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  • growth and differentiation
  • From November 1999, Campbell held the post of Professor of Animal Development, Division of Animal Physiology, School of Biosciences at the University of Nottingham where he continued to study embryo growth and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, a cardiac-specific, 21 amino acid sequence insert in the 21st spectrin repeat, termed alpha II-cardi+, was identified as an insert that modulates affinity of alpha II-spectrin for binding beta-spectrins and regulates myocyte growth and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • Pathological conditions modify the microenvironment of stem cells (the so-called niche) preventing the activation of resident stem cells and reducing the success of exogenous cell therapies. (frontiersin.org)
  • He supported the use of SCNT for the production of personalised stem cell therapies and for the study of human diseases and the use of cybrid embryo production to overcome the lack of human eggs available for research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Campbell believed all potential stem cell populations should be used for both basic and applied research which may provide basic scientific knowledge and lead to the development of cell therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016, Studer became a scientific cofounder of BlueRock Therapeutics a biotech company to develop induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells genetically matched the donor organism from which they came.This gives them the ability to create patient specific pluripotent cells, which could then be used in therapies or disease research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of their plasticity and potentially unlimited capacity for self-renewal, embryonic stem cell therapies have been proposed for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current research focuses on differentiating ES into a variety of cell types for eventual use as cell replacement therapies (CRTs). (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • With fluorescent proteins in the vector, FACS and fluorescence microscopy techniques allow for rapid estimation of transduction efficiency and automated, rapid selection of cell populations that stably express the shRNA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The pulmonary system is composed of a variety of epithelial cell populations residing in distinct anatomical locations. (springer.com)
  • After splitting into two populations, the germ cells continue migrating laterally and in parallel until they reach the gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • The germ cells split into two populations and move to the paired gonadal ridges. (wikipedia.org)
  • An animal chimera is a single organism that is composed of two or more different populations of genetically distinct cells that originated from different zygotes involved in sexual reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most chimeras composed of both male and female cells probably do not have an intersex condition, as might be expected if the two cell populations were evenly blended throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • hESC
  • To our best knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the application of TAT-LMX1A recombinant protein to enhance hESC differentiation to DA as shown by the expression of DA specific makers. (springer.com)
  • According to modern stem cell researchers, Spain is one of the leaders in stem cell research and currently has one of the most progressive legislations worldwide with respect to hESC research. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • What is more, there are no ethical questions (unlike embryonic stem cells), no risk of tissue rejection, and no risk of cancer. (writework.com)
  • Our studies also indicate that the endoderm, a tissue previously implicated in vascular development, provides a substratum for endothelial cell migration and is involved in regulating the timing of this process, but that it is not essential for the direction of migration. (biologists.org)
  • If scientists could isolate stem cells and then direct their development, they would be able to create any kind of a tissue, organ or even a whole part of a body. (writework.com)
  • Therefore, the use of immortalised cell lines and animal tissue models are routinely employed due to their abundance. (stembook.org)
  • One day before transfection, mouse D3 ES cells were trypsinized and plated in DMEM plus 20% FBS and 1000 U/ml LIF in six-well tissue culture plates coated with gelatin at a density resulting in ∼90% confluency within 1 d. (jneurosci.org)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the embryo and are pluripotent, thus possessing the capability of developing into any organ or tissue type or, at least potentially, into a complete embryo. (google.es)
  • Stem cells have been used to repair tissue damaged by disease or age. (wikipedia.org)
  • In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had been. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells provide hope that it will be possible to overcome the problems of donor tissue shortage and also, by making the cells immunocompatible with the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plant chimeras, however, the distinct types of tissue may originate from the same zygote, and the difference is often due to mutation during ordinary cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996
  • In 1996, cloning was first physically prototyped with the creation of the much-celebrated sheep "Dolly", using Adult DNA cloning. (writework.com)
  • She was cloned using a cell taken from a healthy six-year-old sheep, and was born on July 5th 1996 at the Roslin Institute, Edinburgh, Scotland. (writework.com)
  • Keith Henry Stockman Campbell (23 May 1954 - 5 October 2012), Professor of Animal Development at the University of Nottingham, was a British biologist who was a member of the team that in 1996 first cloned a mammal, a Finnish Dorset lamb named Dolly, from fully differentiated adult mammary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, in 1996, a team led by Ian Wilmut with Keith Campbell as the main (66% of the credit) contributor used the same technique and shocked the world by successfully cloning a sheep from adult mammary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastocyst stage is developed by the egg which helps to create embryonic stem cells from inner cell mass of the blastocyst.The first animal that is developed by this technique is Dolly, the sheep in 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1996, a study indicated that non-haematopoietic progenitor cells were also present in the amniotic fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiomyocytes
  • MEF2C has been implicated as a calcium-dependent transcription factor that enhances survival and affects synapse formation of neurons as well as differentiation of cardiomyocytes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Some of the cell types that have or are currently being developed include cardiomyocytes (CM), neurons, hepatocytes, bone marrow cells, islet cells and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus of a somatic
  • The process involves sucking out the nucleus of a somatic (body) cell and injecting it into an oocyte that has had its nucleus removed Using an approach based on the protocol outlined by Tachibana et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ
  • Mouse ES cells injected into syngeneic mice form teratocarcinomas that exhibit disorganized differentiation, often with representatives of all three embryonic germ layers. (google.es)
  • A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many animals, the germ cells originate in the primitive streak and migrate via the gut of an embryo to the developing gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike animals, plants do not have germ cells designated in early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, germ cells can arise from somatic cells in the adult (such as the floral meristem of flowering plants). (wikipedia.org)
  • Germ cells produce gametes and are the only cells that can undergo meiosis as well as mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lineage of germ cells is called germ line. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germ cell specification begins during cleavage in many animals or in the epiblast during gastrulation in birds and mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • After transport, involving passive movements and active migration, germ cells arrive at the developing gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • The end-products of the germ cell cycle are the egg or sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • These changed cells are then called embryonic germ cells (EG). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that it is possible to give rise to primordial germ cells from ES. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two mechanisms to establish the germ cell lineage in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first way is called preformistic and involves that the cells destined to become germ cells inherit the specific germ cell determinants present in the germ plasm (specific area of the cytoplasm) of the egg (ovum). (wikipedia.org)
  • The second way is found in birds and mammals, where germ cells are not specified by such determinants but by signals controlled by zygotic genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, a few cells of the early embryo are induced by signals of neighboring cells to become primordial germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specification of primordial germ cells in the laboratory mouse is initiated by high levels of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, which activates expression of the transcription factors Blimp-1/Prdm1 and Prdm14. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wunen proteins are chemorepellents that lead the germ cells away from the endoderm and into the mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In the Xenopus egg, the germ cell determinants are found in the most vegetal blastomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are determined as germ cells when gastrulation is completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of embryonic and foetal cells from all germ layers in the amniotic fluid was gradually determined since the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • myogenic
  • The main goal was to retard the atrophy and replace diseased muscle with new healthy and functional muscle fibers by using myogenic stem cells ( Brunelli and Rovere-Querini, 2008 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • genes
  • Recently, abnormalities in One of the threadlike 'packages' of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. (godandscience.org)
  • Recurrent gain of Threadlike 'packages' of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. (godandscience.org)
  • A potential use of stem cells genetically matched to a patient would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to a patient's particular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if a person with Parkinson's disease donated his or her somatic cells, the stem cells resulting from SCNT would have genes that contribute to Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethical
  • You will hear from Museum scientists, medical researchers at the frontiers of the field, and a panel of bioethics experts who will address the ethical implications of stem cell research and therapy. (coursera.org)
  • Cloning: A Reproduction Replacement and Cure for the Ill, or Ethical Adversity? (writework.com)
  • Cloning: Its uses, Controversy, and Potential BenefitsCloning, a term traditionally used by scientists to describe different processes for duplicating biological material, has provoked worldwide interest and concern because of its scientific and ethical implications. (writework.com)
  • neurons
  • These findings pave the way for enhancing the differentiation of hESCs to DA neurons safely and efficiently without genetic modification. (springer.com)
  • Ideal cells to replace lost neurons should be easy to maintain, with efficient and dependable differentiation capacity, lacking neoplastic potential. (jneurosci.org)
  • Differentiation produces neurons via asymmetric cell division, and these cells form interconnected axon networks and express tetanus toxin receptors and neurofilament proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 10-14 days of exposure to retinoic acid, NTERA-2 cells begin to take on the morphological characteristics of neurons, such as rounded cell bodies and processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following year, he joined Ronald McKay's lab at the National Institute of Health (NIH) to investigate how neural cells could be isolated, cultured, and differentiated to produce neurons with the aim of restoring brain function in Parkinson's disease mouse models. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor cells
  • Haematopoietic progenitor cells were first reported to be present in the amniotic fluid in 1993, specifically up to the 12th week of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)