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  • cell's membrane
  • The electroinsertion process involves exposing red blood cells to a pulsed electrical field, thereby enabling the CD4 to be incorporated into the red blood cell's membrane to form RBC-CD4 which acts as a sponge absorbing free-floating HIV and forming aggregates with HIV-infected cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • biochemical
  • As a semi-permeable barrier, the cell membrane maintains an essential balance between individual distinctness and communal interaction: it functions to retain key components of the cell and to keep out toxic or unwanted substances, while selectively controlling the flow of nutrients and biochemical signals into the cell. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Natural cells use enzymes to catalyze the biochemical reactions that manufacture their membranes from thioester precursors, but in this case Devaraj's team was able to get membranes to assemble spontaneously, without enzymes, through a process called native chemical ligation. (ucsd.edu)
  • specific membrane proteins
  • The structure and function of specific membrane proteins involved in electron transport, proton translocation and phosphorylation in mitochondria and photosynthesis will be described and discussed in terms of our present understanding of how oxidation reactions or light energy are coupled to the synthesis of ATP. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • ions
  • All mammalian cells need a ready supply of calcium ions to execute functions as diverse as neurotransmission, muscle contraction, hormone release, or immune responses. (news-medical.net)
  • For example, a hormone binding to a receptor could open an ion channel in the receptor and allow calcium ions to flow into the cell. (thefullwiki.org)
  • fluid mosai
  • The paucimolecular model immediately became popular and it dominated cell membrane studies for the following 30 years, until it became rivaled by the fluid mosaic model of Singer and Nicolson (1972). (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the numerous models of the cell membrane proposed prior to the fluid mosaic model , it remains the primary archetype for the cell membrane long after its inception in the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fluid mosaic model can be seen when the membrane proteins of two cells (e.g., a human cell and a mouse cell) are tagged with different-coloured fluorescent labels. (thefullwiki.org)
  • researchers
  • In an attempt to accept or reject the hypothesis, researchers measured membrane thickness. (wikipedia.org)
  • A molecular pathway that's frequently mutated in many different forms of cancer becomes active when cells push parts of their membranes outward into bulging protrusions, Johns Hopkins researchers report in a new study. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers have developed a new technique to analyze cell membrane proteins in situ which could revolutionize the way in which we study diseases, such as cancer, metabolic and heart diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers achieved the breakthrough by switching the operating environment from acidic to basic, which is enabled by the membranes like the one funded by this IONICS project. (udel.edu)
  • AUGUSTA, Ga. -A class of drugs widely used to treat osteoporosis appears to impede a cell's ability to repair a protective outer membrane that helps determine what enters and exits, researchers report. (eurekalert.org)
  • On the other hand, zoledronate-exposed cells quickly filled with a fluorescent dye the researchers placed in the petry dish. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers also demonstrated how the dissociation occurs: They deleted in B cells the gene encoding the signaling molecule Syk, a kinase that closely cooperates with the antigen receptor. (eurekalert.org)
  • In order to elucidate the further details of the activation of B cells, the researchers introduced Syk and the antigen receptor components into fruit fly cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Maryland, in College Park, have developed a detailed computational model of the soybean plasma membrane that provides new structural insight at the molecular level. (eurekalert.org)
  • The results showed the researchers that they are on the right path to making synthetic cell membrane-like materials. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Prokaryotes
  • In addition, membranes in prokaryotes and in the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotes facilitate the synthesis of ATP through chemiosmosis. (wikidoc.org)
  • Eukaryotes
  • Higher-level cells known as eukaryotes contain specialized components, called organelles, that play dedicated roles in its growth and development. (encyclopedia.com)
  • bacteria
  • The cell wall in plants, bacteria, and fungi is also discussed. (youtube.com)
  • In animals , the cell membrane establishes this separation alone, whereas in yeast , bacteria and plants , an additional cell wall forms the outermost boundary, providing primarily mechanical support. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • These changes in membrane lipid components contribute to the survival of plants, bacteria, and hibernating animals during winter. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In fungi , bacteria , and plants an additional cell wall forms the outermost boundary, however, the cell wall plays mostly a mechanical support role rather than a role as a selective boundary. (wikidoc.org)
  • Biology
  • Cohen, a Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and of Physics, is the lead author of a new study that upends the conventional theories about the fluid nature of cell membranes and how they react to tension. (news-medical.net)
  • This is an introductory survey of cell and developmental biology. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • It has long been the goal of experimental biology and medicine to induce cells to behave in predictable ways and to alter the behavior of cells in ways that are beneficial to a subject. (google.com)
  • After a ten-year effort, Prof. Dr. Michael Reth from the Institute of Biology III of the University of Freiburg and the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics has developed a method to investigate the cell surface's organization on a nanometer scale. (eurekalert.org)
  • structure
  • Later in the 1930s, the membrane structure model developed in general agreement to be the paucimolecular model of Davson and Danielli (1935). (wikipedia.org)
  • There will be a general introduction to membrane structure and a discussion of the biosynthesis of membrane proteins. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • The virtual cell permits the students to understand structure and function of yeast organelles. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The dynamics of the RBC membrane is strongly related to the membrane structure and mechanical properties and has been explored extensively ( 2 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • The RBC membrane is not a static but a metabolically regulated active structure. (pnas.org)
  • That way we can analyse the structure of the cell membrane in completely new ways. (nanowerk.com)
  • First, surfaces were structured on a micrometer scale, so that cells which were grown on this surface could interact with the structure. (nanowerk.com)
  • Membranes repair dings to their structure automatically and change thickness to pass signals from the outside environment to the cell's interior, where most of the action is. (kurzweilai.net)
  • These nanomembranes maintained their structure in water or alcohol, at different temperatures, in solutions with high or low pH, or high concentrations of salts, a feat that few cell membranes could accomplish. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Passive
  • The movement of substances across the membrane can be either passive , occurring without the input of cellular energy, or active , requiring the cell to expend energy in moving it. (wikidoc.org)
  • processes
  • Transport across the cell membrane underlies a variety of physiological processes, from the beating of an animal's heart to the opening of tiny pores in leaves that enables gas exchange with the environment. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This hypothesis became more and more popular among cell biologists, and "rafts" have been associated with many cellular processes. (nanowerk.com)
  • computer simulations
  • Using complex computer simulations, the scientists evaluated data from fluorescence microscopy experiments and tracked the movement of KRas on its journey though the cell. (mpg.de)
  • explains
  • Instead, KRas constantly and unspecifically re-distributes to the various membrane systems of the cell and must then be concentrated on the inner leaflet of the cell membrane via a continuous cycle," explains Malte Schmick from the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology. (mpg.de)
  • We can now develop active agents that reduce the enrichment of mutated, permanently active KRas at the cell membrane," explains Philippe Bastiaens, Director at the Max Planck Institute in Dortmund. (mpg.de)
  • apical
  • The apical surfaces of the aforementioned epithelial cells are dense with finger-like projections, called microvilli , which increase cell surface area and thereby increase the absorption rate of nutrients. (wikidoc.org)
  • moves
  • Permeation occurs when a substance moves through the membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration, a process called diffusion. (encyclopedia.com)