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  • germ cells
  • In the absence of nos-1 and nos-2, germ cells cease proliferation at the end of the second larval stage, and die in a manner that is partially dependent on the apoptosis gene ced-4. (biologists.org)
  • 78:7634-7638, 1981) or from fetal germ cells (Matsui, et al. (google.es)
  • ectoderm
  • During gastrulation, the Drosophila mesoderm invaginates and forms a single cell layer in close juxtaposition to the overlying ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • Mouse ES cells cultured in non-attaching conditions aggregate and differentiate into simple embryoid bodies, with an outer layer of endoderm and an inner core of primitive ectoderm. (google.es)
  • tissue
  • Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales. (biologists.org)
  • types
  • Subsequently, particular cell types within the mesoderm are specified along the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes. (biologists.org)
  • The exact developmental pathways that guide the specification of different cell types within the mesoderm are not well understood. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, we present evidence from genetic analysis suggesting that, before stage 10 of embryogenesis, gonadal mesoderm and the fat body have not yet been specified as different cell types, but exist as a common pool of precursor cells requiring the functions of the tin, zfh-1 and cli genes for their development. (biologists.org)
  • For example, a hematopoietic stem cell may give rise to any of the different types of terminally differentiated blood cells. (google.es)
  • maintain
  • nos-1 is expressed in PGCs after gastrulation, and is required redundantly with nos-2 to prevent PGCs from dividing in starved animals and to maintain germ cell viability during larval development. (biologists.org)
  • Mouse ES cells maintain an undifferentiated state through serial passages when cultured in the presence of fibroblast feeder layers in the presence of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) (Williams, et al. (google.es)
  • embryo
  • At the time of implantation, the early mouse embryo consists of three distinct cell lineages: the epiblast (EPI), primitive endoderm (PrE), and trophectoderm (TE). (springer.com)
  • In the preimplantation mouse embryo, TEAD4 is critical to establishing the trophectoderm (TE)-specific transcriptional program and segregating TE from the inner cell mass (ICM). (pnas.org)
  • The embryo begins as a yolk with a single enormous cell on top (see image, 0 h panel), which divides into two (0.75 h panel) and continues dividing until there are thousands of small cells (3.25 h panel). (wikipedia.org)
  • Epiboly is a cell movement that occurs in the early embryo, at the same time as gastrulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epiboly in zebrafish is the first coordinated cell movement, and begins once the embryo has completed the blastula stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this point the zebrafish embryo contains three portions, an epithelial monolayer known as the enveloping layer (EVL), a yolk syncytial layer (YSL) which is a membrane-enclosed group of nuclei that lie on top of the yolk cell, and the deep cells (DEL) of the blastoderm which will eventually form the embryo's three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastoderm begins to thin as it spreads toward the vegetal pole of the embryo until it has completely engulfed the yolk cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early divisions within the leech embryo result in teloblast cells, which are stem cells that divide asymmetrically to create bandlets of blast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, the number of segments within the embryo is defined by the number of divisions and blast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the cells were effectively labeled, the agar chip could be removed and the embryo was allowed to develop normally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although innovative for the time, this technique is limiting in that the size of a chip of agar may not accommodate single-cell resolution studies at later stages of development, since successive cell divisions will yield smaller cells (until the embryo develops into a larval form that can eat, and thereby grow larger). (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the cell or cell population of interest must be superficial, since the agar chip with the dye must be placed on the surface of the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • ii) myofiber-associated non-myogenic and myogenic cells share the same muscle-bound primordial stem cells of a lineage distinct from bone marrow MSCs. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Notch1), and expression of distinct homing receptors separately contribute to confirmation of T cell identity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mature T cells with an αβ TCR are classified according to two major distinct subsets based on the mutually exclusive presence of the co-receptors CD4 and CD8, which play essential roles in recognition of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and I ligands, respectively, and in the recruitment of the tyrosine kinase Lck to the TCR complex. (sciencemag.org)
  • The information Vogt gathered from his tracing experiments of distinct cells and populations of cells in Xenopus was then pooled to construct a fate map. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shared and distinct transcriptional programs underlie the hybrid nature of iNKT cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • Yet, cell populations possess unique features that are absent or rare in organism populations (e.g. the presence of stem cells and a small number of generations since the zygote). (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The absence of immortal strand mechanism in crypts stem cells was validated by the age-dependent accumulation of microsatellite mutations. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Overall, our study demonstrates the reliability of cell lineage reconstruction for the study of stem cell dynamics, and it further addresses open questions in colon stem cells. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Lineage analysis of muscle-bound primordial stem cells from myofiber-associated myogenic and nonmyogenic progenitors. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • iii) these muscle-bound primordial stem-cells first part to individual muscles and then differentiate into myogenic and non-myogenic stem cells. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • During embryonic development, pluripotent stem cells differentiate into 3 germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. (qiagen.com)
  • These germ layers differentiate into multipotent stem cells (progenitors), which progress into terminally differentiated cells. (qiagen.com)
  • During embryonic development, pluripotent stem cells. (qiagen.com)
  • Interestingly, one of the few cases where a "fate" assay approaches a "potential" assay is in the case of hematopoietic stem cells, where extremely long assay times are conventionally used, extremely large numbers of progeny are generated before the end point, and the intermediates include highly motile cells that can sample an unusually large number of in vivo environments before differentiating as scored at the assay end point. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mouse mesenchymal stem cells can support human hematopoiesis both in vitro and in vivo: the crucial role of neural cell adhesion molecule. (labome.org)
  • A new assay method for late CFU-S formation and long-term reconstituting activity using a small number of pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells. (labome.org)
  • Stem Cells. (labome.org)
  • Stem Cells are cells in the body that can divide indefinitely in a culture and can be formulated into specialized cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ini the database, researchers can acquire information that can influence the expression(s) of stem cells, such information includes: experimental details such as time required, reagents, and the physical manipulations necessary to transition between cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • By having this information openly available to the public, it gives researchers a place to meet and share information that could possibly enhance the experimental success of stem cell research as well as provide techniques to influence stem cells down specific pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • One could go in and compare certain lineage factors between in vivo and in vitro, as well as look at what factors influence the stem cells down specific pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are other forms of Stem Cell Databases such as SyStemCell that is used to consolidate information gained by researchers focusing on stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, the SCLD has stem cell information for only human stem cells and mice stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only the teloplasm gets passed onto the daughter stem cells after cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TCM cells are thought to contain some properties associated with memory cells stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid
  • A CMP gives rise to the myeloid lineage, which comprises the rest of the leukocytes, the erythrocytes (red blood cells), and the megakaryocytes that produce platelets important in blood clotting. (genome.jp)
  • somatic
  • Our lab pioneered the concept, the mathematical foundations, as well as the implementation of utilizing somatic mutations naturally acquired by individual cells, to reconstruct cell lineage trees among cells of multi-cellular organisms and applied it to various questions of biological and medical importance. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • In particular, the reconstruction of a cell lineage tree, capturing the cell division history of organism cells, can be attempted by applying algorithms and techniques of population genetics to somatic mutations accumulated during cell division. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • We used extensive measurements of somatic mutations in individual single cells isolated from different healthy and diseased tissues from mice and humans. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • We applied a method for reconstructing cell lineage trees from somatic mutations to MSCs and myogenic and non-myogenic cells from individual myofiber that were cultured at clonal density. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • We analyze acquired somatic mutations to reconstruct lineage trees of hundreds of oocytes and other cells, sampled from mismatch-repair deficient mice at various ages. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • In the current study, a high-throughput method that utilizes neutral somatic mutations accumulated in individual cells to reconstruct cell lineage trees was applied to hundreds of cells of human acute leukemia harvested from multiple patients at diagnosis and at relapse. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Other organisms, such as humans, have variable lineages and somatic cell numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila melanogaster, for instance, they provided evidence that male courtship behavior originates in the brain, that males can distinguish conspecific females from males by the scent of the posterior, dorsal, integument of females, that the germ cells originate in the posterior-most region of the blastoderm, and that somatic components of the gonads originate in the mesodermal region of the fourth and fifth abdominal segment. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • They later received the 2002 Nobel prize for their work in genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perhaps the most popular method of cell fate mapping in the genetic era is through site-specific recombination mediated by the Cre-Lox or FLP-FRT systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the system, researchers could investigate the function of their favorite gene in determining cell fate by designing a genetic model where within a cell one recombination event is designed for manipulating the gene of interest and the other recombination event is designed for activating a reporter gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, researchers have begun using synthetic biology approaches and the CRISPR/Cas9 system to engineer new genetic systems that enable cells to autonomously record lineage information in their own genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic cell lineage tracing became an extremely powerful approach when Nat Sternberg and Daniel Hamilton identified a topoisomerase in P1 bacteriophage called Cre recombinase, which has site-specific (loxP site) recombination activity (1981). (wikipedia.org)
  • Several groups of collaborating computational biologists (Regev & Koller) used the data to reverse-engineer the genetic regulatory network in immune cells, and compare it to the human immune system An initial survey of differential splicing across immune lineages was carried out using both microarrays and RNA-sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • We discovered that in the reconstructed lineage trees oocytes cluster distinctly from cells of bone marrow origin, show no lineage barrier between ovaries and increase in depth (number of cell divisions since the zygote) with mouse age, an increase accelerated after unilateral ovariectomy. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Studies here finally demonstrate that individual HSCs sorted from adult bone marrow and transferred to lethally irradiated recipients clearly give rise to B-2, MZ B, and B-1b, but does not detectably reconstitute B-1a cells. (pnas.org)
  • The mb1 gene encodes the Ig-α signaling subunit of the B cell antigen receptor and is expressed exclusively in B cells beginning at the very early pro-B cell stage in the bone marrow. (pnas.org)
  • It is strongly expressed in the B cell lineage beginning at the very early pro-B cell stage in the bone marrow and continues to be expressed in all later stages except plasma cells ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • receptors
  • This process involves three levels of regulatory change, in which the cells' intrinsic transcriptional regulatory factors, expression of signaling receptors (e.g. (jimmunol.org)
  • The choice is mediated by adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors on the cells that can bias migration to particular microenvironments, and these "traffic control" molecules are themselves developmentally regulated. (jimmunol.org)
  • The T cell antigen receptor (TCR) serves as a paradigm for how membrane receptors transmit signals to the cytoplasm because it controls many aspects of T cell differentiation and function by detecting atom-sized variations in the quality of the ligand that is recognized. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mature CD4 + and CD8 + T cells derive from a common precursor in the thymus, a double-positive (DP) thymocyte, which has both co-receptors. (sciencemag.org)
  • These memory T cells lack lymph node-homing receptors and are thus found in the peripheral circulation and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • The development of cells within a multi-cellular organism has similarities to the development of populations, and hence is amenable to study using concepts and tools of population genetics. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • In contrast, B-1a cells are relatively well reconstituted by transfers of HSC populations sorted from "neonatal" BM (2.5 wk of age), although the sorted cells still predominantly reconstitute B-2 and B-1b ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Importantly, however, because the Dorshkind studies are based on transfers of sorted HSC populations (roughly 1,000 sorted cells per recipient), they are not informative with respect to the potential of individual HSCs in the transferred population to give rise to each of the B-cell subsets (B-1a, B-1b, B-2, and MZ). (pnas.org)
  • Although most information is currently based on observations in the cytotoxic T cells (CD8-positive) subset, similar populations appear to exist for both the helper T cells (CD4-positive) and the cytotoxic T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of August 2016, Immgen has profiled more than 250 naive cell populations in the mouse using microarrays, and several dozens of activated cell types using RNA-sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Due to the ethical constraints of conducting stem cell research on humans, the use of mice has been for advances in this field of study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, MS channels have been found in cells from bacteria to humans: they are now known to be present in all three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya, incl. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for cell lineage research that enable analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
  • This new assay method using a small number of cells would be of great advantage for clarifying which cells are truly P-HSCs. (labome.org)
  • tissues
  • In autoimmune disease, a deficiency of regulatory T cell activity can allow other autoimmune cells to attack the body's own tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early embryologists thus had to infer which cells became what tissues at later stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • leech
  • In 1978, David Weisblat and colleagues in Gunther Stent's lab at Berkeley improved the technique of single-cell resolution fate mapping by injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme, and later fluorescent peptides (1980), into individual cells in Helobdella triserialis (leech) embryos during early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • This means that all T cells are to a certain extent self-reactive-that is, they react to MHC molecules found on cells of the same individual. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mature αβ T cells belong to two major types: CD4 + T cells, which recognize antigenic peptides presented by MHC class II molecules, and CD8 + T cells, which recognize antigenic peptides presented by MHC class I molecules. (sciencemag.org)
  • These findings suggest that neural cell adhesion molecules expressed on FMS/PA6-P cells play a crucial role in the human hematopoiesis-supporting ability of the cell line. (labome.org)
  • The Foxp3 gene is also known to convert naïve T-cells to Treg cells, which are capable of an in vivo and in vitro suppressive capabilities suggesting that Foxp3 is capable of regulating the expression of suppression-mediating molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many other molecules involved in cell-cell contact are implicated in zebrafish epiboly, including G alpha (12/13) which interacts with E-Cadherin and actin, as well as the cell adhesion molecule EpCam in the EVL, which may modulate adhesion with the underlying deep cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of fluorescent peptides such as Rhodamine-D-protein (red, RDP) and Fluorescein-D-protein (yellow/green, FDP) conjugated to large carrier molecules to prevent diffusion through cell gap junctions, alleviated several of the shortcomings of HRP injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen-specific memory T cells against viruses or other microbial molecules can be found in both TCM and TEM subsets. (wikipedia.org)
  • two highly related effector memory sub-types, which strongly express genes for molecules essential to the cytotoxic function of CD8 T cells: effector memory (TEM) effector memory RA (TEMRA) More recently, antigen-experienced CD8+ T cells with apparent self-renewal capabilities have been described in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • specification
  • The best understood of these signals are effects of Notch1 engagement with Delta ligands provided in the environment of the thymus, which are needed for T cell specification throughout the lineage-choice process and only become dispensable after T cell fate is confirmed ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, differential function of TEAD4 rather than expression itself regulates specification of the first two cell lineages. (pnas.org)
  • We propose that altered subcellular localization of TEAD4 in blastomeres dictates first mammalian cell fate specification. (pnas.org)
  • precursors
  • Precursors undertaking T cell development shed their access to other pathways in a sequential process that begins before entry into the thymus and continues through many cell cycles afterward. (jimmunol.org)
  • Each alternative potential has a different underlying molecular basis that is neutralized and then permanently silenced through different mechanisms in early T cell precursors. (jimmunol.org)
  • When hematopoietic precursors are adoptively transferred i.v., the protocol, in effect, "hands over" to the grafted cells themselves the ultimate choice of the environment into which they will lodge. (jimmunol.org)
  • We asked whether expression of the cre recombinase from the murine mb-1 locus would provide an even more efficient model for studying gene function specifically in B cell precursors. (pnas.org)
  • The O and P teloblasts are specified from two separate but identical precursors, which form an equivalence group These two precursor cells are termed O/P cells for their ability to become either O or P teloblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of cell-cell interactions, the O/P precursors will become O teloblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • The recognition of ligand by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the activation of intracellular signaling pathways have led to the coining of such terms as "positive selection," "negative selection," "serial triggering," "instructive process," and "kinetic signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • No other receptor, apart from the B cell antigen receptor, is confronted by such an intense scrutiny for fitness and signaling capabilities during cell differentiation. (sciencemag.org)
  • The ligand of the TCR for the majority of T cells (called αβ T cells) is another membrane protein found on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (sciencemag.org)
  • The mb1 gene encodes the Ig-α signaling subunit of the B cell antigen receptor ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • thus, the term antigen-experienced T cell is often applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Memory T cells have become "experienced" by having encountered antigen during a prior infection, encounter with cancer, or previous vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The single unifying theme for all memory T cell subtypes is that they are long-lived and can quickly expand to large numbers of effector T cells upon re-exposure to their cognate antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some have suggested that antigen-inexperienced memory T cells should be separated into 'innate memory' T cells and 'virtual memory' T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • MSCs
  • In specialized cells of the higher organisms, other types of MSCs are probably the basis of the senses of hearing and touch and sense the stress needed for muscular coordination. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsets
  • However, more detailed examination of the reconstituted B cells derived from HSCs taken at different times during development reveals differences in reconstitution efficiency for the four currently recognized murine B-cell subsets, [i.e. (pnas.org)
  • Interferon-alpha and interleukin-12 are induced differentially by Toll-like receptor 7 ligands in human blood dendritic cell subsets. (labome.org)
  • Virtual memory T cells= differ from the other memory subsets in that they do not originate following a strong clonal expansion event. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptional
  • Our analyses revealed an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, in which lack of nuclear localization of TEAD4 impairs the TE-specific transcriptional program in inner blastomeres, thereby allowing their maturation toward the ICM lineage. (pnas.org)
  • epithelium
  • We gained new data demonstrating that colon epithelium is clustered separately from hematopoietic and other cell types, indicating that the colon is constituted of few progenitors and ruling out significant renewal of colonic epithelium from hematopoietic cells during adulthood. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Comparisons of epiboly in amniotes, teleosts and X. laevis show that the key movement of epiboly in the fish and frog is radial intercalation while in amniotes it would appear to be cell division in the plane of the epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Helobdella triserialis), the provisional epithelium covering the cells plays a role in inducing the O fate. (wikipedia.org)
  • yolk
  • The cells then migrate down the sides of the yolk (8 h panel) and begin forming a head and tail (16 h panel). (wikipedia.org)
  • Once epiboly is complete, the DEL, EVL, and YSL have engulfed the yolk cell, forming a closure known as the blastopore. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ring-like structures of filamentous actin have been observed at the leading edge of the enveloping layer, where it contacts the yolk cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vogt used small chips of agar impregnated with a vital dye, (such as Nile Blue or Nile Red) which he placed on a particular cell or population of cells in Xenopus embryos until the dye absorbed into the yolk platelets within the desired cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • These approaches promise to provide more comprehensive analysis of lineage relationships in model organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • All organisms, and apparently all cell types, sense and respond to mechanical stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • zebrafish
  • Additionally, zebrafish embryos that fail to make a fully differentiated EVL show defects in epibolic movements of the DEL, EVL, and YSL, suggesting a requirement for a normal EVL for the epiboly of all three cell layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • The Human Cell Differentiation & Development miScript miRNA PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 miRNAs differentially expressed during cellular differentiation and organism development. (qiagen.com)
  • Avilion AA, Nicolis SK, Pevny LH, Perez L, Vivian N, Lovell-Badge R (2003) Multipotent cell lineages in early mouse development depend on SOX2 function. (springer.com)
  • In the B cell system there are several transgenic mouse lines available that express cre in defined stages of B lymphocyte development. (pnas.org)
  • A reduction or loss of Dnmt1 activity has a drastic effect on cell function and, depending on the system, can lead to inhibition of DNA replication ( 14 ), T cell lymphoma ( 15 ), alterations in T cell development ( 16 ), and embryonic lethality ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • The results presented here show that SRp20 and Dnmt1 are essential for B cell development and/or survival and that cre recombinase activity in the mb1-cre line is efficient and primarily restricted to the B lineage. (pnas.org)
  • A member of the FOX protein family, FOXP3 appears to function as a master regulator of the regulatory pathway in the development and function of regulatory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • During development, the N and Q bandlets, which eventually have 64 blast cells each, slide past the O,P,and M bandlet, which only have 32 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bilateral gynandromorphy arises very early in development, typically when the organism has between 8 and 64 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This leads to one of the two cells having sex chromosomes that cause male development and the other cell having chromosomes that cause female development. (wikipedia.org)
  • If this happens early in development, then a large portion of the cells are X and a large portion are XYY. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ
  • Ikenishi K, Nishiumi F, Komiya T. The Xdsg protein in presumptive primordial germ cells (pPGCs) is essential to their differentiation into PGCs in Xenopus. (labome.org)
  • gene expression
  • The Stem Cell Lineage Database could help compare stem cell information around the world and eliminate taking a global gene expression profiling approach, which although sufficient, is not as effective as it could be. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoid organs
  • Transferring adult BM into lethally irradiated recipients readily reconstitutes B-2 and MZ, which represent the majority of the B cells in spleen and other lymphoid organs but only poorly reconstitute B-1 cells in the same recipients. (pnas.org)
  • epithelial
  • We have developed a method for single cell extraction of epithelial cells from single intestinal crypts using a modification of the crypt isolation technique. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • progeny
  • Signals from the surrounding cells act to specify which fate the teloblasts and their progeny take on. (wikipedia.org)
  • All progeny of the injected cells could later be discerned by staining for HRP using benzidine substrate or visualized by fluorescence microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fluorescent tracers could also be combined with nuclear Hoechst staining to visualize the mitotic status of the progeny of injected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • ChIP
  • For instance, in Figure 1, Nile Blue staining of a 32-cell blastula at the dorsal side of the animal pole yields a blue-stained brain and (depending on the size of the agar chip) may also stain the anterior portion of the notochord. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The Human Cell Lineage Identification RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes for cellular differentiation. (qiagen.com)
  • The results from a variety of reporter genes including the splicing factor SRp20 and the DNA methylase Dnmt1 suggest that mb1-cre is probably the best model so far described for pan-B cell-specific cre expression. (pnas.org)
  • To further test the mb1-cre line, we bred it to several different lines bearing floxed genes, some of which are believed to be essential genes in all cell types. (pnas.org)
  • With these cells, scientists will be able to better understand how these cells are differentiated by the process of turning on and off genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific to TRMs are genes involved in lipid metabolism, being highly active, roughly 20- to 30-fold more active than in other types of T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • they discovered genes controlling cytokinesis and found features previously thought specific to plant cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • This site also includes a dedicated data browser, with which users can interactively explore the expression profiles for particular genes, networks of co-regulated genes, and genes that best distinguish different cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proc Nat
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011;108:2010 †Leavenworth JW, †Wang X, Wenander CS, Spee P, Cantor H. Mobilization of natural killer cells inhibits development of collagen-induced arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011;108:14584 Leavenworth JW, Tang X, Kim HJ, Wang X, Cantor H. Amelioration of arthritis through mobilization of CD8+ regulatory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:8506-8510 (1988) v-cbl, a new oncogene from a dual-recombinant murine retrovirus that induced early B-lineage lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:1168-1172 (1989) Transformation of murine bone marrow cells with a raf/myc retrovirus yields clonally related mature B cells and macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • Thus, because of their CD34+ expression, such undifferentiated cells can be sorted out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the best feature of the data lineage view would be to be able to simplify the view by temporarily masking unwanted peripheral data points. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, data lineage can be broadly divided into three categories based on the way metadata is harvested: data lineage involving software packages for structured data, programming languages, and big data. (wikipedia.org)
  • This galectin is strongly overexpressed in Hodgkin's disease tissue and it might participate in the interaction between the H&RS cells with their surrounding cells and might thus play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease and/or its consistently associated immunodeficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • limbs
  • 7. Little Bangs: Wings and Other Revolutionary Inventions This chapter explains how evolution goes to work within a lineage, specialising arthropod limbs from all being alike to "all of the different implements a humble crayfish carries", with (he writes) more gizmos than a Swiss Army knife. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • The inner layer is mainly composed of two cell types, specialized macrophages (macrophage-like synovial cells) and fibroblast-like synoviocytes, which are important in maintaining the internal joint homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Mice deficient for Mxd3 show increased sensitivity of neuronal and lymphoid cells to gamma-radiation induced apoptosis. (uniprot.org)
  • Experimental production of mice deprived of selected T-cell subclasses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hu D, †Ikizawa K, Lu L, Sanchirico ME, Shinohara ML, Cantor H. Analysis of regulatory CD8 cells in mice deficient in the Qa-1 class Ib molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nature 2010;467:328 Kim, H-J, Wang X, Radfar S, Sproule TJ, Roopenian DC, Cantor H. CD8+ T regulatory cells express the Ly49 class I MHC receptor and are defective in autoimmune prone B6-Yaa mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer Res 46:6246-6429 (1986) Evolution of B cell lineage lymphomas in mice with a retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome MAIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • Conversely, under other circumstances CD34 has been shown to act as molecular "Teflon" and block mast cell, eosinophil and dendritic cell precursor adhesion, and to facilitate opening of vascular lumina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injection of CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells has been clinically applied to treat various diseases including Spinal Cord Injury, Liver Cirrhosis and Peripheral Vascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • The mathematical relations that we have formulated can quantitatively determine how ablation of an oncogene's protein activity can result in apoptosis and/or a decrease in proliferation within a population of tumor cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • vertebrates
  • In lower vertebrates, the formation of ectoderm proceeds via a bipotent intermediate, definitive ectoderm, which differentiates to form the two major ectodermal lineages: surface ectoderm and neurectoderm ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • While SINEs are present in many species of vertebrates and invertebrates, SINEs are often lineage specific, making them useful markers of divergent evolution between species. (wikipedia.org)
  • transient
  • Recognition and analysis of these transient cell populations has been hampered by technical difficulties in accessing them in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • mammalian
  • the mitochondria in mammalian sperm are usually destroyed by the egg cell after fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alexander Friedenstein and his colleagues first identified osteoprogenitor cells in multiple mammalian tissues, before any genetic or morphological criteria were put in place for bone marrow or connective tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptive
  • Plants have been evolving for at least 450 million years, and based on their major adaptive features, four major plant lineages (taxonomic groups) are currently recognized. (psu.edu)
  • specificity
  • These cleptoparasitic bees are host generalists and belong to an ancient lineage of parasites that uniquely shares no specificity with any nonparasitic halictine taxa. (wikipedia.org)
  • divergence
  • The population divergence of modern humans from the Denisovan/Neanderthal lineage is more recent, between 170,000 and 700,000 years according to a more recent - and much deeper -sequencing of the above Denisovan fossil , so many loci will have persisted at fluctuating frequencies in all three lineages. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Phocids (earless seals) are known to have existed for at least 15 mya, and molecular evidence supports a divergence of the Monachinae (monk seals) and Phocinae lineages 22 mya. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • Unlike fibroblasts, fibroblast-like synoviocytes also secrete unique proteins, that are normally absent in other fibroblast lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • We hypothesize that a cell's phenotypic entropy is determined as a function of the survival fraction or proliferation rate of a tumor ;and also, the number of transformed and differentiated states that arise within a particular cell population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • surface
  • Right) For the same tube, the same populations were visualized on the basis of right-angle light scatter ( y axis) versus the level of cell surface CD33-PE expression ( x axis). (asmscience.org)
  • in a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • It does not float freely, like the trailing flagella of Dinema and Entosiphon, but adheres to the outside of the cell membrane, in a groove along its ventral surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boyse EA, Old LJ, Stockert E. An approach to the mapping of antigens on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their distance in relation to the nearest epithelial surface will determine the cell lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • determines
  • The scope of the data lineage determines the volume of metadata required to represent its data lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually, data governance, and data management determines the scope of the data lineage based on their regulations, enterprise data management strategy, data impact, reporting attributes, and critical data elements of the organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • trace
  • The fact that mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited enables genealogical researchers to trace maternal lineage far back in time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data lineage provides visibility while greatly simplifying the ability to trace errors back to the root cause in a data analytics process. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Even though the final representation of data lineage is provided in one interface but the way the metadata is harvested and exposed to the data lineage graphical user interface could be entirely different. (wikipedia.org)
  • Klinken's research interests include the regulation of red blood cell formation, and the ability of leukemic cells to develop different features and functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • migration
  • Regardless of its mode of action, under all circumstances CD34, and its relatives podocalyxin and endoglycan, facilitates cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts (or "immature plasma cells"), and eventually plasma cells, and begin producing large volumes of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmablasts secrete more antibodies than B cells, but less than plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They secrete high levels of antibodies, ranging from hundreds to thousands of antibodies per second per cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, plasma cells will likely secrete IgG3 antibodies if they matured in the presence of the cytokine interferon-gamma . (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocyte
  • This experimental approach was also used to investigate other lymphocyte populations, including "natural killer" cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morphological
  • Morphological plasticity, incrustation of the cell wall with melanins and presence of other protective substances like carotenoids and mycosporines represent passive physiological adaptations which enable black fungi to be highly resistant against environmental stresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • These 440 base pairs are then compared to the control regions of other individuals (either specific people or subjects in a database) to determine maternal lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the granularity increases it goes up to the data point level where it can provide the details of the data point and its historical behavior, attribute properties, and trends and data quality of the data passed through that specific data point in the data lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Masking feature in the data lineage visualization allows the tools to incorporate all the enrichments that matter for the specific use case. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • Antagonizes MYC transcriptional activity by competing for MAX and suppresses MYC dependent cell transformation. (uniprot.org)