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  • mouse
  • One of the seminal achievements of mammalian embryology of the last decade is the routine insertion of specific genes into the mouse genome through the use of mouse ES cells. (google.es)
  • Mouse ES cells are undifferentiated, pluripotent cells derived in vitro from preimplantation embryos (Evans, at al. (google.es)
  • Mouse ES cells maintain an undifferentiated state through serial passages when cultured in the presence of fibroblast feeder layers in the presence of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) (Williams, et al. (google.es)
  • If LIF is removed, mouse ES cells differentiate. (google.es)
  • Mouse ES cells cultured in non-attaching conditions aggregate and differentiate into simple embryoid bodies, with an outer layer of endoderm and an inner core of primitive ectoderm. (google.es)
  • Mouse ES cells injected into syngeneic mice form teratocarcinomas that exhibit disorganized differentiation, often with representatives of all three embryonic germ layers. (google.es)
  • vitro
  • This is partly due to the lack of in vitro model systems for the study of differentiation in colorectal epithelium. (biologists.org)
  • The lack of such differentiated cells in HRA-19 monolayers in vitro suggests that differentiation is controlled by extracellular matrix, stromal cells and/or soluble factors. (biologists.org)
  • In this study, the possibility that HRA-19 cells could be induced to differentiate in vitro under appropriate conditions has been investigated. (biologists.org)
  • For cell function evaluation, in vitro RBC differentiation of the cloned erythroid progenitor cells was induced. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In May 2005, the House of Representatives voted 238-194 to loosen the limitations on federally funded embryonic stem-cell research - by allowing government-funded research on surplus frozen embryos from in vitro fertilization clinics to be used for stem cell research with the permission of donors - despite Bush's promise to veto if passed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Senate passed the first bill, 63-37, which would have made it legal for the Federal government to spend Federal money on embryonic stem cell research that uses embryos left over from in vitro fertilization procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • eCSCs are clonogenic, self-renewing and multipotent in vitro and in vivo, capable of generating the 3 major cell types of the myocardium: myocytes, smooth muscle and endothelial vascular cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also shown that endogenous Flt1+/Flt4+ cells could be expanded in vitro and displayed trilineage differentiation potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the myocardium now recognized as a tissue with limited regenerating potential, harbouring eCSCs that can be isolated and amplified in vitro for regenerative protocols of cell transplantation or stimulated to replicate and differentiate in situ in response to growth factors, it has become reasonable to exploit this endogenous regenerative potential to replace lost/damaged cardiac muscle with autologous functional myocardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • human embryos
  • Axel emphasized that their experiments had no application to the newly announced achievement by South Korean scientists in cloning human embryos. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, since they must be derived from early human embryos their production and use in research has been a hotly debated topic as the emt introduce new cells into adult bodies for possible treatment of cancer, diabetes, neurological disorders and other medical conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third bill would encourage research that would isolate pluripotent, i.e., embryonic-like, stem cells without the destruction of human embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematopoietic
  • Hands-on training to support the culture of hPSCs and their differentiation towards cerebral organoids, intestinal organoids, cardiomyocytes, or hematopoietic progenitors. (stemcell.com)
  • Briefly, eCSCs have been first identified through the expression of c-kit, the receptor of the stem cell factor and the absence of common hematopoietic markers, like CD45. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • The problern of regulation of the proliferation-differentiation processes is analysed in the framework of the model of unipotential cell clone dynamics, assuming two alternative ways (scenarios) of an every new-born cell development, which in the long run define correspondingly the proliferating or differentiated cell status. (hindawi.com)
  • Taking into account the clonal heterogeneity it was shown that such mechanism of the regulation of proliferation-differentiation processes can result in the selection of actively proliferating and insensitive with respect to differentiation factors action cells (that is to say, the cells with cancer phenotype). (hindawi.com)
  • In its pattern of expression and/or regulation, MNDA resembles IFI16, suggesting that these genes participate in blood cell-specific responses to interferons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adults, GCNH is expressed mainly in the germ cells of gonads and is involved in the regulation of embryogenesis and germ cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Recently, abnormalities in One of the threadlike 'packages' of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. (godandscience.org)
  • Recurrent gain of Threadlike 'packages' of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. (godandscience.org)
  • According to Axel, the cloning achievement eliminates one potential mechanism and narrows the possible ways in which a cell chooses one of thousands of receptor genes. (innovations-report.com)
  • A 200-amino acid region of human MNDA is strikingly similar to a region in the proteins encoded by a family of interferon-inducible mouse genes, designated Ifi-201, Ifi202, and Ifi-203, that are not regulated in a cell- or tissue-specific fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, five different functions have been ascribed to gap junction protein: Electrical and metabolic coupling between cells Electrical and metabolic exchange through hemichannels Tumor suppressor genes (Cx43, Cx32 and Cx36) Adhesive function independent of conductive gap junction channel (neural migration in neocortex) Role of carboxyl-terminal in signaling cytoplasmic pathways (Cx43) Gap Junctions have been observed in various animal organs and tissues where cells contact each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Endocrine and mucous cells were identified by immunocytochemistry with differentiation-related antibodies and histology of monolayers. (biologists.org)
  • Crown antibodies pass additional stringent quality requirements, including extended control sets, uniform results against multiple biologically relevant cell lines and tissues, and function in multiple applications. (abgent.com)
  • In lymphocytic neoplastic diseases such as multiple myeloma and lymphoma, but also other illnesses, there can be a massive expansion of a single B-cell clone, detectable by measuring the excessively-produced antibodies, measured in a serum protein electrophoresis test or peripheral blood flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such an expansion is said to be "monoclonal", and monoclonal antibodies produced by such a group of B cells can cause illnesses such as amyloidosis and lupus, or can be indicative of an underlying malignancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • This biolo- gical cascade is controlled at several positions along its con- secutive pathways by protein molecules, either in the free form or as receptors on membranes of cells committed to this activity. (springer.com)
  • Clearly, then, the proper understanding of the response by cells of the immune system will depend, to a great measure, on the definition of the molecular events involving protein interactions. (springer.com)
  • Obviously, cells work via molecules and molecules work via cells and, at this level of functional resolution, molecular immunology and cellular immunology will merge and will depend heavily on protein chemistry. (springer.com)
  • Large biomolecules, for example, nucleic acid and protein, are precluded from cytoplasmic transfer between cells through gap junction connexin channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is found on thymocytes and mature T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is named for its presence in stratified epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein has been localized to the endoplasmic reticulum of T-cells and is a candidate linker protein in T-cell signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal
  • The progression of normal cell clone towards the appearance and increase of the number of the cells with cancer phenotype can be considered as a possible mechanism of carcinogenesis which is alternative to the clonal selection theory of cancer origin. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we analyse whether clonal changes in the B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire can reliably predict onset of signs and symptoms. (bmj.com)
  • expression
  • Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (abgent.com)
  • Its expression pattern suggests that it may be involved in neurogenesis and germ cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • endocrine
  • Preconfluent HRA-19 cells grown in 10% foetal calf serum formed a well polarised monolayer with apical tight junctions and sparse microvilli, but cells with mucous or endocrine phenotypes were only very occasionally observed. (biologists.org)
  • However, endocrine and mucous cells could reproducibly be demonstrated in postconfluent monolayers grown in 1% foetal calf serum. (biologists.org)
  • biology
  • In this five-part online course you will explore the history and basic biology of stem cells, learn about new research techniques, and find out how stem cells could lead to cures for diseases and to individualized medicine. (coursera.org)
  • This talk is presented by STEMCELL Technologies' Dr. Adam Hirst, scientist for pluripotent stem cell biology, and Dr. Vincenzo Macri, senior scientist for cardiomyocyte stem cell biology. (stemcell.com)
  • We've just published our special issue focussing on plant cell biology - check out the table of contents here , and a selection of the issue's highlights below. (biologists.org)
  • In this interview , our Special Issue's guest editor Jenny Russinova discusses her excitement for plant cell biology and what she hopes to achieve with the issue. (biologists.org)
  • We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • College Dean of International & Engagement, Professor of Cell Biology, HTA Research Licence Designated Individual, and Academic Lead for Cardiff University Biobank. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Professor Phil Stephens is currently Professor of Cell Biology and the Research Theme lead for Integrative Biosystems within the College of Biomedical and Life Sciences at Cardiff University. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Clone (cell biology) Nossal, G. J. V. & Lederberg, J. (1958). (wikipedia.org)
  • oocyte
  • The process involves sucking out the nucleus of a somatic (body) cell and injecting it into an oocyte that has had its nucleus removed Using an approach based on the protocol outlined by Tachibana et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • involucrin
  • It stains the involucrin in a variety of sizes: 170kDa in MCF-7 cells, a doublet of ~115kDa and 150kDa in gorilla and owl monkey, 66kDa in dog, and a doublet of 105kDa in pig. (scytek.com)
  • processes
  • By 10-14 days of exposure to retinoic acid, NTERA-2 cells begin to take on the morphological characteristics of neurons, such as rounded cell bodies and processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers were able to identify the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient for starting the cascade of molecular and cellular processes to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • According to the researchers, previous cloning efforts had failed to clone animals from the nuclei of any mature "post-mitotic" cells such as neurons - that is, those that had ceased dividing to produce new cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Using standard cloning techniques, the researchers in Jaenisch s laboratory then isolated individual neurons, removed nuclei from the tagged cells and introduced the nuclei into mouse eggs from which the nuclei had been removed. (innovations-report.com)
  • hESCs can be generated by SCNT using dermal fibroblasts nuclei from both a middle-aged 35-year-old male and an elderly, 75-year-old male, suggesting that age-associated changes are not necessarily an impediment to SCNT-based nuclear reprogramming of human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • Gap junctions occur in virtually all tissues of the body, with the exception of adult fully developed skeletal muscle and mobile cell types such as sperm or erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence
  • Indeed, recent evidence from a genetic fate-mapping study established that stem cells replenish adult mammalian cardiomyocytes lost by cardiac wear and tear and injury throughout the adult life. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac
  • Torella D, Ellison GM, Karakikes I, and Nadal-Ginard, B. Cardiovascular development: towards biomedical applicability: Resident cardiac stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • When individuals developed arthritis, dominant BCR clones disappeared from peripheral blood and appeared in synovial tissue, suggesting a direct role of these clones in disease pathogenesis. (bmj.com)
  • Our data suggest that during onset of RA these clones shift from peripheral blood to the target tissue. (bmj.com)
  • In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had been. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells have been used to repair tissue damaged by disease or age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • Researchers have successfully cloned a mouse using mature olfactory neurons as the genetic donor. (innovations-report.com)
  • The images are of a newborn mouse cloned from an olfactory sensory neuron that had been marked with a genetic change so that it would be green under fluorescent light. (innovations-report.com)
  • Because the cloned animals are normal, our experiment also shows that [some] brain functions do not involve genetic alterations of the neuron s genome," said Jaenisch. (innovations-report.com)
  • transgenic
  • First evidence of intraclonal genetic exchange in trypanosomatids using two Leishmania infantum fluorescent transgenic clones. (springer.com)
  • As expected, some transgenic mice bearing 2kb or 6kb constructs showed tissue specific expression of LacZ gene in hair follicles, gut pacemaker cells and neurons where KL is expressed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic mice over-expressing the transcription factor Gli2 under the K5 promoter in cutaneous keratinocytes develop multiple skin tumours on the ears, tail, trunk and dorsal aspect of the paw, resembling those of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • and (3) transient genome-wide suppression of mRNA transcription to ensure that somatic differentiation programs remain inactive when zygotic transcription is initiated in the rest of the embryo. (biologists.org)
  • adhesion
  • CD2 mediates lymphocyte adhesion and is involved in T cell activation. (tonbobio.com)
  • This effect may be mediated in part by the angiogenic potency of AM itself and the beneficial effects of AM on the survival, adhesion, and differentiation of transplanted MNCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, the purposes of the present study were (1) to investigate whether local infusion of AM enhances the angiogenic potency of MNC transplantation in a rat model of hindlimb ischemia and (2) to investigate the effects of AM on the survival, adhesion, and differentiation of transplanted MNCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • in a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD34 is also an important adhesion molecule and is required for T cells to enter lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spectrins are a family of widely distributed cytoskeletal proteins which are involved in actin crosslinking, cell adhesion, intercellular communication and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursors
  • Unlike their precursors, they cannot switch antibody classes , cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer display significant quantities of immunoglobulin on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypes
  • Mutations of the GLI2 gene are associated with several phenotypes including Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome, Pallister-Hall syndrome, preaxial polydactyly type IV, postaxial polydactyly types A1 and B. In human keratinocytes Gli2 activation upregulates a number of genes involved in cell cycle progression including E2F1, CCND1, CDC2 and CDC45L. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • Background- Previous studies have shown that adrenomedullin (AM) inhibits vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and induces angiogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • lineage
  • Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • In Xenopus , the germline is specified through the inheritance of germ plasm formed during oogenesis and asymmetrically segregated into the future germ cell lineage. (biologists.org)
  • The most immature blood cell that is considered of plasma cell lineage is the plasmablast . (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, his research addressed whether the multiple immunological functions of T cells were invested in a single lineage or represented the specialized activities of distinct T cell subsets. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • CD2, also known as LFA-2, is a receptor for CD58 in the human and is expressed on the cell surface of 80-90% of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, a subset of NK cells, and all mature T cells. (tonbobio.com)
  • At the level of the cell, Daxx is found in the cytoplasm, interacting with Fas-receptor or other cytoplasmic molecules, as well as in the nucleus, where it is interacting with some subnuclear structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nature 2010;467:328 Kim, H-J, Wang X, Radfar S, Sproule TJ, Roopenian DC, Cantor H. CD8+ T regulatory cells express the Ly49 class I MHC receptor and are defective in autoimmune prone B6-Yaa mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • Caspase signals resulting from the activation of nuclease CAD indicate that the cell differentiation is due to a CAD modification in chromatin structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Histone H2B is one of the 5 main histone proteins involved in the structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • We conclude that millicurrent stimulation of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes cultivated in a 3 D collagen gel and of osteochondral explants directly influences cell metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The human ortholog MYD88 seems to function similarly to mice, since the immunological phenotype of human cells deficient in MYD88 is similar to cells from MyD88 deficient mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation in MYD88 at position 265 leading to a change from leucine to proline have been identified in many human lymphomas including ABC subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • This pathway normally regulates stress-induced cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, a cardiac-specific, 21 amino acid sequence insert in the 21st spectrin repeat, termed alpha II-cardi+, was identified as an insert that modulates affinity of alpha II-spectrin for binding beta-spectrins and regulates myocyte growth and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Upon stimulation by a T cell, which usually occurs in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs like the spleen and lymph nodes , the activated B cell begins to differentiate into more specialized cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The purpose of the present study is to produce model mice in which the hematopoiesis supporting cells are easily distinguished from other stromal cell component. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Experimental production of mice deprived of selected T-cell subclasses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hu D, †Ikizawa K, Lu L, Sanchirico ME, Shinohara ML, Cantor H. Analysis of regulatory CD8 cells in mice deficient in the Qa-1 class Ib molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene was originally discovered and cloned by Dan Liebermann and Barbara Hoffman in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • migration
  • of TRPC decreased the cell routine S stage and cell migration, implicating an operating function for TRP-mediated Ca2+ entrance in cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Regardless of its mode of action, under all circumstances CD34, and its relatives podocalyxin and endoglycan, facilitates cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • This newest addition to the Lipofectamine transfection reagent family helps ensure high-efficiency transfection while maintaining maximum cell viability and growth in an undifferentiated state. (thermofisher.com)