Loading...
  • therapeutic
  • One of the problems of the imminent debate on overturning the ban on therapeutic cloning of embryonic stem cells is that, for many MPs, the science is bewildering and complex. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • For these reasons, unraveling the MYC-mediated mechanism in those cells is fundamental to exploit their full potential and to identify therapeutic targets. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2) The multiple therapeutic achievements that have been demonstrated using adult stem cells, and the promise they hold for other diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders or diabetes, make efforts to support this fruitful avenue of investigation an urgent matter (3). (vatican.va)
  • Embryonic stem cell experiments have not yet produced a single unqualified therapeutic success, not even in animal models (5). (vatican.va)
  • 4) The so-called 'therapeutic cloning', which would be better called 'research cloning' because we are still far from therapeutic applications, has been proposed in order to avert the potential immune rejection of embryonic stem cells derived from a donor other than the host. (vatican.va)
  • Moreover, a non-human primate model of cloning, which would be necessary in order to conduct experiments to establish safety before attempting therapeutic experiments in human beings, has yet to be developed (10). (vatican.va)
  • 5) The health benefits of therapeutic cloning are hypothetical, in as much as the method itself remains mainly a hypothesis. (vatican.va)
  • Indeed, even putting aside fundamental ethical considerations other than the patient's expectations, the present state of 'therapeutic cloning' precludes, now and in the near future, any clinical application. (vatican.va)
  • Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of May 2019 [update] . (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell research is a promising field with an alluring potential for therapeutic intervention, and thus begs a critical understanding of the long-term consequences of stem cell replacement. (ukessays.com)
  • Despite the tremendous therapeutic promise of HESC research, the research has met with heated opposition because the harvesting of HESCs involves the destruction of the human embryo. (stanford.edu)
  • Results obtained from completed and on-going clinical studies indicate huge therapeutic potential of stem cell-based therapy in the treatment of degenerative, autoimmune and genetic disorders. (medsci.org)
  • Although clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has shown beneficial effects in the therapy of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, the ability to promote tumor growth and metastasis and overestimated therapeutic potential of MSCs still provide concerns for the field of regenerative medicine. (medsci.org)
  • We describe and discuss ethical challenges regarding human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, therapeutic potential and clinical translation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) and safety issues of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy. (medsci.org)
  • eggs
  • The HFEA also regulates the storage of gametes (eggs and sperm) and embryos. (hta.gov.uk)
  • Mitochondrial-replacement techniques (MRT) may soon be used to replace dysfunctional mitochondria in eggs or embryos with those obtained from healthy donors. (nature.com)
  • More-contentious gene-editing techniques such as CRISPR-Cas9 now enable researchers to modify the nuclear DNA of human sperm and eggs (gametes) and embryos . (nature.com)
  • 1998
  • hES cells were first isolated and cultured in 1998 from embryos donated by couples no longer intending to use them for their own infertility treatment. (jci.org)
  • ARF develops predominantly due to the injury and necrosis of renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) as a result of ischemic or toxic insult ( Lieberthal and Nigam, 1998 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The first hybrid human clone was created in November 1998, by Advanced Cell Technology . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998). A typical day-5 human embryo consists of 200-250 cells, most of which comprise the trophoblast, which is the outermost layer of the blastocyst. (stanford.edu)
  • regenerative
  • Indeed, PSCs are used for both disease and cancer modeling and to derive cells for regenerative medicine. (frontiersin.org)
  • Firstly then, the process of finding way's to explore patient-specific embryonic stem cells true potential in regenerative medicine, can start. (blogspot.com)
  • Cervera RP, Stojkovic M. Human embryonic stem cell derivation and nuclear transfer: impact on regenerative therapeutics and drug discovery. (blogspot.com)
  • In our present review we tried to provide the information about stem cells and their significant role in regenerative medicine for treatment of various diseases. (ukessays.com)
  • Stem cells - Embryonic stem cells - Adult stem cells - Stem cells treatment - Regenerative medicine - stem cell therapy. (ukessays.com)
  • The potential of stem cells and its plasticity are having invaluable properties for regenerative medicine (8). (ukessays.com)
  • The ISSCR is an independent non-profit organization that was established in 2002 to provide a forum for communication and education in the emerging field of stem-cell research and regenerative medicine. (nature.com)
  • With more than 2.3 million page views and more than 4,666 items, this blog provides news and commentary on public policy, business and economic issues related to the $3 billion California stem cell agency, officially known as the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine(CIRM). (blogspot.com)
  • She discusses her love life, but she does not mention stem cells or the California Institute of Regenerative Medicine . (blogspot.com)
  • In this review, we provide an overview of the most important ethical issues in stem cell therapy, as a contribution to the controversial debate about their clinical usage in regenerative and transplantation medicine. (medsci.org)
  • Thus
  • Likewise, the definitions of terms such as "gametes", or "diploid cells" could also defer to those used in the Congressional cloning "bans", thus allowing much human cloning and human genetic engineering. (lifeissues.net)
  • To induce and stabilize the pluripotent state, complex circuitries involving signaling pathways, transcription regulators and epigenetic mechanisms converge on a core transcriptional regulatory network of PSCs, thus determining their cell identity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) possess two defining properties: they are able to indefinitely self-renew, thus maintaining their cell identity after cell division, and they are pluripotent, having the potential to differentiate toward all cell lineages of the organism. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, the Holy See earnestly encourages investigations that are being carried out in the fields of medicine and biology, with the goal of curing diseases and of improving the quality of life of all, provided that they are respectful of the dignity of the human being. (vatican.va)
  • 3. - 4 Thus, hESCs and hiPSCs offer a unique opportunity for drug discovery and toxicological screening, studying human development and developing treatments for human diseases. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Thus, stem cells by definition have two essential properties, i.e. the capacity of self renewal, and the capacity to differentiate into different cell lineages. (ukessays.com)
  • Thus, as long as we accept non-consequentialist constraints on killing persons, those supporting HESC research must respond to the claim that those constraints apply to human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • Thus, Aristotle could fit his observations of embryos perfectly well within his larger theoretical interpretations of the world. (stanford.edu)
  • regulation
  • Understanding the mechanisms and the extrinsic regulation of cell-fate decisions in stem cell populations and the identification and isolation of pure cell lineages are two major goals of stem biology. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The HFEA's remit includes the use of embryos in the derivation of stem cell lines, but does not extend to the regulation of these stem cell lines themselves. (hta.gov.uk)
  • During the processing / derivation phase, stem cell lines do not come within medicines regulation. (hta.gov.uk)
  • New guidelines from the International Society for Stem Cell Research offer a model for self-regulation in contentious areas, write Jonathan Kimmelman and colleagues. (nature.com)
  • The definition proposed in this paper was subsequently adopted by the Australian Parliament in the Prohibition of Human Cloning for Reproduction and Regulation of Human Embryo Research Amendment Act 2006 to replace the previously used definition. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • epigenetic
  • Indeed, it instructs the PSC-specific cell cycle, metabolism and epigenetic landscape, contributes to limit exit from pluripotency and modulates signaling cascades affecting the PSC identity. (frontiersin.org)
  • 9) Embryonic stem cells harvested from abnormal and unfit embryos will carry their 'epigenetic defects' and transmit at least part of them to their daughter cells. (vatican.va)
  • Therefore, we concluded that vascular problems were key alterations induced by cloning (presumably via epigenetic modifications). (jove.com)
  • We reveal a link between energy metabolism and epigenetic control of cell state transitions during a developmental trajectory towards germ cell specification, and establish a paradigm for stabilizing fleeting cellular states through metabolic modulation. (embopress.org)
  • IDH 2‐mediated production of α KG in the mitochondrial Krebs cycle promotes and maintains the epigenetic state of naïve pluripotent stem cells. (embopress.org)
  • ethical
  • In order to ensure that federal funds are used to support only stem cell research that is scientifically sound, legal, and ethical, the NIH will examine the derivation of all existing stem cell lines and create a registry of those lines that satisfy this criteria. (archives.gov)
  • Discussion of the bioethics of human stem cell research has transitioned from controversies over the source of human embryonic stem cells to concerns about the ethical use of stem cells in basic and clinical research. (jci.org)
  • From that point forward, hES cell research has been steeped in ethical controversy. (jci.org)
  • Against this background dystopian view of science, a pro-life ideology rapidly emerged as a main driving force behind stem cell ethical debate and policy. (jci.org)
  • It is safe to say that, despite a host of other concerns about where science was leading us in the future, the ethical discourse over stem cell research for the past decade has been characterized predominantly by the debate over embryo destruction. (jci.org)
  • Above all, it is universally agreed that the use of adult stem cells does not entail any ethical problems. (vatican.va)
  • Technical problems aside, the need to extract these cells from living human embryos raises ethical questions of the highest order. (vatican.va)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells, with their ability to generate all, or nearly all, of the cell types in the adult body and a possible source of cells genetically identical to the donor, hold great promise but face ethical and political hurdles for human use. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The truth that an embryo is destroyed in chopped liver embryonic stem cell research doesn't settle the moral and ethical issues. (cbc-network.org)
  • While the principal source of the controversy surrounding HESC research lies in competing views about the value of human embryonic life, the scope of ethical issues in HESC research is broader than the question of the ethics of destroying human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • However, clinical application of stem cells raises numerous ethical and safety concerns. (medsci.org)
  • bioethics
  • The President will create a new President's Council on Bioethics, chaired by Dr. Leon Kass, an expert in biomedical ethics and a professor at the University of Chicago, to study the human and moral ramifications of developments in biomedical and behaviorial science and technology. (archives.gov)
  • It's about stem cells, cloning, bioethics and genetics. (blogspot.com)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, single BTMs from two- and four-cell embryos of outbred mice were individually placed in sequential cultures to enhance the formation of the inner cell mass (ICM) and the establishment of embryonic outgrowth. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The transfer of such cloned embryonic stem cells into a patient would be therefore extremely hazardous: these cells might provoke genetic disorders, or initiate leukemias or other cancers. (vatican.va)
  • 8 Therefore, there is a high demand for methods capable of determining the phenotype of cells and to identify and isolate cells of interest from a heterogeneous population. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Therefore, the value of the recent study is limited, even though it seams to confirm the possibility of producing cloned human embryos. (blogspot.com)
  • Therefore, stem cells hold great promise for the future of translational medicine. (ukessays.com)
  • therefore it is morally impermissible to intentionally kill the human embryo. (stanford.edu)
  • Therefore, such embryos can be considered to have succumbed only after a 24-hour period at room temperature. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • gametes
  • The HFEA is responsible for regulating the procurement of gametes and the associated processing involved in the creation of an embryo. (hta.gov.uk)
  • donors
  • The HTA is also responsible for approving transplantation of solid organs and bone marrow from living donors. (hta.gov.uk)
  • hESC
  • Single-cell phasor FLIM signatures reveal an increased heterogeneity in the metabolic states of differentiating H9 and H1 hESC colonies. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • When the derived hESC cell line is fully characterised and cultured to ensure uniform characteristics it is a condition of all HFEA research licences that the cell line is deposited in the UK Stem Cell Bank. (hta.gov.uk)
  • Human embryonic stem cell (HESC) research offers much hope for alleviating the human suffering brought on by the ravages of disease and injury. (stanford.edu)
  • The derivation of HESC cultures requires the removal of the trophoblast. (stanford.edu)
  • Opponents of HESC research argue that the research is morally impermissible because it involves the unjust killing of innocent human beings. (stanford.edu)
  • However, at present, the consensus in the scientific community is that both HESC and iPSC research should be pursued, as we do not yet know whether iPSCs have the same potential as HESCs or whether it is safe to transplant them into humans. (stanford.edu)
  • It is worth noting that this argument, if sound, would not suffice to show that all or even most HESC research is impermissible, since most investigators engaged in HESC research do not participate in the derivation of HESCs but instead use cell lines that researchers who performed the derivation have made available. (stanford.edu)
  • The standard view of those who oppose HESC research is that a human being begins to exist with the emergence of the one-cell zygote at fertilization. (stanford.edu)
  • fetal
  • To elucidate the role of RelA in lymphocyte development and function, we transplanted fetal liver cells of 13.5-day embryos from heterozygote matings into irradiated SCID mice. (rupress.org)
  • Within 4 weeks, both T and B cells had developed in the SCID mice receiving relA −/− fetal liver transplants, similar to the rel A+/+ and +/− cases. (rupress.org)
  • 78:7634-7638, 1981) or from fetal germ cells (Matsui, et al. (google.es)
  • research
  • Federal funding of research using existing embryonic stem cell lines is consistent with the President's belief in the fundamental value and sanctity of human life. (archives.gov)
  • The President's decision reflects his fundamental commitment to preserving the value and sanctity of human life and his desire to promote vital medical research. (archives.gov)
  • The President's decision will permit federal funding of research using the more than 60 existing stem cell lines that have already been derived, but will not sanction or encourage the destruction of additional human embryos. (archives.gov)
  • More than 60 existing stem cell lines from genetically diverse populations around the world are expected to be available for federally-funded research. (archives.gov)
  • Today's decision relates only to the use of federal funds for research on existing stem cell lines derived in accordance with the criteria set forth above. (archives.gov)
  • The potential of embryonic stem cell research. (archives.gov)
  • To create embryonic stem cells for research, a "stem cell line" must be created from the inner cell mass of a week-old embryo. (archives.gov)
  • And if, as with Weissman et al, human cloning is not cloning if it is for " research " purposes, then the Dickey Amendment could even be construed to allow human cloning for "research" purposes . (lifeissues.net)
  • NOTE: What we are clearly beginning to see emerge here is the massive contradictions accruing among several major federal research documents interwoven as "authorities" over the years, using erroneous (or no) scientific definitions for "political" purposes now concretized as stare decisis , ultimately rendering them unconstitutional due to vagueness, and impotent in protecting the lives of both sexually and asexually reproduced human beings in research and in reproduction. (lifeissues.net)
  • Under HHS [OHRP federal] regulations at 45 CFR Part 46, human subject means a living individual about whom an investigator (whether professional or student) conducting research obtains (1) data through intervention or interaction with the individual, or (2) identifiable private information . (lifeissues.net)
  • 1. The definition of " human subject research " is the focus of these Guidances, and references are given to both the current OHRP federal regulations (45 CFR 46) and to Public Law 103-43 (the NIH Revitalization Act). (lifeissues.net)
  • Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Department of Human Genetics and Genetics and Molecular Biology Program, Emory University School of Medicine, North East Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the end though the debate is quite a simple one, and is based on the value our representatives put on human life or in permitting scientific research at any cost. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • The research was strictly limited to embryos which had been produced during the IVF program - a program intended to result in birth, but which were going to be destroyed anyway. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • The current debate is about how the embryonic stem cells used in research are derived," he wrote. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • A further fear is that a green light now for embryonic cloning research will merely be a stepping stone towards a more open slather approach in future years. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • Each of these issues is discussed as I summarize the past, present, and future bioethical issues in stem cell research. (jci.org)
  • The main bioethical issues associated with human stem cells involve their derivation and use for research. (jci.org)
  • This Review summarizes these and other bioethical issues of the past, present, and future of stem cell research. (jci.org)
  • While public concerns such as these about science and its implications are not in themselves new, hES cell research offered the opportunity for all of these inchoate worries to coalesce around a single, new scientific field. (jci.org)
  • On the other hand, supporters of embryonic stem cell research have pointed out that not all religious traditions grant full moral standing to early-stage human embryos. (jci.org)
  • This respect demands that any research that is inconsistent with the dignity of the human being is morally excluded. (vatican.va)
  • The Holy See opposes the cloning of human embryos for the purpose of destroying them in order to harvest their stem cells, even for a noble purpose, because it is inconsistent with the ground and motive of human biomedical research, that is, respect for the dignity of human beings. (vatican.va)
  • However, the Holy See applauds and encourages research using adult stem cells, because it is completely compatible with respect for the dignity of human beings. (vatican.va)
  • 3) By contrast, research using human embryonic stem cells has been hampered by important technical difficulties (4). (vatican.va)
  • The rising concept of cell-based therapeutics has provided a framework around which new approaches are being generated, and its combination with advances in stem cell research stands to bring both fields to clinical fruition. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The HFEA is the independent regulator for IVF treatment and embryo research. (hta.gov.uk)
  • The HFEA's principal tasks are to license and monitor clinics that carry out in vitro fertilisation (IVF), donor insemination (DI) and human embryo research. (hta.gov.uk)
  • Depending on the goal of the research, large animals as models of pulmonary disease often resemble the situation of the human lung much better than mice do. (jove.com)
  • Harvard alumnus James L. Sherley, M.D., Ph.D., a professor in the Biological Engineering department at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has "come out" with his opposition to cloning and destructive embryonic stem cell research. (lifeethics.org)
  • We have discussed the injunction issued by Judge Royce C. Lamberth against President Obama's ESCR funding policy - and the mendacious legislative response of the likes of Arlen Specter that would authorize the Feds to fund cloning research in addition to restoring Obama's more limited policy. (cbc-network.org)
  • The other way would be if embryos are destroyed in research. (cbc-network.org)
  • and who gave voluntary written consent for the human embryos to be used for research purposes. (cbc-network.org)
  • ESC research is clearly research in which an embryo is destroyed. (cbc-network.org)
  • Rather, the language of the statute reflects the unambiguous intent of Congress to enact a broad prohibition of funding research in which a human embryo is destroyed. (cbc-network.org)
  • This prohibition encompasses all "research in which" an embryo is destroyed, not just the "piece of research" in which the embryo is destroyed. (cbc-network.org)
  • Stem-cell research offers tremendous promise for biomedicine. (nature.com)
  • The society developed guidelines for embryonic-stem-cell research 2 in 2006 and for clinical translation of stem-cell research 3 in 2008. (nature.com)
  • In the decade since the ISSCR's previous guidelines were issued, embryo research has entered new arenas. (nature.com)
  • The revised guidelines do, however, endorse continued laboratory-based research on human embryos and the derivation of stem-cell lines from them. (nature.com)
  • Although enormously valuable, iPS cells do not obviate the need for human embryonic stem cells in research 4 . (nature.com)
  • For research involving human embryos, the revised guidelines assert the need for a specialized embryo-research-oversight (EMRO) process. (nature.com)
  • Institutions are best positioned to decide what specific mechanism to use to review embryo research. (nature.com)
  • One option may be to repurpose existing embryonic-stem-cell research oversight (ESCRO) committees to take on a broader embryo-research-oversight function. (nature.com)
  • If looked at from a strictly consequentialist perspective, it's almost certainly the case that the potential health benefits from the research outweigh the loss of embryos involved and whatever suffering results from that loss for persons who want to protect embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • However, most of those who oppose the research argue that the constraints against killing innocent persons to promote social utility apply to human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • California's biomedical industry has already begun its lobbying campaign against legislation to guarantee the state shares in the potential bounty from products developed from its $3 billion stem cell research effort. (blogspot.com)
  • The protocol will promote research of TEC function and as well as the development of in vitro T cell reconstitution. (jove.com)
  • The NHMRC Embryo Research Licensing Committee (NHMRC Licensing Committee) developed this discussion paper in response to a request from the Council of the NHMRC for a definition of 'human embryo' from a purely biological standpoint. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • biological
  • Living in a pluralistic society such as ours, supporters argue, means having to tolerate differences in religious and personal convictions over such personally theoretical matters as when during the course of human biological development moral personhood first appears. (jci.org)
  • From a biological standpoint, bringing cloned human embryos to birth would be dangerous for the human species. (vatican.va)
  • Source: EudraLex Volume 4: EU guidelines for Good Manufacturing Practice for Medicinal Products for Human and Veterinary Use, Annex 2: Manufacture of Biological active substances and Medicinal Products for Human (revision 1). (hta.gov.uk)
  • When the errant biological properties of human embryonic stem cells are considered, it is difficult to foresee them ever being used directly as cures in children or adults. (lifeethics.org)
  • development
  • The embryos from which the existing stem cell lines were created have already been destroyed and no longer have the possibility of further development as human beings. (archives.gov)
  • Our in vitro culture system employs hydrogels in order to mimic the native ovarian environment by maintaining the 3D follicular architecture, cell-cell interactions and paracrine signaling that direct follicle development 5 . (jove.com)
  • Highlights include the identification and characterization of Oct-4, germline chromatin silencing by RNAi, cDNA subtraction and cloning in the field of trophoblast/placental development, and selective ablation. (springer.com)
  • Diagram of the ways to reprogram cells along with the development of humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This three-dimensional microenvironment is thought to influence/control genes and properties that define 'stemness' of the stem cells, i.e. self-renewal or development to committed cells. (ukessays.com)
  • This process of disaggregating the blastocyst's cells eliminates its potential for further development. (stanford.edu)
  • This suggests that RelA/p50 plays an important role in certain steps of B cell development, although genes regulated by RelA/p50 have yet to be identified. (rupress.org)
  • Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are critical for the normal development and function of the thymus. (jove.com)
  • Of thymic stromal cells, thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are particularly crucial at multiple stages of T cell development: T cell commitment, positive selection and negative selection. (jove.com)
  • Stem cells occur at all stages of human development, from embryo to adult but their versatility and numbers tend to decrease with age. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • Cytokeratin is an epithelial cell marker and Pax-2 is necessary for kidney development. (ufl.edu)
  • apoptosis
  • Over time, histological analysis revealed distinct cell morphologies, patterns of cell division and apoptosis, and cell arrangements with Pax-2 and Cytokeratin positivity. (ufl.edu)
  • Bovine
  • Bovine clones that survived until the neonatal period differed quantitatively and qualitatively from in-vivo-derived cattle. (jove.com)
  • experiments
  • Tasmanian Senator Guy Barnett recently summarised the key issue with the current legislation when he says MPs will be voting to permit the creation of human embryos for experiments. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • alterations
  • Vascular alterations underlie developmental problems manifested in cloned cattle before or after birth. (jove.com)
  • Although alterations affected a variety of organs (e.g. heart, lung and liver), there was a clear association with abberant vascular developmental during the early intrauterine phase. (jove.com)
  • Forsyth NR, Kay A, Hampson K, Downing A, Talbot R, McWhir J. Transcriptome alterations due to physiological normoxic (2% O2) culture of human embryonic stem cells. (springer.com)
  • genetic
  • A stem cell line is a mass of cells descended from the original, sharing its genetic characteristics. (archives.gov)
  • Such chaos will take on new meaning with human genetic engineering already firmly on track. (lifeissues.net)
  • From the first moment, the genetic code in concert with the cellular environment, orchestrates the myriad of messages necessary to assemble the human form. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • This asexual form of reproduction would bypass the usual 'shuffling' of genes that makes every individual unique in his/her genome and would arbitrarily fix the genotype in one particular configuration, (12) with predictable negative genetic consequences for the human genepool. (vatican.va)
  • Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post . (wikipedia.org)