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  • yeast
  • In theory, the greater the surface area of the beads, the slower the rate of reaction as less of the Yeast selectively permeable membrane are outward facing in order to further the reaction. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Gene electrotransfer was first described in the 1980s and since then due to its ease of application and efficiency become a routine method for introducing foreign genes into bacterial, yeast, plant, and animal cells in vitro and into different tissues, including muscle, tumors, liver, and skin in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transformation of intact yeast cells by electroporation, Methods Enzymol 217:478-483 Terzaghi WB, Cashmore AR (1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • Characteristic concentrations of calcium in model organisms are: in E. coli 3mM (bound), 100nM (free), in budding yeast 2mM (bound), in mammalian cell 10-100nM (free) and in blood plasma 2mM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efflux
  • Finally, in phase III, the conjugated xenobiotics may be further processed, before being recognised by efflux transporters and pumped out of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane
  • Based on its amino acid profile C-5 sterol desaturase appears to have four to five membrane-spanning regions, suggesting that it is a transmembrane protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a biological cell is exposed to an electric field of sufficient strength, an increase in the transmembrane voltage is generated, which leads to rearrangements of the cell membrane structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1986
  • However the first report of protein-mediated water transport through membranes was by Gheorghe Benga in 1986, prior to Agre's first publication on the topic. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer membrane
  • Organosilane coatings create a nanocoating that is highly abrasive to virus, bacteria, and fungi that is undetectable to humans, but rips the outer membrane of the microbes attempting to attach to the surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • We have measured Ca binding to fragmented human red cell membranes under equilibrium conditions in the presence of low concentrations of EGTA-buffered, ionized Ca. The ionic strength of the assay medium was maintained at 0.16. (springer.com)
  • mechanisms
  • Researchers today believe that the most important mechanisms include the following: Elevated copper levels inside a cell causes oxidative stress and the generation of hydrogen peroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • lytic
  • In laboratory experiments, melittin inhibits protein kinase C, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, myosin light chain kinase, and Na+/K+-ATPase (synaptosomal membrane) and is a cell membrane lytic factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • contraction
  • They play an important role in signal transduction pathways, where they act as a second messenger, in neurotransmitter release from neurons, in contraction of all muscle cell types, and in fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T wave is referred to as the repolarization period of the ventricles because it represents the period in which the cardiac muscle cells of the heart can relax and prepare for the next contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • accented not only the importance of the presence of water channels but also the possibility to regulate their permeability properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Communication between mesangial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells via gap junctions helps regulate the process of tubuloglomerular feedback and urine formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesangial cells can contract and relax to regulate capillary flow. (wikipedia.org)