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  • apical
  • Only type II hair cells are present in this preparation, and they are in the physiological milieu, with the apical membrane in contact with the endolymph and the basolateral membrane surrounded by a perilymph-like solution. (frontiersin.org)
  • The current model proposes that Na + uptake occurs through apical membrane epithelial Na + channels (an eNaC homologue) that are electrogenically coupled to a proton pump (V-type H + -ATPase). (biologists.org)
  • Fusiform principal cells receive auditory input onto their basal dendrites and multisensory input onto their apical dendrites (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The molecular layer domain comprises the parallel fiber input from granule cells, terminating on fusiform cell apical dendrites and onto cartwheel and SSC cells, both of which in turn control fusiform activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • influx
  • Charybdotoxin (CTX) * and margatoxin (MgTX), which block the predominant voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channel (Kv1.3) of peripheral lymphocytes, depolarize the plasma membrane ( 3 - 5 ), and thereby inhibit TCR-mediated calcium influx ( 6 - 8 ), IL-2 production ( 9 ), and proliferation ( 9 , 10 ). (rupress.org)
  • The extracellular Ca 2+ concentration controls the rate and extent of adaptation in the hair cell ( 11 , 19 , 20 ) by affecting the Ca 2+ influx through transduction channels and modulating the activity of adaptation motors ( 15 , 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • Analysis of the mechanism(s) of 22 Na + influx was performed in control and acid-activated (addition of 10 mmoll -1 proprionic acid) cells using a variety of Na + transport inhibitors (ouabain, phenamil, HOE-694 and bumetanide) and a V-type ATPase inhibitor (bafilomycin). (biologists.org)
  • We found that cells migrating to a 1.03-1.05 g ml -1 Percoll interface [pavement cells (PVCs)] possessed the lowest rates of Na + uptake and that influx was unchanged during either bafilomycin (10 nmoll -1 ) treatment or internal acidification with addition of proprionic acid (10 mmoll -1 ). (biologists.org)
  • Mitochondria-rich (MR) cells that migrated to the 1.05-1.09 g ml -1 interface of the Percoll gradient demonstrated acidification-activated bafilomycin and phenamil-sensitive Na + influx. (biologists.org)
  • renal
  • When you read about aldosterone action in a student's textbook of medical physiology, you usually get the following information: the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone is synthesized in the suprarenal gland and, after release into the bloodstream, acts on target cells of the renal collecting duct. (physiology.org)
  • Interestingly, the change in calcium can be observed not only in renal cells ( 4 ) but also in other tissues ( 3 ). (physiology.org)
  • Cisco Unified Mobility is to the active download Cells, Membranes, and Disease, Including Renal browser within the Cisco Unified CM and is the Single Number Reach, Mobile Voice Access, and Enterprise Feature Access is. (clauskaufmann.de)
  • Animal Facility, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark) JG cells were isolated from renal cortex. (ahajournals.org)
  • physiological
  • Therefore, dynamic external factors shape the ongoing responsiveness of T cells, as do intrinsic changes in their physiological state. (rupress.org)
  • Consequently, any regulation of Kv channel expression or permeation during T cell differentiation could affect their physiological state and functional responses. (rupress.org)
  • These studies collectively suggest that Kv channels regulate physiological functions that define key immunological responses of T cells. (rupress.org)
  • The calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is present in sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaker cells and is required for physiological "fight or flight" SAN beating rate responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • depolarize
  • When a hair cell is stimulated by positive deflection of its hair bundle, increased tension in gating springs opens transduction channels, permitting cations to enter stereocilia and depolarize the cell. (pnas.org)
  • calcium
  • Interestingly, Kv channels in anergized lymphocytes actively suppress IL-4 production, and these functions are consistent with a role in regulating the membrane potential and calcium signaling. (rupress.org)
  • 2001 ) showed that, at the same doses at which it suppresses T-cell proliferation, Glu hinders the sustained calcium response that follows the stimulation of the cell and is absolutely necessary for activation and cell cycle progression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This study aimed at identifying the type and functional significance of potassium channels and voltage-dependent calcium channels (Ca v ) in single rat JG cells using whole-cell patch clamp. (ahajournals.org)
  • thicknesses
  • Using this fabrication method, we demonstrated the fabrication of free-standing PDMS membranes at various sub-μm thicknesses down to 600 ± 20 nm, and nanometer-sized through-hole (810 ± 20 nm diameter) densities, over areas as large as 3 cm in diameter. (rsc.org)
  • concentration
  • For cells exposed to solutions with sufficient chelator capacity to reduce the Ca 2+ concentration below ≈100 nM, hair-bundle stiffness fell to ≈200 μN⋅m − 1 and no longer exhibited Ca 2+ -dependent changes. (pnas.org)
  • At isolated hair cells, the K channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) is shown to block a fraction of total voltage-dependent K-conductance (IKD) that depends on TEA concentration but not on membrane potential ( V m ). (frontiersin.org)
  • K+ ions move out of the cell - down their concentration gradient. (brainscape.com)
  • lymphocytes
  • Each Kv channel is required for maximal IL-2 production by naive CD4 + lymphocytes, whereas none appears to play a role in IL-2, IL-4, or IFN-γ production by effector cells. (rupress.org)
  • Immune responses are initiated and regulated by the physical interactions of receptors and ligands on lymphocytes and APCs, and by soluble signaling factors including cyto-kines and chemokines, which are produced by APCs and inflammatory cells. (rupress.org)
  • We directly measured the amplitude, kinetic properties, and pharmacology of Kv current in primary murine lymphocytes as well as the contribution of each current component to the steady-state membrane potential. (rupress.org)
  • receptor
  • mEPSP and spike frequencies are modulated by stimulation that activates the hair cell receptor conductance. (frontiersin.org)
  • The latter, besides representing a receptor platform, also constitutes a potential transcellular fluid carrier through transcytosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Receptor of advanced glycation end product (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of several endogenous alarmins, while cytokeratin 18 is a structural component of the filament of epithelial cells. (jove.com)
  • vivo
  • The function of some of these interneurons (tuberculoventral or vertical cell, and the cartwheel cell) have been established through a combination of in vivo and in vitro studies over many years. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several reasons may account for this neglect: SSCs are sparse, tiny cells positioned just under the ependymal cell layer, features that all present challenges for targeting during in vivo recordings. (frontiersin.org)
  • behaviour
  • In addition, compression set behaviour of the elastomeric seal materials was investigated in order to evaluate their potential sealing performance in PEM fuel cells. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • stimuli
  • Ca 2+ also participates in adaptation to stimuli by controlling the activity of a molecular motor that sets gating-spring tension. (pnas.org)
  • The hair bundle of the vertebrate hair cell transduces mechanical stimuli, such as sounds and accelerations, into electrical signals. (pnas.org)
  • Membrane rafts (MRs) represent specialized portions of the cell plasma membrane involved in the signalling response to incoming stimuli. (hindawi.com)
  • probe
  • This work lead into current efforts to probe the structure and organization of the cell membrane in a living organism, B. subtilis , by extending these scattering based approaches in combination with a number of innovative genetic and biochemical strategies. (syr.edu)
  • Retinas were harvested, and the distribution patterns and mobilities of each probe were assessed in rods using live cell confocal microscopy and multiphoton fluorescence relaxation after photoactivation (mpFRAPa). (arvojournals.org)
  • glutamate
  • We demonstrate that a highly compact model, comprising a minimal set of critical reactions, can closely resemble the rapid dynamics and cell-to-cell heterogeneity of ATP levels and AMPK activity, as confirmed by single-cell fluorescence microscopy in rat primary cerebellar neurons exposed to glutamate excitotoxicity. (plos.org)
  • transduction
  • Because cells so treated lost mechanoelectrical transduction, we attribute the reduction in bundle stiffness to tip-link disruption. (pnas.org)
  • Support for this identity comes from studies in which hair cells are treated with tetracarboxylate Ca 2+ chelators, which both eliminate transduction ( 9 - 11 ) and disrupt tip links ( 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, cultured hair cells regain transduction as tip links reappear ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • comprises
  • The auditory domain comprises the auditory input to fusiform cell basal dendrites, and its modification by vertical and D-stellate interneurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • sensitivity
  • Their size heightens their sensitivity to small inputs and their location optimizes their ability to communicate with specific dendrites of DCN principal cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • vitro
  • However in vitro brain slice preparations have recently made it easier to visualize and reach these cells with electrodes, particular in mouse lines in which genetically-encoded fluorophores are expressed in SSCs. (frontiersin.org)
  • We report here the identification of several candidate cell/tissue specific cIRK1 regulatory domains by comparing promoter activities in expressing (Qm7) and non-expressing (DF1) cells using in vitro transcription assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • biomarkers
  • In this prospective observational study, we wanted to shed light on the kinetic of plasmatic RAGE and cytokeratin 18 isoforms after severe trauma, thereby also addressing the association of these markers with inflammation and their potential use as biomarkers. (jove.com)
  • Non-invasive imaging of the pancreatic beta cell mass (BCM) requires the identification of novel and specific beta cell biomarkers. (springer.com)
  • Pancreatic islets are composed of different cell types and beta cells have a common origin with other islet endocrine cells, acinar cells and the pancreatic ductal cells, making it difficult to find beta cell-specific biomarkers. (springer.com)
  • Describe
  • In fact, we were able to describe how the expression of MRs in pulmonary cells is modified when a perturbation of extravascular lung water is caused either by saline infusion (so-called cardiogenic model of lung edema, (CE)) or exposure to hypoxia (HE) [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • organic
  • A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. (google.com)
  • 2. A direct organic fuel cell as defined by claim 1 wherein the fuel cell is operative to produce an output current of at least about 1 mA/cm 2 , a voltage of at least about 0.3 V, and a power density greater than about 12 mW/cm 2 when operating at about 25 C. (google.com)
  • 3. A direct organic fuel cell as defined by claim wherein the cell is operative to produce a power density of at least about 20 mW/cm 2 when operating at about 25 C. (google.com)
  • 4. A direct organic fuel cell as defined by claim 1 wherein said liquid organic fuel solution includes at least about (5.7 10 −3 ) moles/cm 3 formic acid, and the cell is operative to produce a power density of at least about 60 mW/cm 2 when operating at about 25 C. (google.com)
  • 5. A direct organic formic acid fuel cell as defined by claim 1 and wherein said C f is between about (10 10 −3 ) moles/ cm 3 and about (20 10 −3 ) moles/cm 3 formic acid. (google.com)
  • studies
  • The paucimolecular model immediately became popular and it dominated cell membrane studies for the following 30 years, until it became rivaled by the fluid mosaic model of Singer and Nicolson (1972). (wikipedia.org)
  • For patch clamp, the cells were transferred to cover slips, and for the renin secretion studies the cells were separated on a Percoll density gradient (25% Percoll at 27 000 g for 30 minutes), resuspended in RPMI-1640 medium, and seeded in 96-multiwell plates. (ahajournals.org)
  • temperature
  • The accelerated aging conditions were chosen to relate to the PEM fuel cell environment, but with more extreme conditions of elevated temperature (140°C) and greater acidity. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • function
  • The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of different approaches have been used to study the function of vestibular hair cells in processing the mechanical stimulus and producing the activation of the first afferent neuron. (frontiersin.org)
  • We confirm the coupling of a V-type H + -ATPase with phenamil-sensitive Na + uptake activity and conclude that high-density α-MR cells function in branchial Na + uptake in freshwater fish. (biologists.org)
  • Others (granule, Golgi and unipolar brush cell) are currently under study but their basic function may be generally understood by analogy to their counterparts in the cerebellar cortex and ELL. (frontiersin.org)
  • artificial
  • It is not possible to target specific cell types, and even specific regions of cell types with different artificial rhodopsins. (berkeley.edu)
  • Percoll
  • Percoll density-gradient separation, combined with peanut lectin agglutinin (PNA) binding and magnetic bead separation, was used to separate dispersed fish gill cells into sub-populations. (biologists.org)