therefore generally considered to lack the ethical problems associated with the use of cells from embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, the first US amniotic stem cell bank was opened in Medford, MA, by Biocell Center, an international company specializing in the cryopreservation and private banking of amniotic fluid stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was later confirmed as mesenchymal stem cells were obtained. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, evidence indicated that embryonic stem cells are part of the fluid, although in very small quantities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of stem cells present in the amniotic fluid share many characteristics, which suggests they may have a common origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This characteristic differentiates them from embryonic stem cells but indicates similarities with adult stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, foetal stem cells attained from the amniotic fluid are more stable and more plastic than their adult counterparts making it easier for them to be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of techniques has been developed for the isolation and culturing of amniotic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is some debate whether c-Kit is a suitable marker to distinguish amniotic stem cells from other cell types because cells lacking c-Kit also display differentiation potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are highly abundant in the amniotic fluid and several techniques have been described for their isolation. (wikipedia.org)
  • As opposed to mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic-like stem cells are not abundant in the amniotic fluid, making up less than 1% of amniocentesis samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic-like stem cells were originally identified using markers common to embryonic stem cells such as nuclear Oct4, CD34, vimentin, alkaline phosphatase, stem cell factor and c-Kit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pluripotency of these embryonic-like stem cells remains to be fully established. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentially
  • Our findings indicate that the program of chemokine production by fibroblasts is differentially regulated depending on the T-helper (Th) cell subset used to activate them. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pulmonary
  • In the pulmonary capillary, bicarbonate can not simply diffuse either into the Red Blood Cell or the alvioli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibroblasts
  • The role of fibroblasts in inflammatory processes and their cross-talk with T cells is increasingly being recognized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our aim was to explore the capacity of dermal fibroblasts to produce inflammatory chemokines potentially involved in fibrosis occurring in response to contact with polarized human T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The contributions of tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-1 and IFN-α were confirmed when fibroblasts were cultured separated in a semipermeable membrane from living T cells activated by CD3 cross-linking. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, no distinct differences in chemokine production were observed when the responses to T cell contact or to prototypic Th1 and Th2 cytokines were examined in systemic sclerosis versus normal fibroblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cytolytic
  • In the present work, fluorescence microscopy, immunolabelling and digital image processing were combined to analyse quantitatively the spatial organization of specific or nonspecific conjugates made with a cytolytic T (CTL) lymphocyte clone (BM3.3) and target cells (EL4 or RDM4). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Natural killer cell cytolytic activity is inhibited by NKG2-A and activated by NKG2-C". Journal of Immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • In contrast to cytotoxic T cell recognition, studies on helper T cells usually used small model Ags such as lysozyme, cytochrome c , insulin, and OVA. (jimmunol.org)
  • Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • They induce the lipocortin-1 (annexin-1) synthesis, which then binds to cell membranes preventing the phospholipase A2 from coming into contact with its substrate arachidonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunity
  • Glucocorticoids suppress the cell-mediated immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • By preventing the clonal expansion of lymphocytes in the induction phase of the immune response, it affects both the cell and the humoral immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can also regulate specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • The Na+/H+ antiporter (SLC9A1) is a ubiquitous membrane-bound enzyme involved in volume- and pH-regulation of vertebrate cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • NK cells preferentially express several calcium-dependent (C-type) lectins, which have been implicated in the regulation of NK cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • In order to form and maintain the cumulus, various genes must be turned on in a carefully controlled order in exactly the right cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Unlike immunoglobulins, however, TCR genes do not undergo somatic hypermutation, and T cells do not express Activation-Induced (Cytidine) Deaminase (AID). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • In 2001, Titeux and colleagues reported the cloning of the α and β splice-varying isoforms of human synemin and showed that β-synemin was identical to desmuslin. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acids
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • Cells had been transfected with hCOX2 by Lipofectamine 2000. (cancercurehere.com)
  • 2000 ). Because GadA and GadB are intracellular enzymes, and most MSG are out of the cells, the recombinant E. coli cells have to be specially treated by sonication, ethyl acetate, toluene, and thermal activation to increase the permeability (Zhao et al. (springeropen.com)
  • Sequence
  • StarD7-I possesses an additional 75 amino acids at its amino-terminus, which form a signaling sequence that targets it to the outer membrane of the mitochondrion. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • In vitro model systems, based on the differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells, provide an alternative means of identifying and characterizing these populations. (biologists.org)
  • This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimental
  • The ability to progress via a definitive ectoderm intermediate will underpin the development of rational and efficient methodologies for the derivation of specific ectodermal cell populations from pluripotent cells in culture for use as experimental models or to produce cells with therapeutic applications. (biologists.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the nine other distinct FABPs that have been identified, H-FABP is involved in active fatty acid metabolism where it transports fatty acids from the cell membrane to mitochondria for oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli cells
  • The yield and productivity of gamma-aminobutyric acid might be significantly improved if the overexpressed GadB in E. coli cells can be excreted outside, where it can directly transforms monosodium glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid. (springeropen.com)
  • Transient
  • Recognition and analysis of these transient cell populations has been hampered by technical difficulties in accessing them in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • recombinant
  • To solve this problem, recombinant E. coli overexpressing GadB was employed as a whole cell biocatalyst in buffer solution containing MSG. (springeropen.com)
  • assay
  • Sphingolipids were added to the cells and the dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the transcriptional activity of PPARs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • types
  • What patient types is the DNA open (cell replication is rapidly occuring)? (cram.com)
  • The expression of these Src family members are not the same throughout all tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • While it has been observed in a variety of cell types, it has been best studied in the sarcomere of skeletal myocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different types of mGluRs are distributed differently in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • They also limit viral spread by increasing p53 activity, which kills virus-infected cells by promoting apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • invasion
  • of TRPC decreased the cell routine S stage and cell migration, implicating an operating function for TRP-mediated Ca2+ entrance in cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • migration
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • tissues
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium
  • When the neuron is depolarizing, the CNG ion channel is open allowing sodium and calcium to rush into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The influx of calcium begins a cascade of events within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • They are able to reproduce, but only if they infiltrate a host and use its cells and mechanisms for replication. (unh.edu)
  • Interferons are named for their ability to "interfere" with viral replication by protecting cells from virus infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutamate
  • Their action can be excitatory, increasing conductance, causing more glutamate to be released from the presynaptic cell, but they also increase inhibitory postsynaptic potentials, or IPSPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • WIPI2 mRNA is readily detectable in several commonly used laboratory cell lines (HEK293A, HeLa, A431) and several cancer cell lines, while WIPI1 expression is limited to cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Found
  • Its importance can be further demonstrated by the fact as much as 1% of all secreted and membrane tyrosine residues are found to be sulfated. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, one study found that Group I mGluRs are located mostly on postsynaptic parts of cells, while groups II and III are mostly located on presynaptic elements, though they have been found on both pre- and postsynaptic membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Components
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • activation
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)