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  • phosphorylation
  • Once perceived as a system exclusively involved in removing damaged protein from the cell, ubiquitination and subsequent protein degradation by the proteasome is now perceived as a universal regulatory mechanism for signal transduction whose importance approaches that of protein phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The APC/C also plays an integral role in maintenance of chromatin metabolism, particularly in G1 and G0, and plays a key role in phosphorylation of H3 through destruction of the aurora A kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Determining the site of a regulatory phosphorylation event is often essential for elucidating specific kinase-substrate relationships, providing a handle for understanding essential signaling pathways and ultimately allowing insights into numerous disease pathologies. (pnas.org)
  • Despite intense research efforts to elucidate mechanisms of protein phosphorylation regulation, efficient, large-scale identification and characterization of phosphorylation sites remains an unsolved problem. (pnas.org)
  • From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates. (pnas.org)
  • Despite many reports of thousands of identified proteins from a single biological sample, the large-scale determination of phosphorylation sites is just emerging. (pnas.org)
  • Clearly, to study the rich biology relying on protein phosphorylation will require more effective methodologies. (pnas.org)
  • Analysis of human nuclear phosphorylation sites by multidimensional LC coupled to MS/MS/MS. ( A ) Eight milligrams of nuclear extract from asynchronous HeLa cells were separated by SDS/PAGE. (pnas.org)
  • Further hindering phosphorylation studies, the phosphorylated form of a protein frequently has low stoichiometry relative to its unphosphorylated counterpart. (pnas.org)
  • Considering the already low expression levels of most proteins regulated by phosphorylation, it is obvious that "shotgun" sequencing strategies can easily miss these rare peptides. (pnas.org)
  • Cell cycle- and chromatin binding state-dependent phosphorylation of human MCM heterohexameric complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The importance of proteolytic degradation in eukaryotic cell cycle changed the view of cell division as a simple kinase cascade to a more complex process in which interactions among phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and proteolysis are necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • MCM2
  • The MCM complex consisting of this protein and MCM2, 6 and 7 proteins possesses DNA helicase activity, and may act as a DNA unwinding enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • Immune complexes prepared from yeast cell lysates by using anti-CDC28 antibody were found to possess a protein kinase activity, as determined by the transfer of label from [gamma-32P]ATP to a coprecipitated Mr 40,000 protein of unknown identity or function (p40). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Near its C-terminus it contains seven WD40 repeats, which are multiple short, structural motifs of around 40 amino acids that often play a role in binding with larger protein complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • homolog
  • SIRT1, the mammalian homolog of yeast Sir2, is a founding member of a family of 7 protein and histone deacetylases that are involved in numerous biological functions. (ijbs.com)
  • Downregulation of cell division cycle 25 homolog C reduces the radiosensitivity and proliferation activity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • phosphorylates
  • For example, the activation of ATM phosphorylates γH2AX and NBS1 (Nijmegen breakage syndrome), which forms a protein complex with MRE11 and the RAD50 (MRN) complex [ 6 - 10 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • 1995
  • However, even after the biochemistry of the protein was eventually elucidated, the molecular role of Cdc20 remained elusive until the discovery of the APC/C in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • The separase triggers the cleavage of cohesin, the protein complex that binds sister chromatids together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Co-chaperone that binds to numerous kinases and promotes their interaction with the Hsp90 complex, resulting in stabilization and promotion of their activity (PubMed:8666233). (genecards.org)
  • proliferation
  • SIRT1 is a member of the sirtuin family of type III histone deacetylases and plays a role in many biological processes, including cell death and survival, cell proliferation and differentiation, neurological functioning, metabolism, calorie restriction, aging, and cancer [ 14 - 23 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • In primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts, expression of endogenous V600E B-Raf induces morphologic transformation, increased cell proliferation, and loss of contact inhibition. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The increased activity of V600E B-RAF has the effect of stimulating endogenous, basal mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAP/ERK) kinase (MEK) and ERK1/2 activation, leading to increased cell proliferation and survival ( 14 - 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The effect of V600E B-RAF on proliferation in mouse melanocytes and melanomas can be reversed by treatment of these cells with MEK inhibitors or with small interfering RNA (siRNA) to B-RAF. (aacrjournals.org)
  • transition
  • Aurora A is activated by one or more phosphorylations and its activity peaks during the G2 phase to M phase transition in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite different thresholds of Sic1 level that are required to trigger mitotic exit compared to G1-S transition, the level of Sic1 was shown to play a key role in regulating eukaryotic cell cycle by inhibiting the activity of CDKs. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The Mediator complex is a multi-protein complex required for transcriptional activation by DNA binding transcription factors of genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. (genecards.org)
  • Genes Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • The encoded protein is a member of the MCM family of chromatin-binding proteins and can interact with at least two other members of this family. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also reported to interact with MYST histone acetyltransferase 2 (MYST2/HBO1), a protein involved in control of transcription silencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • V600E B-Raf induces 500-fold more active basal B-Raf kinase activity than basal WT B-RAF and exceeds G12V RAS-induced WT B-RAF activity ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1998
  • The kinase discovered, Eg2, is now referred to as Aurora A. It was not until 1998, however, that Aurora A's meiotic and mitotic importance was realized. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • Western blot analysis of extracts from HUVEC cells, HepG2 cells and CoLo cells, using CDK11 antibody.The lane on the right is treated with the synthesized peptide. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and permeabilized with 0.5% Triton X-100 for 10 min at 4°C. The cells were incubated with 0.05% PBS-T before incubating with primary antibody at 1/2000 dilution. (abcam.cn)
  • complex
  • In addition, and importantly, the activities of certain septin-associated protein kinases also regulate the state of organization of the septins themselves, creating a complex feedback loop. (frontiersin.org)
  • If cycloheximide is later removed from the culture medium, treated cells will return to the division cycle, showing a complex pattern of division times post-treatment, as first measured by Zetterberg and colleagues. (cellml.org)
  • It has been shown that this protein and ORC1 are loosely associated with the core complex consisting of ORC2, -3, -4 and -5. (wikipedia.org)
  • The APC/CCdc20 complex regulates itself so that it is present during the appropriate times of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein forms a complex with polo-like kinase 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because eukaryotic cell cycle involves a variety of proteins and regulatory interactions, dynamical systems approach can be taken to simplify a complex biological circuit into a general framework for better analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • associate
  • Septins are a family of eukaryotic GTP-binding proteins that associate into linear rods, which, in turn, polymerize end-on-end into filaments, and further assemble into other, more elaborate super-structures at discrete subcellular locations. (frontiersin.org)