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  • genes
  • In theory, the oocyte's cytoplasm would reprogram the transferred nucleus by silencing all the somatic cell genes and activating the embryonic ones. (sciencemag.org)
  • Each of the clones expressed the osteoclast marker genes TRAP and cathepsin-K mRNA with RANKL treatment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • cDNA expression profiling of osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cell clones demonstrates appropriate expression of a large number of genes before and after osteoclastic differentiation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Two separate research teams have figured out how to "reprogram" cells with just a handful of genes to give them the characteristics of embryonic stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • The egg then "reprograms" the adult nucleus so that the cell behaves like an embryo but has the genes of the adult cell. (nih.gov)
  • The majority of multiexon mammalian genes contain alternatively spliced exons that have unique expression patterns in different cell populations and that have important cell functions. (eneuro.org)
  • This form of cell-specific pre-mRNA processing greatly expands the coding capacity of genes without increasing genetic load. (eneuro.org)
  • A potential use of genetically-customized stem cells would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to the particular disease. (bootstrike.com)
  • The iPSC technology was pioneered by Shinya Yamanaka's lab in Kyoto, Japan, who showed in 2006 that the introduction of four specific genes encoding transcription factors could convert adult cells into pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • iPSCs are typically derived by introducing products of specific sets of pluripotency-associated genes, or "reprogramming factors", into a given cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon introduction of reprogramming factors, cells begin to form colonies that resemble pluripotent stem cells, which can be isolated based on their morphology, conditions that select for their growth, or through expression of surface markers or reporter genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They hypothesized that genes important to embryonic stem cell (ESC) function might be able to induce an embryonic state in adult cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetics deals with the molecular structure and function of genes, and gene behavior in context of a cell or organism (e.g. dominance and epigenetics), patterns of inheritance from parent to offspring, and gene distribution, variation and change in populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is, these plasmids could serve as cloning vectors to carry genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The promoter gene in a normal bacterial cell is linked to other genes that are then likewise transcribed and then translated into proteins that help the cell in either combating or adapting to the agent to which it has been exposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, reporter genes can be genetically inserted into bacterial, yeast, plant, and mammalian cells, thereby providing considerable functionality over a wide range of host vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In vitro models of osteoclast differentiation are principally based on primary cell culture, which are poorly suited to molecular and transgene studies due to the limitations associated with the use of primary macrophage. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our results demonstrated that MSNs reversed hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-inhibited cell viability and ameliorated H 2 O 2 -induced cell apoptosis in vitro . (go.jp)
  • The cells can therefore be grown for prolonged periods in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other immortalised cell lines are the in vitro equivalent of cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalised cell lines have undergone similar mutations allowing a cell type which would normally not be able to divide to be proliferated in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • SH-SY5Y cells are often used as in vitro models of neuronal function and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • SH-SY5Y cells can spontaneously interconvert between two phenotypes in vitro, the neuroblast-like cells and the Epithelial like cells, although the mechanisms underlying this process are not understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fundamental difference between the two methods is that molecular cloning involves replication of the DNA in a living microorganism, while PCR replicates DNA in an in vitro solution, free of living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • These osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cell clones provide a valuable model for dissecting the cellular and molecular regulation of osteoclast differentiation and activation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To obtain a clue to understand the selective sorting of vesicles between the Golgi cisterenae, we investigated the molecular arrangements of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) subunits in yeast cells. (go.jp)
  • The researchers were able to identify the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient for starting the cascade of molecular and cellular processes to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production, affinity tagging, single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genomic DNA for ERCC1 was the first human DNA repair gene to be isolated by molecular cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning generally uses DNA sequences from two different organisms: the species that is the source of the DNA to be cloned, and the species that will serve as the living host for replication of the recombinant DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning methods are central to many contemporary areas of modern biology and medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • This changed dramatically with the advent of molecular cloning methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning takes advantage of the fact that the chemical structure of DNA is fundamentally the same in all living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning is similar to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in that it permits the replication of DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Follow-on manufacturers do not have access to the originator's molecular clone and original cell bank, nor to the exact fermentation and purification process, nor to the active drug substance, although they do have access to the commercialized innovator product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dolly the S
  • This technique is currently the basis for cloning animals (such as the famous Dolly the sheep ), and in theory could be used to clone humans. (bootstrike.com)
  • In practice, this technique has so far been problematic, although there have been a few high-profile successes, such as Dolly the Sheep and, more recently, Snuppy, the first cloned dog. (wikipedia.org)
  • donors
  • The claim went up in smoke in January of 2006 after a probe by the university concluded that Hwang had fabricated the evidence, which followed a similarly damning assessment of a landmark paper from the previous year in which the group falsely reported creating 11 cell lines genetically matched to their donors. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The alternative, performing an analysis on primary cells from multiple tissue donors, does not have this advantage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations
  • Cancer occurs when a somatic cell which normally cannot divide undergoes mutations which cause de-regulation of the normal cell cycle controls leading to uncontrolled proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • While immortalized cell lines often originate from a well-known tissue type, they have undergone significant mutations to become immortal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells with disabling mutations in ERCC1 are more sensitive than normal to particular DNA damaging agents, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to chemicals that cause crosslinking between DNA strands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetically engineered mice with disabling mutations in ERCC1 have defects in DNA repair, accompanied by metabolic stress-induced changes in physiology that result in premature aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • The frequency of spontaneous mutations is significantly lower in advanced male germ cells than in somatic cell types from the same individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings appear to reflect employment of more effective mechanisms to limit the initial occurrence of spontaneous mutations in germ cells than in somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic cells
  • For example, in mammals, somatic cells make up all the internal organs, skin, bones, blood and connective tissue, while mammalian germ cells give rise to spermatozoa and ova which fuse during fertilization to produce a cell called a zygote, which divides and differentiates into the cells of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are approximately 220 types of somatic cells in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in sponges, non-differentiated somatic cells form the germ line and, in Cnidaria, differentiated somatic cells are the source of the germline. (wikipedia.org)
  • As multicellularity evolved many times, sterile somatic cells did too. (wikipedia.org)
  • The evolution of an immortal germline producing specialized somatic cells involved the emergence of mortality, and can be viewed in its simplest version in volvocine algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those species with a separation between sterile somatic cells and a germ line are called Weismannists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all cells, somatic cells contain DNA arranged in chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in humans, somatic cells contain 46 chromosomes organized into 23 pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of this is the modern cultivated species of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., a hexaploid species whose somatic cells contain six copies of every chromatid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female germ cells also show a mutation frequency that is lower than that in corresponding somatic cells and similar to that in male germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic cells have also been collected in the practice of cryoconservation of animal genetic resources as a means of conserving animal genetic material, including to clone livestock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of biotechnology has allowed for the genetic manipulation of somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • RAW264.7 cell were cloned by limiting dilution and induced to osteoclast differentiation by treatment with recombinant RANKL. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This process takes advantage of the fact that a single bacterial cell can be induced to take up and replicate a single recombinant DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • This single cell can then be expanded exponentially to generate a large amount of bacteria, each of which contain copies of the original recombinant molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • The experiments indicated how to reprogram nuclei from differentiated cells to produce live offspring, and that a single population of differentiated cells could produce multiple offspring. (asu.edu)
  • The cells can be genetically manipulated (e.g. siRNA transfection) and so can provide a substrate for experiments involving the manipulation of key proteins implicated in the above functions or enable pharmacological screening. (imperialinnovations.co.uk)
  • This allows an analysis to be repeated many times on genetically identical cells which is desirable for repeatable scientific experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was a professor of theriogenology and biotechnology at Seoul National University (dismissed on March 20, 2006) who became infamous for fabricating a series of experiments, which appeared in high-profile journals, in the field of stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly after that his human cloning experiments were revealed to be fraudulent. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • The chromosomes may not separate at one of the two anaphases (called restitutional meiosis), or the nuclei produced may fuse or one of the polar bodies may fuse with the egg cell at some stage during its maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • The spleen acts as a filter against foreign organisms that infect the bloodstream, and also filters out old red blood cells from the bloodstream and decomposes them. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Immortal cell lines are a very important tool for research into the biochemistry and cell biology of multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects, plants or animals reproduce asexually. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the case of cell cultures from multi-cellular organisms, cell cloning is an arduous task as these cells will not readily grow in standard media. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years, the technique of cloning whole organisms has been developed in mammals, allowing almost identical genetic clones of an animal to be produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • Modern cloning vectors include selectable antibiotic resistance markers, which allow only cells in which the vector has been transfected, to grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the cloning vectors may contain colour selection markers, which provide blue/white screening (alpha-factor complementation) on X-gal medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • This would produce a cloned, one-cell embryo that would mature for several days in the laboratory and then be destroyed to obtain stem cells genetically matched to the patient. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • The laboratory technique of maintaining live cell lines (a population of cells descended from a single cell and containing the same genetic makeup) separated from their original tissue source became more robust in the middle 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dessain and colleagues published in 2004 research describing a novel method of producing native human mAbs that establishes human B cells for growth in the laboratory by fusing them to a genetically altered, immortal cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • On November 2015, a Chinese biotech company Boyalife Group announced that it will partner with Hwang's laboratory, Sooam Biotech, to open the world's largest animal cloning factory in Tianjin as early as 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • therefore, it is proposed that after directed cell differentiation, the cells could be transplanted without immune rejection to treat degenerative disorders such as diabetes, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease (among others). (sciencemag.org)
  • Biochemical studies of osteoclast differentiation and function have been hindered because a tractable cell culture model of osteoclast differentiation has not been available. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Progenitors are obtained by so-called direct reprogramming or directed differentiation and are also called induced somatic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This meant that the cells can change their differentiation pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila imaginal discs, cells have to choose from a limited number of standard discrete differentiation states. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact that transdetermination (change of the path of differentiation) often occurs for a group of cells rather than single cells shows that it is induced rather than part of maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Finally, we documented in mouse xenograft models of human colorectal and breast cancer that lactate release from tumor cells through the MCT4 (and not MCT1) transporter is sufficient to stimulate IL-8-dependent angiogenesis and tumor growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, our findings establish a signaling role for lactate in endothelial cells and they identify the lactate/NF-κB/IL-8 pathway as an important link between tumor metabolism and angiogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor cells fuel their metabolism with a variety of nutrients including glucose, glutamine, and lactate to meet the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of proliferation ( 1, 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, as previously documented in muscle fibres and brain ( 4, 5 ), lactate may in turn be taken up by oxygenated (tumor) cells to feed oxidative metabolism ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We recently documented that this can contribute to reduce consumption of glucose (and probably glutamine) by tumor cells at the vicinity of blood vessels and thereby to increase the availability of these substrates for hypoxic tumor cells ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • One may thus propose that tumor lactate levels and fluxes reflect the extent of the adaptation of tumor cells to survive and proliferate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • While dividing, the aggregated cells can look so different from the differentiated cells following the K'annul-index tumor cellularity (TNF, for Tumor Necrosis Factor), that new scientists often mistake one or the other for contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • During somatic-cell nuclear transfer, the genetic information of an unfertilized human egg would be removed and replaced with the unique genetic information of a patient. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • However, there are concerns about their genetic stability and some studies have shown the cells to contain a functionally heterogeneous population. (imperialinnovations.co.uk)
  • A series of genetic markers sprinkled throughout the cells' chromosomes show the same pattern found in parthenogenetic mice as opposed to cloned mice, according to a report published online today in the journal Cell Stem Cell . (scientificamerican.com)
  • A cloned cell should be identical to its donor, but the probe found that of 48 common genetic variations, or markers, present in the 2004 cells, eight did not match their apparent donor. (scientificamerican.com)
  • To settle the case, they analyzed the genetic sequence of the cell line at 500,000 locations across the genome. (scientificamerican.com)
  • But in contrast, pairs of matching chromosomes in parthenogenetic cells tend to match one another in the middle and differ near the ends because of a genetic mixing process called recombination. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The offspring having all of the mother's genetic material are called full clones and those having only half are called half clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Unlike the first generation of iPSCs, these second generation iPSCs produced viable chimeric mice and contributed to the mouse germline, thereby achieving the 'gold standard' for pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang's
  • Jeffrey Janus, president and director of research for ISC, agrees that "Dr. Hwang's cells have characteristics found in parthenogenetic cells" but remains cautious, saying "it needs more study. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Hwang's next claim came only two months later in April 1999, when he announced the cloning of a Korean cow, Jin-i, also without providing any scientifically verifiable data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until 2004, Hwang's main area of research remained in creating genetically modified livestock that included cows and pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until Hwang's claim, it was generally agreed that creating a human stem cell by cloning was next to impossible due to the complexity of primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • successfully
  • Human eggs, as it turns out, are considerably more fragile than eggs of other mammalian species, and they do not survive the procedures that were successfully used to clone animals. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • Embryogenic cell lines composed the collection bank, which will be successfully used for plantation forest growing. (deepdyve.com)
  • The result follows on the heels of an announcement last month by another California stem cell company, International Stem Cell Corporation (ISC) in Oceanside, that it had successfully achieved human parthenogenesis for the first time. (scientificamerican.com)
  • As the aforementioned procedures are of particularly low efficiency, there is a need to identify the cells that have been successfully transfected with the vector construct containing the desired insertion sequence in the required orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang first caught media attention in South Korea when he announced he successfully created a cloned dairy cow, Yeongrong-i in February 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2004, Hwang and his team announced that they had successfully created an embryonic stem cell with the somatic cell nuclear transfer method, and published their paper in the March 12 issue of Science. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiment
  • Further, cell lines can change genetically over multiple passages, leading to phenotypic differences among isolates and potentially different experimental results depending on when and with what strain isolate an experiment is conducted. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Ca V 2.2 currents in cell lines and in sympathetic neurons expressing only e18a-Ca V 2.2 are larger compared to currents from those expressing only Δ18a-Ca V 2.2. (eneuro.org)
  • By independent approaches, we show that e18a regulates the overall activity of Ca V 2.2 channels in cell lines and in neurons. (eneuro.org)
  • Cell-specific factors determine when and which Ca V channel isoforms are expressed in a given cell type, our data establish Rbfox2 as a regulator of Ca V 2.2 channel currents in neurons. (eneuro.org)
  • Because they can propagate indefinitely, as well as give rise to every other cell type in the body (such as neurons, heart, pancreatic, and liver cells), they represent a single source of cells that could be used to replace those lost to damage or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • Stem cell--based therapies propose to treat human medical conditions by replacing cells that have been lost through disease or injury. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • Unlike an organ transplant, where a damaged or diseased tissue is removed and then replaced with a comparable organ from a donor, stem cell therapies would involve integration of replacement cells into the existing tissues of the patient. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • biotechnology
  • Immortalised cell lines have also found uses in biotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scott K. Dessain, MD, PhD, is an American oncologist, research scientist, biotechnology entrepreneur and professor who developed a technique for generating native human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) using B cells drawn from human tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • As a result, the cells had abnormal numbers of chromosomes, limiting their use. (omicsonline.org)
  • In their paper, Daley and colleagues report that the SNPs in the Korean cell line do indeed match toward the center of the chromosomes, similar to five parthenogenetic mouse cell lines that the team created for comparison. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Normal egg cells form after meiosis and are haploid, with half as many chromosomes as their mother's body cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diploidy might be restored by the doubling of the chromosomes without cell division before meiosis begins or after meiosis is completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • The original method was by transfer of fragments of the human genome to ultraviolet light (UV)-sensitive mutant cell lines derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because they contain foreign DNA fragments, these are transgenic or genetically modified microorganisms (GMO). (wikipedia.org)
  • siRNA
  • PHD2 silencing in endothelial cells recapitulated the proangiogenic effects of lactate, whereas a blocking IL-8 antibody or IL-8-targeting siRNA prevented them. (aacrjournals.org)
  • potentially
  • Thus, the problem of immune rejection is of particular concern--if transplanted cells are attacked by the immune system, the entire tissue in which the foreign cells reside becomes the target of a potentially disastrous immune attack. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • Since embryonic stem cells have the ability to form virtually any cell type in the body, those taken from a cloned embryo could potentially be used to treat many diseases. (nih.gov)
  • commonly
  • Failure of radiotherapy for treatment of neoplastic disease is commonly caused by the presence of radioresistant cells. (logoburg.com)
  • Aside from temperature and gas mixture, the most commonly varied factor in culture systems is the cell growth medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • cDNA
  • overexpressed a human cDNA library in S. cerevisiae, and screened for genes that simultaneously affected cell cycle and cell polarity controls, inducing a filamentous yeast budding phenotype, and thus identified the HEF1 protein (Human Enhancer of Filamentation 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmid
  • In molecular cloning, a vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed (e.g.- plasmid, cosmid, Lambda phages). (wikipedia.org)
  • These plasmid are generally non-conjugative but may have many more features, notably a "multiple cloning site" where multiple restriction enzyme cleavage sites allow for the insertion of a transgene insert. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic stem
  • this approach has been championed as an answer to the many issues concerning embryonic stem cells (ESC) and the destruction of viable embryos for medical use, though questions remain on how homologous the two cell types truly are. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastocyst stage is developed by the egg which helps to create embryonic stem cells from inner cell mass of the blastocyst.The first animal that is developed by this technique is Dolly, the sheep in 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated cells of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, the University of California San Francisco, the Oregon Health & Science University, Stemagen (La Jolla, CA) and possibly Advanced Cell Technology are currently researching a technique to use somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Customers obtain a clonal HAP1 cell line, bearing a frameshift mutation in an exon of the gene of interest. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is found in rod cells in the back of the eye and is essential for vision in low-light conditions. (genecards.org)
  • Resulting iPSCs were further characterized and deemed free of transfected DNA, integrated transgene DNA, and lack detectable gene rearrangements such as those within the immunoglobulin heavy chain and T cell receptor loci of more differentiated cell types. (jove.com)
  • Potential uses of human iPSCs include modeling pathogenesis of human genetic diseases, autologous cell therapy after gene correction, and personalized drug screening by providing a source of patient-specific and symptom relevant cells. (jove.com)
  • Hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34 also known as CD34 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD34 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 9 (NEDD-9) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEDD9 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • cloned the gene encoding a protein hyperphosphorylated following ligation of β1-integrins in T cells and hypothesized to play a role in the process of T cell costimulation, designating this gene Cas-L (Crk-associated substrate-related protein, Lymphocyte type). (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenesis is the same as gene therapy in the sense that they both transform cells for a specific purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, they are completely different in their purposes, as gene therapy aims to cure a defect in cells, and transgenesis seeks to produce a genetically modified organism by incorporating the specific transgene into every cell and changing the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1978, yeast cells were the first eukaryotic organisms to undergo gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription of the cloned gene is a necessary component of the vector when expression of the gene is required: one gene may be amplified through transcription to generate multiple copies of mRNAs, the template on which protein may be produced through translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In squamous cell carcinoma, a protein from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is often overexpressed in conjunction with polysomy of chromosome 7, so chromosome 7 can be used to predict the presence of EGFR in squamous cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mutant 1716 lacks both copies of the ICP34.5 gene, and as a result is no longer able to replicate in terminally differentiated and non-dividing cells but will infect and cause lysis very efficiently in cancer cells, and this has proved to be an effective tumour-targeting strategy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Cell Death and Disease (2018) 9:471 Page 2 of 13 apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1), and murine molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of meta- protein serine-threonine kinase 38 (MPK38)/maternal bolic homeostasis by TGF-β signaling remain poorly 1,7,8 embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) , suggesting understood. (deepdyve.com)
  • Conversely, under other circumstances CD34 has been shown to act as molecular "Teflon" and block mast cell, eosinophil and dendritic cell precursor adhesion, and to facilitate opening of vascular lumina. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the early 2000s, Indian scientists from the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad, proposed a plan to clone Asiatic cheetahs obtained from Iran. (wikipedia.org)
  • This atypical molecular pattern includes the coexpression of cell surface markers clusters of differentiation 5 (CD5) and 23. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • McCauley LK , Rosol TJ, Merryman JI, Capen CC. Parathyroid hormone-related protein binding to human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-infected lymphocytes. (dentisty.org)
  • Merryman JI, Rosol TJ, McCauley LK , Werkmeister JR, Suter MM , Capen CC. Regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein production by a squamous carcinoma cell line in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • Secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein by bovine mammary cells in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Regulation of retinoblastoma protein and Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers . (genecards.org)
  • Cotransfection of an episome that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) allows for easy identification of transfected cells. (jove.com)
  • NEDD9 is a noncatalytic scaffolding protein that contains docking sites for proteins involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, regulating magnitude and duration of cell signaling cascades The overall structure of NEDD9 is represented graphically in Figure 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor cell
  • Briefly, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are isolated from routine phlebotomy samples and then cultured in defined growth factors to yield a highly proliferative erythrocyte progenitor cell population that is remarkably amenable to reprogramming. (jove.com)
  • eukaryotic cell
  • A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Introduction cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, The identification of a growing list of intracellular extracellular matrix remodeling, immune functions, and kinases that phosphorylate Smad proteins suggests that tumor metastasis. (deepdyve.com)
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results showed that there are special proteins (lectins) present on the zeospheres of the fungi which recognize specific sugar moieties upon the algal cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • of TRPC decreased the cell routine S stage and cell migration, implicating an operating function for TRP-mediated Ca2+ entrance in cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • somatic
  • The technique consists of taking an enucleated oocyte (egg cell) and implanting a donor nucleus from a somatic (body) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a technique for cloning in which the nucleus of a somatic cell is transferred to the cytoplasm of an enucleated egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of somatic cell nuclear transplant involves two different cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second being a somatic cell, referring to the cells of the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is left is a somatic cell and an denucleated egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are then fused by inserting the somatic cell into the 'empty' ovum. (wikipedia.org)
  • After being inserted into the egg, the somatic cell nucleus is reprogrammed by its host egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic cell nuclear transplantation has become a focus of study in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if a person with Parkinson's disease donated his or her somatic cells, the stem cells resulting from SCNT would have genes that contribute to Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenesis will therefore change the germ cells, not only the somatic cells, in order to ensure that the transgenes are passed down to the offspring when the organisms reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the amoeba, reproduction occurs by cell division of the parent cell: first the nucleus of the parent divides into two and then the cell membrane also cleaves, becoming two "daughter" Amoebae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of the donor egg cell is removed and discarded, leaving it 'deprogrammed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Effects of hormones and cytokines on stimulation of adenylate cyclase and intracellular calcium concentration in human and canine periodontal ligament cells. (dentisty.org)
  • Dexamethasone enhances the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • This manuscript illustrates a protocol for efficiently creating integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from peripheral blood using episomal plasmids and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. (jove.com)
  • Once iPSC colonies exhibit typical human embryonic stem cell (hESC) morphology, they are gently transferred to individual iMEF-coated tissue culture plates for continued growth and expansion. (jove.com)
  • A few years ago, the establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) ushered in a new era in biomedicine. (jove.com)
  • Her son, the Sage of the Six Paths, was born with the ability to produce chakra by combining physical energy (身体エネルギー, shintai enerugī), drawn from the trillions of cells that make up the human body, and mental energy (精神エネルギー, seishin enerugī), gained through experience and meditation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human fertilization, a released ovum (a haploid secondary oocyte with replicate chromosome copies) and a haploid sperm cell (male gamete)-combine to form a single 2n diploid cell called the zygote. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a handful of the labs in the world are currently using SCNT techniques in human stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • eosinophils
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • What Does New Paper Mean for Future of Nuclear Transfer ES Cells? (ipscell.com)
  • Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease specific stem cell lines could then be studied in order to better understand the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or even organs for transplant into the specific patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • migration
  • Regardless of its mode of action, under all circumstances CD34, and its relatives podocalyxin and endoglycan, facilitates cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • And germline engineering of mitochondria crosses the line from using genetic engineering to fix our body parts into directly engineering the traits of our children. (ipscell.com)
  • They are found bound to the outer membrane of mitochondria in most cell types in the body. (genecards.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • the mitochondria in mammalian sperm are usually destroyed by the egg cell after fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • The diagnosis of CLL is based on the demonstration of an abnormal population of B lymphocytes in the blood, bone marrow, or tissues that display an unusual but characteristic pattern of molecules on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • Probably involved in the regulatory networks that define neural crest cell fate specification and determine mesoderm cell lineages in mammals. (genecards.org)
  • haploid
  • Most eukaryotic species are diploid, meaning they have two sets of chromosomes, whereas prokaryotes are haploid, containing a single chromosome in each cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis is typically based on blood tests finding high numbers of mature lymphocytes and smudge cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal B lymphocytes consist of a stew of different antibody-producing cells, resulting in a mixture of both kappa- and lambda-expressing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These B cells resemble normal lymphocytes under the microscope, although slightly smaller, and are fragile when smeared onto a glass slide, giving rise to many broken cells, which are called "smudge" or "smear" cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • Oncolytic viruses are thought not only to cause direct destruction of the tumour cells, but also to stimulate host anti-tumour immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was one of the first viruses to be adapted to attack cancer cells selectively, because it was well understood, easy to manipulate and relatively harmless in its natural state (merely causing cold sores) so likely to pose fewer risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Injection of CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells has been clinically applied to treat various diseases including Spinal Cord Injury, Liver Cirrhosis and Peripheral Vascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • The purpose of a vector which transfers genetic information to another cell is typically to isolate, multiply, or express the insert in the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • routine
  • Cell routine evaluation After removal of methanol, cells had been treated having a Coulter DNA-Prep reagent package (Beckman-Coulter, France). (cancercurehere.com)
  • Most people are diagnosed without symptoms as the result of a routine blood test that shows a high white blood cell count. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD34
  • citation needed] CD34 is expressed in roughly 20% of murine hematopoietic stem cells, and can be stimulated and reversed. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitotic
  • After approximately 30 hours from the time of fertilization, fusion of the pronuclei and immediate mitotic division produce two 2n diploid daughter cells called blastomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmids
  • Plasmids are double-stranded and generally circular DNA sequences that are capable of automatically replicating in a host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone
  • It may also mediate the attachment of stem cells to bone marrow extracellular matrix or directly to stromal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some individuals, the disease comes to light only after the cancerous cells overwhelm the bone marrow resulting in anemia producing tiredness or weakness. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • The aim of carrying out this procedure is to obtain pluripotent cells from a cloned embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientist were able to develop other methods to perform the transformations, such as incorporating transgenes into retroviruses and then infecting cells, using electroinfusion which takes advantage of an electric current to pass foreign DNA through the cell wall, biolistics which is the procedure of shooting DNA bullets into cells, and also delivering DNA into the egg that has just been fertilized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor
  • Transforming growth factor-ß regulates steady state PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA levels and PTHrP binding in ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cells. (dentisty.org)
  • generate
  • The methodology to create induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) affords the opportunity to generate cells specific to the individual providing the host tissue. (jove.com)
  • normally
  • A Chlamydomonas zygote that contains chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from both parents, such cells generally are rare since normally cpDNA is inherited uniparental from the mt+ mating type parent.These rare biparental zygotes allowed mapping of chloroplast genes by recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • In seedless plants, the archegonium is usually flask-shaped, with a long hollow neck through which the sperm cell enters. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • In practice, this is inferred by the detection of only one of the mutually exclusive antibody light chains, kappa or lambda, on the entire population of the abnormal B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • The first oncolytic virus approved by a national regulatory agency is genetically not modified ECHO-7 strain enterovirus RIGVIR, approved in Latvia in 2004 for treatment of skin melanoma. (wikipedia.org)