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  • ceases
  • In contrast to this general pattern where cell division ceases after a few weeks, pericarp cells of avocado fruit continue to divide over the whole growth period so that cells in mature fruit are still relatively small. (edu.au)
  • In the case of determinate nodules, the initial cell division activity required for nodule primordium formation ceases rapidly and therefore the determinate nodules contain no meristem. (pnas.org)
  • processes
  • This is not to say that wall structure is irrelevant for control of growth, but rather that growing cells can evidently regulate specific "loosening" processes that result in wall stress relaxation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • cucumber
  • Longitudinal growth, where cells enlarge parallel to the long axis of the fruit, will often be a big factor for development of elongated fruit such as cucumber and marrow. (edu.au)
  • We focused our initial biochemical studies of wall extension on the cell wall of cucumber hypocotyls, which can extend for many hours when clamped at acid pH ( Cosgrove, 1989 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • The growing region of the cucumber hypocotyl was excised, frozen, thawed, and abraded to obtain "native" cell walls (i.e. the cells are dead, but the walls retain active enzymes). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Plants
  • Histone modification as a mediator may contribute to rapid regulation of cell wall related gene expression, which reduces the damage of excess salinity to plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • regulators
  • ATM and ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated and -Rad3-related) are sensor kinases that relay the damage signal to transducer kinases Chk1 and Chk2 and to downstream cell-cycle regulators. (pnas.org)
  • These signaling pathways govern the expression of distinct sets of cell-cycle regulators, such as cyclin-dependent kinases and their suppressors. (pnas.org)
  • The transcription factor p53, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21, and Cdc25 phosphatase are downstream regulators that control cell-cycle arrest in response to DNA damage. (pnas.org)
  • These growth regulators are also used to promote cell enlargement and bud formation. (businesswire.com)
  • yeast
  • Small-sized basidiospores (1.8 to 3.0 μm) can turn into yeast cells, the form preferred at 37°C, or can form dikaryotic hyphae which are favoured at 24°C . (kenyon.edu)
  • If expressed in yeast, causes increase efflux of IAA from cells. (iastate.edu)
  • root
  • Symbiosis between legumes and Rhizobium bacteria leads to the formation of root nodules where bacteria in the infected plant cells are converted into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. (pnas.org)
  • Expressed at anticlinal basal end of epidermal cells in root tip. (iastate.edu)
  • control
  • The cell wall is thought to be the major control point for cell enlargement. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It may be attractive to think that wall stress relaxation and expansion are largely a matter of polymer physics, but many physiological experiments indicate that there is another level of control by the cell. (plantphysiol.org)
  • genome
  • The symbiotic plant cells in both nodule types are polyploid because of several cycles of endoreduplication (genome replication without mitosis and cytokinesis) and grow consequently to extreme sizes. (pnas.org)
  • The DNA damage checkpoint in metazoans ensures genome integrity by delaying cell-cycle progression to repair damaged DNA or by inducing apoptosis. (pnas.org)
  • polymer
  • Like other polymer composites, the plant cell wall has rheological (flow) properties intermediate between those of an elastic solid and a viscous liquid. (plantphysiol.org)
  • regulate
  • ATM and ATR relay the damage signal to transducer kinases Chk2 and Chk1, respectively, which then amplify the signal and regulate an overlapping set of substrates that trigger cell-cycle arrest and DNA repair ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • expansion
  • This second phase in fruit growth is mainly accomplished by cell expansion in longitudinal, radial and tangential planes. (edu.au)
  • trigger
  • Plant factors present in nodules of galegoid legumes but absent from nodules of nongalegoid legumes block bacterial cell division and trigger endoreduplication cycles, thereby forcing the endosymbionts toward a terminally differentiated state. (pnas.org)
  • cycle
  • C. neoformans has a defined sexual cycle involving mating between cells of the MATa and MATα types. (kenyon.edu)
  • Eukaryotic DNA damage checkpoints delay or arrest the cell cycle to provide time for DNA repair before the cell enters a new round of DNA replication or mitosis ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • plant growth
  • The bacteria within the nodule cells gain the ability to fix nitrogen gas by means of their nitrogenase enzyme complex and supply the host plant with the reduced nitrogen for plant growth. (pnas.org)
  • enlarge
  • During leaf emergence, cells first proliferate mitotically (phase I), then expand and enlarge their vacuole (phase II). (plantphysiol.org)