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  • mitochondrial
  • EMVs released from H/R-treated cells caused a substantially increased mitochondrial and cellular damage to normal HUVECs after 4 hours of coculture. (hindawi.com)
  • Adult-onset and long-term CR in mice promoted increased Sirt1 expression in aged kidney and attenuated hypoxia-associated mitochondrial and renal damage by enhancing BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3-dependent (Bnip3-dependent) autophagy. (jci.org)
  • The reduced levels of glycolytic enzymes in PKG-expressing cells relative to control cells was associated with reduced glycolysis, mitochondrial activity, and cellular ATP levels under hypoxic conditions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Studies have also found that excess NO production by hypoxia can result in mitochondrial ROS increase by inhibiting mitochondrial electron transport chain function, which in turn promotes peroxynitrite formation and cell apoptosis [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • On the other hand, hypoxia may modulate NO production by regulating intracellular calcium which is important for Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent eNOS and nNOS activity, and NO increase in turn may inhibit mitochondrial complex IV [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • hypoxic conditions
  • A Mann Whitney U test showed that there was a significant difference in ARPE-19 growth between normoxic and hypoxic conditions when the culture media was supplemented with Minocycline at concentrations between 2μM and 10μM at all points of the cell growth curve. (arvojournals.org)
  • Excess BMP-2 is also linked with production of brown fat cells that stimulate hypoxic conditions in heterotopic ossification. (ahajournals.org)
  • The U251, U87, T98G, LN18 or D54 glioma cells were either grown under normoxic or hypoxic conditions for 1 week. (plos.org)
  • Recent reports demonstrated the increased motility of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) grown under hypoxic conditions compared to normoxic cells. (7thspace.com)
  • upregulation
  • Hypoxia caused sustained upregulation of several proapoptotic proteins known to mediate hypoxia-induced apoptosis, such as Bnip3 and Nix, but others were unchanged although they were reportedly hypoxia-sensitive in other cell types. (hindawi.com)
  • This response involves the upregulation of FGF/Branchless in hypoxic tissues, which binds its receptor Breathless on tracheal cells. (uzh.ch)
  • neuroblastoma
  • regularization framework unmasks the hypoxia signature hidden in the transcriptome of a set of heterogeneous neuroblastoma cell lines," BMC Genomics , vol. 10, p. 474, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Recruitment of HIF-1 α and HIF-2 α to common target genes is differentially regulated in neuroblastoma: HIF-2 α promotes an aggressive phenotype," Cancer Cell , vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 413-423, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • enhances
  • We propose that the autonomous response to hypoxia that occurs in tracheal cells enhances tracheal sensitivity to increasing Branchless levels, and that this mechanism is a cardinal step in hypoxia-dependent tracheal sprouting. (uzh.ch)
  • Furthermore, when CK1δ-dependent phosphorylation of HIF-2α was inhibited, we observed significant cytoplasmic mislocalization of HIF-2α, which was reversed upon addition of the nuclear protein export inhibitor Leptomycin B. Taken together these data suggest that CK1δ enhances EPO secretion from liver cancer cells under hypoxia by modifying HIF-2α and promoting its nuclear accumulation. (biologists.org)
  • markedly
  • Bax, Bak, and Bid expression in these clones was similar to that in wild-type cells, whereas Bcl-2 expression was higher in all the selected clones and, interestingly, Bcl-xL was markedly upregulated in the most death-resistant clones. (nih.gov)
  • Results: We found that hMSC cultured in hypoxia demonstrate markedly higher targeted migration activity compared to normoxic cells, particularly towards wound healing cytokines, including those found in ischemic and myocardial infarction. (7thspace.com)
  • surrogate
  • Using fluorescence immunohistochemical techniques, we provide data on the presence, distribution, and levels of EF5 binding as a surrogate for hypoxia in human head and neck and uterine cervix squamous cell cancers (SCCs). (aacrjournals.org)
  • proteins
  • Antiapoptotic proteins Bcl2 and Bcl-xL were unchanged by hypoxia. (hindawi.com)
  • Calcified human aortic valves (n=14, mean age 65±15) were immunohistochemically stained for proteins involved in matrix remodeling, hypoxia, and cell differentiation. (ahajournals.org)
  • accumulation
  • Electron accumulation also interferes with the activity of the sodium- potassium pump, allowing potassium to flood into extra cellular spaces and sodium and water to enter the cell, in turn causing cellular edema and possible rupture. (wisegeek.com)
  • Furthermore, the kidneys of aged Sirt1+/- mice were resistant to CR-mediated improvement in the accumulation of damaged mitochondria under hypoxia. (jci.org)
  • Injury
  • Injury and illnesses can initiate cell hypoxia. (wisegeek.com)
  • To investigate the protective effect of emulsified isoflurane (EI) preconditioning on isolated rat Kupffer cells (KCs) subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced injury. (medsci.org)
  • Wang Z, Lv H, Song S, Shen X, Yang L, Yu W. Emulsified Isoflurane Preconditioning Protects Isolated Rat Kupffer Cells against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Injury. (medsci.org)
  • Subcellular fractions of cells treated with vehicle control, 1 μ M SCU, HR injury, or 1 μ M SCU + HR injury were separated by ultracentrifugation. (hindawi.com)
  • Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs), released after endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis or activation, may carry many adverse signals and propagate injury by intercellular transmission. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent evidence has indicated EMVs and caveolae may have functional effects in cells undergoing H/R injury. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, we conclude that inhibition of caveolae contributes to propofol preconditioning-suppressed microvesicles release and cell injury by H/R. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present study, 80 clones were isolated from the selected cells and their response to apoptotic injury was characterized. (nih.gov)
  • The cell clones that most consistently demonstrated resistance or sensitivity to injury were further studied for their response to azide treatment. (nih.gov)
  • serum
  • ARPE-19 cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin and streptomycin and seeded onto 6 well plates at a concentration of 5 X 10 4 cells per well. (arvojournals.org)
  • exposure
  • Most animals experience some degree of hypoxia and hypothermia during the course of their natural life history either as a consequence of ambient 'exposure' per se or through metabolic, respiratory and/or circulatory insufficiency. (biologists.org)
  • Like humans, most mammals possess little naturally evolved tolerance to severe hypoxia or hypothermia, and their excitable cells and tissues are normally debilitated by any prolonged exposure to either condition. (biologists.org)
  • Exposure to hypoxia induced a 12-fold increase in expression in transfected primary mouse Muller cells and a 15-fold increase in the M10M1 Muller cell line. (arvojournals.org)
  • protective
  • Having no protective membrane, the cell dies, causing cell wastes, enzymes and other chemicals to enter the bloodstream. (wisegeek.com)
  • Cells overexpressing GFP-Prdx6 or its mutant were also treated with 0 to 500 uM of cobalt, a hypoxia-mimetic, for 24 to72 h to assess the protective ability of Prdx6. (arvojournals.org)
  • overexpression
  • In nontracheal cells, Sima contributes to branchless induction, whereas overexpression of Sima fails to attract terminal branch outgrowth, suggesting that HIF-independent components are also required for full induction of the ligand. (uzh.ch)
  • concentrations
  • Whereas the time course of the latter is metered in minutes to hours, the ability to depress ATP turnover in a regulated fashion effectively delays the onset of cell death by stabilising concentrations of adenylates at new hypometabolic steady states for periods of hours or days ( Fig.1 ). (biologists.org)
  • Mitochondria
  • Mitochondria , the energy producing organelle within cells, loses membrane potential and quit producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wisegeek.com)
  • pathophysiological
  • Caveolae are 50-100 nm cell surface plasma membrane invaginations involved in many pathophysiological processes. (hindawi.com)
  • As hypoxic stress contributes to many (patho)biological disorders, this new role for HIF-1alpha in hypoxic control of cell growth and death may be of general pathophysiological importance. (nih.gov)
  • retina
  • Since Muller cells span the retina and secrete several trophic factors, it has been suggested that they would be excellent targets for gene therapy to the inner and outer retina. (arvojournals.org)
  • homolog
  • Coordinated activation of RhoA and RhoB maximized the hypoxia-induced stress fiber formation caused by RhoB/mammalian homolog of Drosophila diaphanous-induced actin polymerization and RhoA/Rho kinase-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain on Ser19. (diva-portal.org)
  • demonstrate
  • Mature and immature nodules within CAVD demonstrate evidence for hypoxia-, matrix-, and inflammatory cell-driven remodeling. (ahajournals.org)
  • These studies demonstrate substantial heterogeneity of in situ binding between and within individual squamous cell tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • efficacy
  • Both agents strongly protected tenocytes from hypoxia-induced death over 48 h, suggesting possible efficacy in the acute postrupture tendon or integrating graft. (hindawi.com)
  • cardiac
  • The primary causes of anoxia- or hypothermia-induced death in mammals are brain dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias due to a loss of ionic integrity of the cell membranes. (biologists.org)
  • role
  • The objective of this article is to discuss the role of HIFs in the function of innate and adaptive immune cells in hypoxia, with a focus on how hypoxia modulates immunometabolism. (mdpi.com)
  • irreversibly
  • By recourse to image analysis techniques, we characterize sickle RBC maturation stages in the following order of the degree of adhesion susceptibility under hypoxia: sickle reticulocytes in circulation (SRs) → sickle mature erythrocytes (SMEs) → irreversibly sickled cells (ISCs). (pnas.org)
  • Under hypoxia, some cells survive and others are irreversibly injured and die. (nih.gov)