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  • heterotypic cell
  • The syncytia of Utricularia developed through heterotypic cell fusion involving the digestion of the cell wall, and finally, heterokaryotic multinucleate structures were formed, which possessed different-sized nuclei that were not regularly arranged in the cytoplasm. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Using this method, up to around 6000 heterotypic cell pairs can be formed and addressed within a small area of 1 cm 2 . (rsc.org)
  • Abstract
  • Abstract -To investigate the still-undetermined role of the Ca 2+ -independent transient outward current ( I to1 ) on repolarization of the cardiac action potential, we used cell fusion to introduce I to1 into guinea pig cardiomyocytes, which normally lack this current. (ahajournals.org)
  • mammalian cells
  • 11 12 13 Further applications have included delivery of macromolecules to mammalian cells, manipulation of Na + /K + -ATPase isoforms in embryonic myocytes, investigation of the dynamics of organelle turnover and processing, and studies of a dominant regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Such studies require that the YAC of interest be transferred into a suitable expression system, such as mammalian cells in tissue culture or transgenic animals. (springer.com)
  • Huxley, C. (1994) Transfer of YACs to mammalian cells and transgenic mice, in Genetic Engineering (Setlow, J. K., ed. (springer.com)
  • Riley, J. H., Morten, J. E. N., and Anand, R. (1992) Targeted integration of neomycin into yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) for transfection into mammalian cells. (springer.com)
  • Demmer, L. A. and Chaplin, D. D. (1993) Simultaneous transfer of four functional genes from the HLA class II region into mammalian cells by fusion with yeast spheroplasts carrying an artificial chromosome. (springer.com)
  • 1993) New vector for transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes to mammalian cells. (springer.com)
  • Nonet, G. H. and Wahl, G. M. (1993) Introduction of YACs containing a putative mammalian replication origin into mammalian cells can generate structures that replicate autonomously. (springer.com)
  • Mechanism
  • The study, published online on April 23, 2015 in the journal Cell, outlines the complicated mechanism of communication between plant cells, where an unusual cell fusion induces selective elimination of the cell responsible for pollen tube attraction after successful fertilization. (innovations-report.com)
  • Although the role of synergid cells has been identified, we did not exactly know how the persistent synergid cell is degenerated and induces the polytubey block mechanism upon successful fertilization," says Daisuke Maruyama, an Assistant Professor at Nagoya University who is the first author and leader of this research. (innovations-report.com)
  • Thus, EFF-1 is a key component in the mechanism of cell fusion, a process essential to normal animal development. (nih.gov)
  • However, the responsible BM cells and underlying mechanism of regeneration remain unclear. (ahajournals.org)
  • As a first step towards elucidating the mechanism of fusion repression by tetraspanins, e.g. (mdpi.com)
  • Embryo
  • The mature ovule in most flowering plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, contains a seven-celled embryo sac consisting of two synergid cells, one egg cell, one central cell and three antipodal cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Flowering plants undergo double fertilization by penetration of the pollen tube through one of the synergid cells (degenerated synergid cell), followed by rupture of the pollen tube to discharge the two sperm cells into the embryo sac. (innovations-report.com)
  • The two sperm cells independently fertilize the egg cell and the central cell to produce the embryo and the endosperm (a tissue that surrounds and nourishes the embryo), respectively, which eventually develops into a seed. (innovations-report.com)
  • In Utricularia, the formation of the syncytium provides an economical way to redistribute cell components and release nutrients from the digested cell walls, which can now be used for the embryo, and finally to create a large surface for the exchange of nutrients between the placenta and endosperm. (biomedsearch.com)
  • hemifusion
  • Cells overexpressing CD9 were found to be sensitized to inhibitors targeting the pre-hairpin and hemifusion intermediates, while they were desensitized to an inhibitor of the pore expansion stage. (mdpi.com)
  • Together with the results of a microscopy-based dye transfer assay, which revealed CD9- and CD63-induced hemifusion arrest, our investigations strongly suggest that tetraspanins block HIV-1-induced cell-cell fusion at the transition from hemifusion to pore opening. (mdpi.com)
  • Electrofusion
  • Electrofusion is achieved by the generation of a proprietary 1 MHz AC waveform for benign dielectrophoretic cell alignment, microsecond switchover from AC to DC creates efficient fusion results. (btxonline.com)
  • progenitors
  • Cell-to-cell fusion (cell fusion) is a fundamental biological process that also has been used as a versatile experimental tool to dissect a variety of cellular mechanisms, including the consequences of cell fusion itself, and to produce cells with desired properties, such as hybridomas and reprogrammed progenitors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Since hematopoietic cells generated CMs, we next transplanted limiting numbers of purified HSCs and hematopoietic progenitors by cell sorting. (ahajournals.org)
  • To explore the hematopoietic lineage, we further transplanted purified myeloid progenitors and common lymphoid progenitors by cell sorting. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusion] Our results suggested that HSC can contribute to the post-natal generation of CMs via myeloid progenitors through cell fusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • populations
  • The results show that mating pair counts using both methods produce indistinguishable outcomes and that the flow cytometry-based method provides quantitative relevant information in a short time, making possible to quickly analyze many different cell populations. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this study, we checked the cardiomyogenic potential of BM cells in vivo , to identify the cell populations in BM that possess the capacity to give rise to CMs and clarify whether cardiomyogenic potential of BM-derived cells require cell fusion with host CMs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Similarly, the accurate analysis of the cell populations implicated in the regeneration of the dead tissue is complex and these factors together may account for the negative findings. (ahajournals.org)
  • transgenic
  • In organic farming, transgenic (between different biological families) GE is banned, but cisgenic (within the same species family) GE used in the cell fusion process is permitted under USDA organic regulations. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Cell fusion is a genetic engineering process in which the nucleus is removed from a plant cell and replaced by a nucleus from a different plant that might be from a different species or genera. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Growing non-hybrid seed is currently the most reliable way to avoid growing plants created via cell fusion genetic engineering. (motherearthnews.com)
  • I would like to see the release of a Safe Seed Pledge 2.0 which generally bans the use of cytoplasmic male sterility and specifically bans cell fusion genetic engineering. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Cell fusion genetic engineering allowed the creation of hybrid broccoli (and other brassicas) by combining a broccoli nucleus with radish organelles. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Other organic seed companies which have similarly adopted a policy of banning cell fusion-created F1 hybrid seeds, because company owners view the process as genetic engineering, are challenging the current USDA National Organic Program which permits cisgenic cell fusion hybrid seed in organic production. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • By international organic certification standards, cell fusion is classified as genetic engineering, but these standards established by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) are being ignored by the United States, Europe and other countries. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Methods
  • New methods of inducing fusion have been invented or discovered, and new applications for fusion have been found. (booktopia.com.au)
  • New Membrane Fusion Methods. (booktopia.com.au)
  • As donor organs and tissues for transplantation medicine are scarce, alternative methods for replacing damaged cells or restoring organ function are highly needed. (springer.com)
  • These include identifying the best cells to use for reparative fusion, determining the best route of introducing these cells into the desired tissue, discovering methods to increase the incidence of cell fusion, and ensuring the functionality of the resulting fusion products. (springer.com)
  • However, current methods of cell fusion are not satisfactory because of their toxicity, inefficiency, or lack of flexibility. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The 1 MHz AC pulse aligns cells together in real time, saving time (seconds vs. hours) in comparison to PEG methods. (btxonline.com)
  • suppresses
  • Although Kel1p overexpression suppresses a Cdc42p mutant that is defective for Fus2p binding, cell fusion remains dependent upon Fus2p . (genetics.org)
  • The inhibition of ERK5 activity suppresses muscle cell fusion with minimal effects on the expression of MyoD, MEF2, and their target genes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • inactivation
  • Through examination of Arabidopsis ovules by highly sensitive live-imaging, we were able to see that successful fertilization of the two female gametes triggers an unprecedented cell fusion between the persistent synergid cell and the endosperm (SE fusion), which eventually leads to inactivation of the persistent synergid cell. (innovations-report.com)
  • demonstrating the ability of bone
  • Introduction] Recent reports demonstrating the ability of bone marrow (BM) cells to regenerate cardiomyocytes (CMs) have prompted clinical as well as basic studies for the treatment of ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. (ahajournals.org)
  • structures
  • Within the infarct, in 10 days, nearly 4.5 million biochemically and morphologically differentiated myocytes together with coronary arterioles and capillary structures were generated independently of cell fusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • They include the development of coronary vessels that rescue hibernating myocardium, 11,12 de novo formation of myocytes 8,10 and vascular structures 4,8,9,12 or the activation and growth of resident progenitor cells via a paracrine effect 12 mediated by BMCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • novel
  • In a new study reported in Cell, scientists at WPI-ITbM, Nagoya University have examined the ovules of plant cells to reveal a novel cell-elimination system based on an unusual cell fusion. (innovations-report.com)
  • In a new study reported in Cell, an international group of plant biologists at ITbM, Nagoya University and other research institutes, have examined the ovules of plant cells by live-imaging to reveal a novel cell-elimination system based on an unusual cell fusion. (innovations-report.com)
  • Here, we describe a novel flow cytometric approach that is able to quickly both identify mating pairs within a mixture of gametes and quantify cell fusion efficiency. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We identified the gene eff-1, which is expressed as cells acquire fusion competence and encodes a novel integral membrane protein. (nih.gov)
  • This unique population of neoplastic cells provides a novel biomarker for tumor staging, as well as a potential therapeutic target for intervention. (nih.gov)
  • viruses
  • By manipulating the beta cells prior to fusion, scientists can create thousands of different hybridomas that produce antibodies effective against different viruses and diseases like cancer. (psychcentral.com)
  • differentiate
  • The cells of the body differentiate during development into many specialized types with specific tasks to perform. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recent studies in mice have challenged the ability of bone marrow cells (BMCs) to differentiate into myocytes and coronary vessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Several studies have suggested that adult bone marrow cells (BMCs) can differentiate into cell lineages distinct from the organ in which they reside. (ahajournals.org)
  • conclusion
  • In conclusion, BMCs adopt the cardiac cell lineages and have an important therapeutic impact on ischemic heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cancer
  • Leukocyte-Cancer Cell Fusion: Initiator of the Warburg Effect in Malignancy? (springer.com)
  • A ) MC38 (H2B-RFP) cancer cells and GFP-expressing MФs cocultured in a ratio of 1:2 result in hybrid cells with RFP nuclei and GFP-expressing cytoplasm (yellow arrowhead) among unfused cancer cells (white arrow) and MФs (white arrowhead). (nih.gov)
  • B ) MC38 (H2B-RFP/Cre) cancer cells cocultured with MФs expressing the Cre reporter, R26R-stop-YFP results in YFP-expressing hybrid cells (yellow arrowhead). (nih.gov)
  • nucleus
  • Cisgenic cell fusion is a biotechnical process of mutagenesis whereby the nucleus is removed from a plant cell and replaced with a nucleus from a different plant within the same botanical family. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • fertilization
  • Only two other examples of plant cell fusion have been observed so far, and over 110 years have passed since the identification of the two cell fusions, which occurred between two sets of gametes during fertilization. (innovations-report.com)
  • Sexual reproduction in flowering plants occurs by fertilization of the female gamete (a reproductive cell) by a male gamete. (innovations-report.com)
  • Once fertilization has occurred, the second synergid cell (persistent synergid cell) degenerated within a few hours of successful fertilization. (innovations-report.com)
  • On the other hand, in the event of unsuccessful fertilization, the second synergid cell persists and attracts a second pollen tube to recover the failure of earlier fertilization. (innovations-report.com)
  • SE fusion, which is induced by fertilization of the central cell, causes rapid dilution of the pre-secreted pollen tube attractant in the persistent synergid cell. (innovations-report.com)